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human value as monetary sum

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Published: 01 January 2004
DOI: 10.1215/9780822399018-002
EISBN: 978-0-8223-9901-8
...2 The Modern World-System as a Capitalist World-Economy Production, Surplus Value, and Polarization THE W 0 R L DIN W HIe H we are now living, the modern world -system, had its origins in the sixteenth century. This world-system was then located in only a part of the...
Published: 04 November 2010
DOI: 10.1215/9780822393313-004
EISBN: 978-0-8223-9331-3
... in (economic) life, which have changing—overlapping, contradictory, supporting—relations to each other. And there is no guarantee that the basic “building blocks” of “eco- nomic” relations—such as value or commodities—remain constant across apparatuses or contexts. I will draw upon the...
Published: 22 June 2009
DOI: 10.1215/9780822391371-005
EISBN: 978-0-8223-9137-1
... claiming itself as the original state of economic life, and by extension, entrepre- neurial, free-market capitalism as the true nature of human society. It is on nostalgia for a perfect capitalism that shareholder value thrives. To problematize and historicize the logics of shareholder value, it is...
Published: 01 October 2011
EISBN: 978-0-8223-9423-5
... of force in time.”7 For Marx, as well as for Ricardo, the limit point for extracting value as a time process was “the human being who spends, wears out and wastes his life.”8 However, there now appears the question of whether, in the post- Fordist reorganization of capital, value has become...
Published: 23 March 2018
DOI: 10.1215/9780822371984-003
EISBN: 978-0-8223-7198-4
... International Monetary Fund and World Bank. As a manifestation of the already asymmetrical social rela- tions between the U.S. corporations that are in command of the global CONTESTING SKILL AND VALUE  65 value chain and the Filipino workers seeking work within it...
Published: 06 March 2006
DOI: 10.1215/9780822387756-001
EISBN: 978-0-8223-8775-6
... on social and infrastructure investment, with long-term implications for human security as well as economic competitiveness. Neoliberal reforms also produced an active antiglobalization movement, and the Consensus itself has developed cracks, as is evident, for example, in the harsh criticisms of...
Published: 22 January 2014
DOI: 10.1215/9780822377009-002
EISBN: 978-0-8223-7700-9
... distinctions between the three factors of production—land, capital, and labor—were unfounded, since there was only one true value-­creating factor: capital. It would later be generalized by Theodore Schultz and Gary Becker, who reconfigure the worker as an investor in his or her own human capital—an...
Published: 25 April 2005
EISBN: 978-0-8223-8688-9
..., other fact-to- value arguments can pass across the bridge. For instance, if humans need clean air (as can be shown by medical science), then, other things being equal, they ought to have clean air. Only the false belief that it is logically impossible to pass from fact to value could prevent someone...
Book Chapter

By James Ridgeway
Published: 01 January 2004
DOI: 10.1215/9780822397076-011
EISBN: 978-0-8223-9707-6
... loans people work as slaves for their entire lives, and still find it impossible to repay loans at exorbitant interest rates of 60 percent or more, usually inflated by sketchy accounting. In the end, if still enslaved, the victim may pass on the debt to future generations. Human rights groups have...
Published: 10 June 2011
DOI: 10.1215/9780822393672-012
EISBN: 978-0-8223-9367-2
... who was alive except for a single organ. Death could not be reduced to the lack of brain function as if a human were merely the sum total of his or her mind. There were fears, too, on the part of physi- cians, such as being accused of murder by a donor’s family. “The dead,” “the brain-dead...
Published: 26 July 2013
DOI: 10.1215/9780822397564-007
EISBN: 978-0-8223-9756-4
..., men and women, people and state, struggled to establish and perform a new concord based on mutual respect and human dignity, with assertive women youth activists as primary articulators of this accord. On the eve of what would become a revolution, Asmaa Mahfouz summoned Egyptians to Tahrir...
Published: 01 January 2013
DOI: 10.1215/9780822377566-006
EISBN: 978-0-8223-7756-6
... that the foundational gift-­economy form of exchange within fandom must also contain a kind of affective taxation, requiring acknowledgment of work done, as well as the more familiar monetary compensation that increasingly characterizes even the supposedly gift-­based fandom interaction. The...
Published: 18 June 2008
DOI: 10.1215/9780822389170-007
EISBN: 978-0-8223-8917-0
... precisely what activists mean, for example, when they refer to pga as a flexible tool for communication and coordination. Beyond mobilizing human, financial, and symbolic resources, pga fosters self-organized transnational communication and exchange re- garding tactics, strategies, protests...
Published: 06 March 2006
DOI: 10.1215/9780822387756-003
EISBN: 978-0-8223-8775-6
... promoted ‘‘development with a human face’’ (see Green 2002). ‘‘Fair trade’’ advocates contested the value of ‘‘free’’ trade. But for many, gad,likewid before it, has become part of the policy status quo. And sadly, women’s organizations (and other groups in ‘‘civil society have been criticized as...
Published: 06 March 2006
DOI: 10.1215/9780822387756-019
EISBN: 978-0-8223-8775-6
... 272 Commission on the Status of Women (csw) education, 33, 100, 155, 174–75, 188, 203; gen- (un), 20, 273 der disparities in, 88, 282; of girls, 42, community forestry, 195–97, 200 n.10, 227 102, 153, 189; health and, 242; as human cookstoves, 206–15...
Published: 06 March 2006
DOI: 10.1215/9780822387756-017
EISBN: 978-0-8223-8775-6
... countries, intended to empower women. Indeed, leading theorists such as Walt Rostow and Edward Banfield had a negative view of women, as- suming their support for traditional values and religion would impede progress. These attitudes were so embedded in U.S. society that on many university cam- puses...
Published: 06 March 2006
DOI: 10.1215/9780822387756-002
EISBN: 978-0-8223-8775-6
... former Eastern bloc and their consolidation in China fur- ther buttressed the neoliberal model against those who had begun to document its human costs. Democratization created tensions between economic and politi- cal reforms. Those who lost jobs, social services, and economic opportunities as a...
Published: 06 March 2006
DOI: 10.1215/9780822387756-014
EISBN: 978-0-8223-8775-6
...-political changes and changes in cultural values’’ (Hayes 2001). The undp Human Poverty Report (2000d) indicates that national poverty programs seldom have strong environmental and natural resources components. Although planners generally recognize that the environment and natural re- sources have...
Published: 19 March 2001
DOI: 10.1215/9780822380443-012
EISBN: 978-0-8223-8044-3
... that he believed, or assumed, should hold between labor quantities and prices. The first condition is that the sum of all the prices equals the sum of all the labor value quantities, and the second condition is that the sum of the profits equals the sum of the surplus values. As he put it, the ‘‘sum...
Published: 10 May 2006
DOI: 10.1215/9780822388067-006
EISBN: 978-0-8223-8806-7
... the people that produce them. Commodification is the process by which things are drained of the social significance premised on the human judgments mentioned above, infused with monetary value, and inserted into a social and economic system premised on hierarchies of value. People often forget...