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Published: 08 August 2005
DOI: 10.1215/9780822387343-004
EISBN: 978-0-8223-8734-3
...From Bismarck to Medicare—A Brief History of Medical Care Payment in America Donald L. Madison At the outset, a word of explanation. This discursive essay borrows its title from a more focused one, written over 60 years ago by the distin- guished historian Henry Sigerist, who titled his...
Published: 08 August 2005
DOI: 10.1215/9780822387343-007
EISBN: 978-0-8223-8734-3
...The Not-So-Sad History of Medicare Cost Containment as Told in One Chart Thomas Bodenheimer As far as it goes, the argument of Drew Altman and Larry Levitt—that re- lief from private health spending growth is short-lived—is persuasive. But their history omits a crucial fact about U.S...
Published: 08 August 2005
DOI: 10.1215/9780822387343-008
EISBN: 978-0-8223-8734-3
...Medicaid and Medicare: The Unanticipated Politics of Public Insurance Programs Lawrence D. Brown and Michael S. Sparer Once upon a time, more or less everyone knew what genuine health reform meant. Affordable universal coverage would have the statutory shape of a European national health...
Published: 01 February 2006
DOI: 10.1215/9780822387633-002
EISBN: 978-0-8223-8763-3
...2 Precursors to Medicare and Medicaid Early Federal Efforts in Health Services The federal government had been involved in safeguarding the public’s health, and in providing a limited array of clinical services, since shortly after its founding. The U.S. Public Health Service (phs) was...
Published: 04 May 2015
DOI: 10.1215/9780822375500-005
EISBN: 978-0-8223-7550-0
... This chapter turns to the Medicare insurance system, whose reimbursement policies and decisions convert best evidence into available treatments—the second transformation in the chain of health care drivers. Medicare reimbursement decisions organize the next two transformations in the chain as...
... research agendas and thus on shaping treatments. This chapter turns to the Medicare insurance system, whose reimbursement policies and decisions convert best evidence into available treatments—the second transformation in the chain of health care drivers. Medicare reimbursement decisions organize the...
Published: 17 April 2002
DOI: 10.1215/9780822383536-007
EISBN: 978-0-8223-8353-6
... same degree in the formulation of policy for their health plans. At one end of the continuum is Medicare, for which national cover- age decisions are made in a formal public process. At the other end of the continuum, coverage policy may be a negotiated term of a contract for...
Book Chapter

By Eleanor DeArman Kinney
Published: 17 April 2002
DOI: 10.1215/9780822383536-012
EISBN: 978-0-8223-8353-6
..., resolve consumer disputes; Pro- 48–49, 117. See also Administrative cedural reforms law; Judicial review; Rulemaking Accreditation, 36, 44–45, 81–82, 86– Administrative review, 8, 131–139, 86, 96, 118–119, 126; of health care 163; Medicaid, 139; Medicare, 138...
Published: 17 April 2002
DOI: 10.1215/9780822383536-008
EISBN: 978-0-8223-8353-6
... pertaining to the contractual relationship between a covered person and a health carrier ≥ However, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (cms) has departed from this definition because the Medicare program has historically used the term grievance to refer to a nonappealable complaint.∂ Thus...
Published: 17 November 2003
DOI: 10.1215/9780822385028-008
EISBN: 978-0-8223-8502-8
..., and his writing presaged (although was apparently not invoked during) the debates over the enactment of Medicare and Medicaid in 1965. My purpose in this essay is to explore the possibility that Arrow’s insurance arguments turned out to be in significant tension with his ethical arguments...
Published: 17 April 2002
DOI: 10.1215/9780822383536-003
EISBN: 978-0-8223-8353-6
..., covered and not covered Total, covered Private Employment based Public (government) Medicare Medicaid...
Published: 08 August 2005
DOI: 10.1215/9780822387343-023
EISBN: 978-0-8223-8734-3
... eligibility is not determined by need. Through Social Security, Medicare, the Older Americans Act, and a variety of other measures, older persons were exempted from the screenings that are customarily applied to other Americans in order to determine whether they are worthy of public help. This theme...
Published: 17 November 2003
DOI: 10.1215/9780822385028-010
EISBN: 978-0-8223-8502-8
... unprecedented use of tax-exempt debt, retained earnings, and new stock? Enfranchisement of the for- merly uninsured through Medicaid and Medicare plus the continued growth of private health insurance have given marginal providers the cash flow that allowed this dynamic growth in capital investment while...
... exempt) at an annual cost to the government of over $100 billion in foregone revenues.∏ Medicare, a federal government program, provides health insurance to virtually all Americans over 65 years of age, as well as to persons with disabilities and end-stage renal disease. Medic- aid, a jointly funded...
Published: 01 February 2006
DOI: 10.1215/9780822387633-003
EISBN: 978-0-8223-8763-3
... need in medicine lay not in research or revolutionary new procedures but in broadening access to the knowl- edge and skills already existent. The question for Johnson was how best to accomplish that. war on poverty 45 Medicare The most promising...
... Scholar in Bioethics and the author of The Political Life of Medicare (University of Chicago Press). His research and teaching interests include health politics and policy, Medicare, health care reform, and medical care rationing. Current research focuses on market-based strategies for Medicare reform...
Published: 08 August 2005
DOI: 10.1215/9780822387343-020
EISBN: 978-0-8223-8734-3
... prevalent but has become less so in the past two decades Medicare in particular has been hostile to balance billing. At one time, 249 balance billing of Medicare beneficiaries was the norm, and physicians could bill patients for...
Published: 17 November 2003
DOI: 10.1215/9780822385028-006
EISBN: 978-0-8223-8502-8
... change. While the elderly were most likely to lack coverage in Arrow’s day, today virtually all the aged have insurance coverage through the public Medicare program. Mechanisms for pooling in the health insurance market have changed as well. Community rating has all but disappeared. In its place...
Book Chapter

By Eleanor DeArman Kinney
Published: 17 April 2002
DOI: 10.1215/9780822383536-011
EISBN: 978-0-8223-8353-6
... Protection Debate 1 ‘‘President Clinton’s Health Care Reform Proposal and Health Security Act as Presented to Congress on October 27, 1993’’ (1993), in Medicare and Medicaid Guide (CCH) (Rep. No. 773, Nov. 1, 1993). 192 Notes to Chapter 2 2 H.R. 3600, Health...
Published: 01 August 2007
DOI: 10.1215/9780822390541-011
EISBN: 978-0-8223-9054-1
... United States is financed by employers’ contributions to- ward premiums (which result in commensurate reductions in wages), by direct employee contributions (or direct payment of premiums in the nongroup mar- ket), and by regressive payroll taxes (which pay for Medicare Part A). We have one of the...