Skip to Main Content
This content is made freely available by the publisher. It may not be redistributed or altered. All rights reserved.

When Somalia’s civil war began in 1991, many villagers from Banta, where the author had conducted ethnographic fieldwork in 1987–88, fled across the border to Kenya. The author lost all contact with villagers from Banta. In an unexpected reunion twenty years later, they found each other again in Lewiston, Maine. The introduction describes the reunion, explains the process of ethnographic fieldwork, and introduces the themes of the book, including why refugees matter and what their mobility means in the current global order. The chapter also introduces questions about assumptions of humanitarianism and assimilation and provides a brief overview of Lewiston’s history of impoverishment and marginalization.

This content is only available as PDF.

References

References
Abdi
,
Cawo M.
2012
. “
The Newest African-Americans? Somali Struggles for Belonging
.”
Bildhaan
11
:
90
107
.
Abdi
,
Cawo
.
2014
. “
Threatened Identities and Gendered Opportunities: Somali Migration to America
.”
Signs
39
(
21
):
459
83
.
Agamben
,
Giorgio
.
1995
. “
We Refugees
.” Translated by
Rocke
Michael
.
Symposium
49
(
2
):
114
19
.
Agamben
,
Giorgio
.
1998
.
Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life
. Translated by
Heller-Roazen
Daniel
.
Palo Alto, CA
:
Stanford University Press
.
Agier
,
Michel
.
2005
.
On the Margins of the World: The Refugee Experience Today
.
Cambridge
:
Polity
.
Agier
,
Michel
.
2010
. “
Humanity as an Identity and Its Political Effects (A Note on Camps and Humanitarian Government)
.”
Humanity
1
(
1
):
29
45
.
Agier
,
Michel
, and
Bouchet-Saulnier
Françoise
.
2004
. “
Humanitarian Spaces: Spaces of Exception
.” In
In the Shadows of “Just Wars”: Violence, Politics and Humanitarian Action
, edited by
Weissman
Fabrice
, translated by
Homolka
Vincent
,
Leverdier
Roger
, and
Terry
Fiona
,
297
313
.
Ithaca, NY
:
Cornell University Press
.
Ahmed
,
Ismail
.
2011
. “
Fragmented and Collaborative Leadership in a Changing Somali Community
.” In
Somalis in Maine: Crossing Cultural Currents
, edited by
Huisman
Kimberly A.
,
Langellier
Kristin M.
,
Hough
Mazie
, and
Toner
Carol Nordstrom
.
Berkeley, CA
:
North Atlantic
.
Ahmed
,
Ismail
,
Besteman
Catherine
, and
Osman
Rilwan
.
2010
. “
The Top Ten Myths about Somalis and Why They Are Wrong
.”
Twin City Times
,
July
1
.
Aleinikoff
,
T. Alexander
.
1995
. “
State-Centered Refugee Law: From Resettlement to Containment
.” In
Mistrusting Refugees
, edited by E.
Daniel
Valentine
and
Knudsen
John C.
,
257
78
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Ali
,
Ayaan Hirsi
.
2007
.
Infidel
.
New York
:
Atria
.
Ali
,
Ihotu
.
2009
. “
Staying off the Bottom of the Melting Pot: Somali Refugees Respond to a Changing U.S. Immigration Climate
.”
Bildhaan
9
:
82
114
.
Al-Sharmani
Mulki
.
2007
. “
Diasporic Somalis in Cairo: The Poetics and Practices of Soomaalinimo
.” In
From Mogadishu to Dixon: The Somali Diaspora in a Global Context
, edited by
Kusow
Abdi M.
and
Bjork
Stephanie R.
,
71
94
.
Trenton, NJ
:
Red Sea
.
Amelina
,
Anna
, and
Faist
Thomas
.
2012
. “
De-naturalizing the National in Research Methodologies: Key Concepts of Transnational Studies in Migration
.”
Ethnic and Racial Studies
35
(
10
):
1707
24
.
Amin
,
Ash
.
2013
. “
Land of Strangers
.”
Identities
20
(
1
):
1
8
.
Anderson
,
John Lee
.
2009
. “
The Most Failed State
.”
New Yorker
,
December
14
.
Arendt
,
Hannah
.
(1951) 1966
.
The Origins of Totalitarianism
.
New York
:
Harcourt, Brace and World
.
Barnett
,
Don
.
2003
. “
Out of Africa: Somali Bantu and the Paradigm Shift in Refugee Resettlement
.”
Center for Immigration Studies
. .
Bates College Department of Anthropology
.
2008
. “
Perceived Barriers to Somali Immigrant Employment in Lewiston: A Supplement to Maine’s Department of Labor Report
.” .
Bauman
,
Zygmunt
.
2004
.
Wasted Lives: Modernity and Its Outcasts
.
Cambridge
:
Polity
.
BBC News
.
2008
. “
Somalia Is ‘Most Ignored Tragedy.’
October
6
. .
BBC News
.
2012
. “
African Migrants Who Call America’s Whitest State Home
.”
September
12
. .
Besteman
,
Catherine
.
1994
. “
Individualisation and the Assault on Customary Tenure in Africa: Land Registration Programmes and the Case of Somalia
.”
Africa
64
(
4
):
484
515
.
Besteman
,
Catherine
.
1996a
. “
Representing Violence and ‘Othering’ Somalia
.”
Cultural Anthropology
11
(
1
):
120
33
.
Besteman
,
Catherine
.
1996b
. “
Violent Politics and the Politics of Violence: The Dissolution of the Somali Nation-State
.”
American Ethnologist
23
(
3
):
579
96
.
Besteman
,
Catherine
.
1998
. “
Primordialist Blinders: A Reply to I. M. Lewis
.”
Cultural Anthropology
13
(
1
):
109
20
.
Besteman
,
Catherine
.
1999a
. “
A Reply to Bernhard Helander
.”
American Ethnologist
26
(
4
):
981
83
.
Besteman
,
Catherine
.
1999b
.
Unraveling Somalia
.
Philadelphia
:
University of Pennsylvania Press
.
Besteman
,
Catherine
.
2010
. “
In and Out of the Academy: The Case for a Strategic Anthropology
.”
Human Organization
69
(
4
):
407
17
.
Besteman
,
Catherine
.
2014
. “
On Ethnographic Love
.” In
Mutuality
, edited by
Sanjek
Roger
,
259
84
.
Philadelphia
:
University of Pennsylvania Press
.
Besteman
,
Catherine
, and
Ahmed
Ismail
.
2010
. “
Refugee Economic Impact Study.” Available as a link from Andrew Cullen, “Somalis: A Decade in Lewiston
,”
Lewiston Sun Journal
,
December
18
,
2011
.
Besteman
,
Catherine
, and
Cassanelli
Lee V.
, eds.
2000
.
The Struggle for Land in Southern Somalia: The War behind the War
. Reprint,
London
:
Haan
.
Besteman
,
Catherine
, and
Gusterson
Hugh
, eds.
2005
.
Why America’s Top Pundits Are Wrong
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Besteman
,
Catherine
, and
Gusterson
Hugh
.
2009
. “
Introduction
.” In
The Insecure American
, edited by
Gusterson
Hugh
and
Besteman
Catherine
,
1
23
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Billings
,
Randy
.
2014
. “
Asylum Seekers, Maine Advocates, Protest Change in Aid Rules
.”
Portland Press Herald
,
January
11
. .
Blommaert
,
Jan
.
2009
. “
Language, Asylum, and the National Order
.”
Current Anthropology
50
(
4
):
415
41
.
Boas
,
Heidi
.
2007
. “
The New Face of America’s Refugees: African Refugee Resettlement to the United States
.”
Georgetown Immigration Law Journal
21
(
3
):
431
68
.
Bohmer
,
Carol
, and
Shuman
Amy
.
2007
. “
Producing Epistemologies of Ignorance in the Political Asylum Process
.”
Identities
14
:
603
29
.
Bohmer
,
Carol
, and
Shuman
Amy
.
2008
.
Rejecting Refugees: Political Asylum in the 21st Century
.
London
:
Routledge
.
Bornstein
,
Erica
.
2012
.
Disquieting Gifts: Humanitarianism in New Delhi
.
Palo Alto, CA
:
Stanford University Press
.
Brettell
,
Caroline
.
2007
. “
Introduction: Race, Ethnicity, and the Construction of Immigrant Identities
.” In
Constructing Borders/Crossing Boundaries: Race, Ethnicity, and Immigration
, edited by
Brettell
Caroline
,
1
23
.
New York
:
Lexington
.
Briggs
,
John
.
2005
. “
Bantu Refugee Family Together Again
.”
Burlington Free Press
,
January
8
.
Bringe
,
Tone
, and
Christie
Debbie
.
1993
. “
We Are All Neighbours
.”
Disappearing World
,
Granada Television
.
Brodwin
,
Paul E.
2013
.
Everyday Ethics: Voices from the Front Line of Community Psychiatry
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Brown
,
Wendy
.
2006
.
Regulating Aversion: Tolerance in the Age of Identity and Empire
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
.
Canfield
,
Clark
.
2012
. “
Paul LePage, Republican Governor of Maine, Calls State Workers ‘Corrupt.’
Huffington Post
,
April
27
. .
Cassanelli
,
Lee V.
1982
.
The Shaping of Somali Society
.
Philadelphia
:
University of Pennsylvania Press
.
Castles
,
Stephen
, and
Miller
Mark J.
.
1993
.
The Age of Migration
.
New York
:
Guilford
.
Chanoff
,
Sasha
.
2002
. “
After Three Years: Somali Bantus Prepare to Come to America
.”
Refugee Reports
23
(
8
):
1
11
.
Churgin
,
Michael
.
1996
. “
Mass Exodus: The Response of the United States
.”
International Migration Review
30
(
1
):
310
44
.
Collins
,
Jane
, and
Mayer
Victoria
.
2010
.
Both Hands Tied: Welfare Reform and the Race to the Bottom in the Low-Wage Labor Market
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Crisp
,
Jeff
.
1999
. “
A State of Insecurity: The Political Economy of Violence in Refugee-Populated Areas of Kenya
.”
Working Paper No. 16
.
Geneva
:
UNHCR
.
Cullen
,
Andrew
.
2011
. “
A Decade Later: The City, Somalis, and Spending
.”
Lewiston Sun Journal
,
December
18
.
Daniel
,
E. Valentine
, and
Knudsen
John C.
, eds.
1996
.
Mistrusting Refugees
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Danish Immigration Service
.
2000
.
Report on Minority Groups in Somalia
.
Joint British, Danish, and Dutch Fact-Finding Mission to Nairobi, Kenya
,
September
17–24
. .
Declich
,
Francesca
.
1987
. “
I Goscia della regione del medio Giuba nella Somalia meridionale: Un gruppo etnico di origine Bantu
.”
Africa (Rome)
42
(
2
):
570
99
.
Declich
,
Francesca
.
2000
. “
Fostering Ethnic Reinvention: Gender Impact of Forced Migration on Bantu Somali Refugees in Kenya
.”
Cahiers d’Etudes Africaines
40
(
157
):
25
63
.
De Genova
,
Nicolas
.
2005
.
Working the Boundaries: Race, Space, and “Illegality” in Mexican Chicago
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
.
Derrida
,
Jacques
, and
Dufourmantelle
Anne
.
2000
.
Of Hospitality
. Translated by
Bowlby
Rachel
.
Palo Alto, CA
:
Stanford University Press
.
Economist
.
2003
. “
A Home at Last, but Not for Many
.”
May
31
,
29
32
.
Edkins
,
Jenny
.
2000
. “
Sovereign Power, Zones of Indistinction, and the Camp
.”
Alternatives: Global, Local, Political
25
(
1
):
3
26
.
Eggers
,
Dave
.
2007
.
What Is the What: The Autobiography of Valentino Achak Deng
.
New York
:
Vintage
.
Einolf
,
Christopher
.
2001
.
The Mercy Factory: Refugees and the American Asylum System
.
Chicago
:
Ivan R. Dee
.
Ellison
,
Jesse
.
2009
. “
The Refugees Who Saved Lewiston
.”
Newsweek
,
January
26
,
69
.
Eno
,
Mohamed
.
2008
.
The Bantu-Jareer Somalis: Unearthing Apartheid in the Horn of Africa
.
London
:
Adonis and Abbey
.
Eno
,
Omar A.
, and
Eno
Mohamed A.
.
2007
. “
The Journey Back to the Ancestral Homeland: The Return of the Somali Bantu (Wazigwa) to Modern Tanzania
.” In
From Mogadishu to Dixon: The Somali Diaspora in a Global Context
, edited by
Kusow
Abdi M.
and
Bjork
Stephanie R.
,
13
43
.
Trenton, NJ
:
Red Sea
.
Eno
,
Omar
,
Eno
Mohamed
, and
Lehman
Dan Van
.
2010
. “
Defining the Problem in Somalia: Perspectives from the Southern Minorities
.”
Journal of Somali-Anglo Society
, no.
47
:
19
.
Fadlalla
,
Amal Hassan
.
2009
. “
Contested Borders of (In)humanity: Sudanese Refugees and the Mediation of Suffering and Subaltern Visibilities
.”
Urban Anthropology
38
(
1
):
22
41
.
Fassin
,
Didier
.
2005
. “
Compassion and Repression: The Moral Economy of Immigration Policies in France
.”
Cultural Anthropology
20
(
3
):
362
87
.
Fassin
,
Didier
.
2007
. “
Humanitarianism as a Politics of Life
.”
Public Culture
19
(
3
):
499
520
.
Fassin
,
Didier
.
2013
. “
The Precarious Truth of Asylum
.”
Public Culture
25
(
1
):
39
63
.
Fassin
,
Didier
, and
Rechtman
Richard
.
2009
.
Empire of Trauma: An Inquiry into the Condition of Victimhood
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
.
Feldman
,
Ilana
.
2007
. “
Difficult Distinctions: Refugee Law, Humanitarian Practice, and Political Identification in Gaza
.”
Cultural Anthropology
22
(
1
):
129
69
.
Feldman
,
Ilana
.
2012
. “
The Humanitarian Condition: Palestinian Refugees and the Politics of Living
.”
Humanity
1
(
1
):
155
72
.
Fergusson
,
James
.
2013
.
The World’s Most Dangerous Place: Inside the Outlaw State of Somalia
.
Boston
:
Da Capo
.
Finkel
,
David
.
2002
. “
For Chosen Few, First Steps to a New Life: Somali Refugees Delayed by Post-9/11 Security Worries Begin Journey to America
.”
Washington Post
,
August
18
,
a1
.
Finnström
,
Sverker
.
2008
.
Living with Bad Surroundings: War, History, and Everyday Moments in Northern Uganda
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
.
Fiskejö
,
Magnus
.
2012
. “
Outlaws, Barbarians, Slaves: Critical Reflections on Agamben’s Homo Sacer
.”
HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory
2
(
1
):
161
80
.
Foley
,
Doug
.
2008
. “
Questioning ‘Cultural’ Explanations of Classroom Behaviors
.” In
Everyday Antiracism: Getting Real about Race in School
, edited by
Pollock
Mica
,
222
25
.
New York
:
New Press
.
Foner
,
Nancy
.
2005
.
In a New Land: A Comparative View of Immigration
.
New York
:
NYU Press
.
Foner
,
Nancy
, and
Fredrickson
George M.
.
2004
. “
Introduction: Immigration, Race, and Ethnicity in the United States: Social Constructions and Social Relations in Historical and Contemporary Perspectives
.” In
Not Just Black and White: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives on Immigration, Race, and Ethnicity in the United States
, edited by
Foner
Nancy
and
Fredrickson
George M.
,
1
19
.
New York
:
Russell Sage Foundation
.
Foner
,
Nancy
,
Rumbaut
Ruben G.
, and
Gold
Steven J.
, eds.
2000
.
Immigration Research for a New Century
.
New York
:
Russell Sage Foundation
.
Foreign Policy
.
2008
. “
The 2008 Failed States Index
.”
June
23
.
http://www.foreignpolicy.com. Accessed November 19, 2012
.
Foreign Policy
.
2009
. “
The 2009 Failed States Index
.”
June
22
. .
Forman
,
Murray
.
2005
. “
Straight Outta Mogadishu: Prescribed Identities and Performative Practices among Somali Youth in North American High Schools
.” In
Youthscapes: The Popular, the National, the Global
, edited by
Maira
Sunaina
and
Soep
Elisabeth
,
3
22
.
Philadelphia
:
University of Pennsylvania Press
.
Frelick
,
Bill
.
2007
. “
Paradigm Shifts in the International Responses to Refugees
.” In
Fear of Persecution: Global Human Rights, International Law, and Human Well-Being
, edited by
White
James D.
and
Marsella
Anthony J.
,
32
56
.
Lanham, MD
:
Lexington
.
Gabiam
,
Nell
.
2012
. “
When ‘Humanitarianism’ Becomes ‘Development’: The Politics of International Aid in Syria’s Palestinian Refugee Camps
.”
American Anthropologist
114
(
1
):
95
107
.
Garvelink
,
William
, and
Tahir
Farha
.
2011
. “
Somalia Remains the Worst Humanitarian Crisis in the World
.”
Center for Strategic and International Studies
,
December
16
. .
Gatrell
,
Peter
.
2013
.
The Making of the Modern Refugee
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
.
GCIR (Grantmakers Concerned with Immigrants and Refugees)
.
2006
. “
Immigrant Integration Toolkit
.”
Sebastopol, California
. .
Gerstle
,
Gary
, and
Mollenkopf
John
, eds.
2001
.
E Pluribus Unum? Contemporary and Historical Perspectives on Immigrant Political Incorporation
.
New York
:
Russell Sage Foundation
.
Gibney
,
Matthew J.
2004
.
The Ethics and Politics of Asylum: Liberal Democracy and the Response to Refugees
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Gilbert
,
Larry
.
2011
.
Written testimony of Mayor Larry Gilbert Sr., Mayor, City of Lewiston, Maine, before the U.S. Senate Committee on the Judiciary, Subcommittee on Immigration, Refugees and Border Security
,
July
26
.
Gilbert
,
Lauren
.
2009
. “
Citizenship, Civic Virtue, and Immigrant Integration: The Enduring Power of Community-Based Norms
.”
Yale Law and Policy Review
27
:
335
97
.
Gilroy
,
Paul
.
2012
. “
‘My Britain Is Fuck All’: Zombie Multiculturalism and the Race Politics of Citizenship
.”
Identities
19
(
4
):
380
97
.
Glater
,
Jonathan
.
2006
. “
Agreement Is Reached for Students from Somalia
.”
New York Times
,
March
2
.
Goad
,
Meredith
.
2002
. “
Somalis Use Few Benefits: Municipal Officials Say Rumors of Abuse Untrue
.”
Waterville Morning Sentinel
.
Goffe
,
Leslie
.
2004
. “
New Life in US for Somali Bantus
.”
BBC News
,
August
13
.
Gorlick
,
Brian
.
2003
. “
Refugee Protection in Troubled Times: Reflections on Institutional and Legal Developments at the Crossroads
.” In
Problems of Protection: The unhcr, Refugees, and Human Rights
, edited by
Steiner
Niklaus
,
Gibney
Mark
, and
Loescher
Gil
,
79
99
.
New York
:
Routledge
.
Gourevitch
,
Philip
.
2010
. “
The Alms Dealers: Can You Provide Humanitarian Aid without Facilitating Conflicts?
New Yorker
,
October
11
,
102
9
.
Grey
,
Mark
.
2000
. “
New Immigrants in Old Iowa
.”
Anthropology News
41
(
8
):
9
.
Gross
,
Jan
.
2001
.
Neighbors: The Destruction of the Jewish Community in Jedwabne, Poland
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
.
Haines
,
David
.
2010
.
Safe Haven? A History of Refugees in America
.
Sterling, VA
:
Kumarian
.
Hall
,
Suzanne M.
2013
. “
The Politics of Belonging
.”
Identities
20
(
1
):
46
53
.
Hammond
,
Laura
.
2010
. “
Obliged to Give: Remittances and the Maintenance of Transnational Networks between Somalis at Home and Abroad
.”
Bildhaan
9
:
125
51
.
Hammond
,
Laura
.
2011
. “
Defying Conventional Wisdom? Diaspora Youth and Participation in Somalia
.”
Horn of Africa Journal
2
. .
Hammond
,
Laura
,
Awad
Mustafa
,
Dagane
Ali Ibrahim
,
Hansen
Peter
,
Horst
Cindy
,
Menkhaus
Ken
, and
Obare
Lynette
.
2011
. “
Cash and Compassion: The Role of the Somali Diaspora in Relief, Development and Peace-Building
.”
United Nations Development Program
. .
Hamzeh
,
Ziad
.
2003
.
The Letter: An American Town and the “Somali Invasion.”
Hamzeh Mystique Films
.
Hardt
,
Michael
.
1999
. “
Affective Labor
.”
boundary 2
26
(
2
):
89
99
.
Hardt
,
Michael
, and
Negri
Antonio
.
2009
.
Commonwealth
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
.
Harman
,
Danna
.
2001
. “
US Opens Arms to Bantu Somalis
.”
Christian Science Monitor
94
(
14
):
6
.
Helander
,
Bernhard
.
1996
. “
The Hubeer in the Land of Plenty: Land, Labor, and Vulnerability among a Southern Somali Clan
.” In
The Struggle for Land in Southern Somalia: The War behind the War
, edited by
Besteman
Catherine
and
Cassanelli
Lee V.
,
47
72
.
Boulder, CO
:
Westview
.
Herzfeld
,
Michael
.
1993
.
The Social Production of Indifference: Exploring the Symbolic Roots of Western Bureaucracy
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Hill
,
Martin
.
2010
.
No Redress: Somalia’s Forgotten Minorities
.
London
:
Minority Rights Group
.
Ho
,
Christine G. T.
, and
Loucky
James
.
2012
.
Humane Migration: Establishing Legitimacy and Rights for Displaced People
.
Sterling, VA
:
Kumarian
.
Holtzman
,
Jon D.
2000
. “
Dialing 911 in Nuer: Gender Transformations and Domestic Violence in a Midwestern Sudanese Refugee Community
.” In
Immigration Research for a New Century
, edited by
Foner
Nancy
,
Rumbaut
Rubén G.
, and
Gold
Steven J.
,
390
408
.
New York
:
Russell Sage Foundation
.
Honig
,
Bonnie
.
2001
.
Democracy and the Foreigner
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
.
Horst
,
Cindy
.
2006
.
Transnational Nomads: How Somalis Cope with Refugee Life in the Dadaab Camps of Kenya
.
Oxford
:
Berghahn
.
Hudson
,
Susan
.
2006
.
The Quiet Revolutionaries: How the Grey Nuns Changed the Social Welfare Paradigm of Lewiston, Maine
.
New York
:
Taylor and Francis
.
Huisman
,
Kimberly A.
2011
. “
Why Maine? An Examination of the Secondary Migration Decisions of Somali Refugees
.” In
Somalis in Maine: Crossing Cultural Currents
, edited by
Huisman
Kimberly A.
,
Langellier
Kristin M.
,
Hough
Mazie
, and
Toner
Carol Nordstrom
.
Berkeley, CA
:
North Atlantic
.
Huntington
,
Samuel
.
1993
. “
The Clash of Civilizations?
Foreign Affairs
72
(
3
):
22
49
.
Huntington
,
Samuel
.
2004
.
Who Are We? The Challenges to America’s National Identity
.
New York
:
Simon and Schuster
.
Hyndman
,
Jennifer
.
2000
.
Managing Displacement: Refugees and the Politics of Humanitarianism
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
.
Inda
,
Jonathan Xavier
.
2006
.
Targeting Immigrants: Government, Technology, and Ethics
.
Malden, MA
:
Blackwell
.
Itzigsohn
,
José
.
2009
.
Encountering American Faultlines: Race, Class, and the Dominican Experience in Providence
.
New York
:
Russell Sage Foundation
.
Jacklet
,
Ben
.
2004
. “
Refugees Find Freedom Isn’t Free: Life Is Confusing and Expensive for Portland’s Somali Bantus
.”
Portland Tribune
,
August
31
.
Jones
,
Maggie
.
2004
. “
The New Yankees
.”
Mother Jones
,
March–April
.
Jones-Correa
Michael
.
2011
. “
All Immigration Is Local: Receiving Communities and Their Role in Successful Immigrant Integration
.”
Washington, DC
:
Center for American Progress
.
Kaplan
,
Robert
.
1994
. “
The Coming Anarchy
.”
Atlantic
,
February
.
Kapteijns
,
Lidwien
.
2012
.
Clan Cleansing in Somalia: The Ruinous Legacy of 1991
.
Philadelphia
:
University of Pennsylvania Press
.
Kapteijns
,
Lidwien
, and
Arman
Abukar
.
2004
. “
Educating Immigrant Youth in the United States: An Exploration of the Somali Case
.”
Bildhaan
4
:
18
43
.
Kasinitz
,
Philip
.
2004
. “
Race, Assimilation and ‘Second Generations,’ Past and Present
.” In
Not Just Black and White: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives on Immigration, Race, and Ethnicity in the United States
, edited by
Foner
Nancy
and
Fredrickson
George M.
,
278
98
.
New York
:
Russell Sage Foundation
.
Kelley
,
Robin D. G.
2000
. “
Introduction: A Poetics of Anticolonialism
.” In
Césaire
Aimé
,
Discourse on Colonialism
(
1955
).
New York
:
Monthly Review Press
.
Kennedy
,
David
.
2004
.
The Dark Sides of Virtue: Reassessing International Humanitarianism
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
.
Khosravi
,
Shahram
.
2010
.
“Illegal” Traveller: An Auto-ethnography of Borders
.
New York
:
Palgrave Macmillan
.
King
,
Desmond
.
2001
. “
Making Americans: Immigration Meets Race
.” In
E Pluribus Unum? Contemporary and Historical Perspectives on Immigrant Political Incorporation
, edited by
Gerstle
Gary
and
Mollenkopf
John
,
143
72
.
New York
:
Russell Sage Foundation
.
Kingfisher
,
Catherine
.
1998
. “
How Providers Make Policy: An Analysis of Everyday Conversation in a Welfare Office
.”
Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology
8
:
119
36
.
Kingfisher
,
Catherine
.
2006
. “
The Dialectic of Insecurity
.”
Insecurities
13
:
173
85
.
Kingfisher
,
Catherine
.
2007
. “
Discursive Constructions of Homelessness in a Small City in the Canadian Prairies: Notes on Destructuration, Individualization, and the Production of (Raced and Gendered) Unmarked Categories
.”
American Ethnologist
34
(
1
):
91
107
.
Kingfisher
,
Catherine
, and
Goldsmith
Michael
.
2001
. “
Reforming Women in the United States and Aotearoa/New Zealand: A Comparative Ethnography of Welfare Reform in Global Context
.”
American Anthropologist
103
(
3
):
714
32
.
Kleist
,
Nauja
.
2010
. “
Negotiating Respectable Masculinity: Gender and Recognition in the Somali Diaspora
.”
African Diaspora
3
:
185
206
.
Lacey
,
Marc
.
2001
. “
Somali Bantu, Trapped in Kenya, Seek a Home
.”
New York Times
,
December
9
,
1a
.
LaFlamme
,
Mark
.
2009
. “
Police Investigate Somali Attacks
.”
Lewiston Sun Journal
,
December
17
.
Levitt
,
Peggy
.
2012
. “
What’s Wrong with Migration Scholarship? A Critique and a Way Forward
.”
Identities
19
(
4
):
493
500
.
Lewis
,
I. M.
1961
.
A Pastoral Democracy
.
London
:
Oxford University Press
.
Lewis
,
I. M.
1988
.
A Modern History of Somalia
.
Boulder, CO
:
Westview
.
Lewis
,
I. M.
1998
. “
Doing Violence to Ethnography: A Response to Catherine Besteman’s ‘Representing Violence and “Othering” Somalia.’
Cultural Anthropology
13
(
1
):
100
108
.
Lindkvist
,
Heather
.
2003
. “
Lead Hazard Awareness in Lewiston, ME
.”
Auburn/Lewiston Lead Hazard Control Program
. .
Lindley
,
Anna
.
2010
.
The Early Morning Phone Call: Somali Refugees’ Remittances
.
New York
:
Berghahn
.
Loescher
,
Gil
.
2003
. “
UNHCR at Fifty: Refugee Protection and World Politics
.” In
Problems of Protection: The UNHCR, Refugees, and Human Rights
, edited by
Steiner
Niklaus
,
Gibney
Mark
, and
Loescher
Gil
,
1
18
.
New York
:
Routledge
.
Loescher
,
Gil
, and
Scanlan
John A.
.
1986
.
Calculated Kindness: Refugees and America’s Half-Open Door, 1945 to the Present
.
New York
:
Free Press
.
Lorch
,
Donatella
.
2002
. “
Following Freedom’s Trail
.”
Newsweek
,
September
2
.
Lovgren
,
Stefan
.
2003
. “
Refugees in the US: One Family’s Story
.”
National Geographic News
,
June
20
.
Luhrmann
,
T. M.
2010
. “
Uneasy Street
.” In
The Insecure American: How We Got Here and What We Should Do about It
, edited by
Gusterson
Hugh
and
Besteman
Catherine
,
207
23
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Macdonald
,
Robert E.
2012a
. “
Enough Is Enough: Extremist Liberals Widen the Divide with Somalis
.”
Twin City Times
,
September
6
.
Macdonald
,
Robert E.
2012b
. “
Enough Is Enough: lhs Graduation Marred by Teens’ Rude Behavior
.”
Twin City Times
,
June
9
.
Makepeace
,
Anne
.
2006
.
Rain in a Dry Land
.
Makepeace Productions. Distributed by Bullfrog Films
.
Malkki
,
Liisa
.
1992
. “
National Geographic: The Rooting of People and the Territorialization of National Identity among Scholars and Refugees
.”
Cultural Anthropology
7
(
21
):
24
44
.
Malkki
,
Liisa
.
1995a
.
Purity and Exile: Violence, Memory, and National Cosmology among Hutu Refugees in Tanzania
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Malkki
,
Liisa
.
1995b
. “
Refugees and Exile: From ‘Refugee Studies’ to the National Order of Things
.”
Annual Review of Anthropology
24
:
495
523
.
Malkki
,
Liisa
.
1996
. “
Speechless Emissaries: Refugees, Humanitarianism, and Dehistoricization
.”
Cultural Anthropology
11
(
3
):
377
404
.
Malkki
,
Liisa
.
2002
. “
News from Nowhere: Mass Displacement and Globalized ‘Problems’ of Organization
.”
Ethnography
3
(
3
):
351
60
.
Malkki
,
Liisa
.
2007
. “
Commentary: The Politics of Trauma and Asylum: Universals and Their Effects
.”
Ethos
35
(
3
):
336
43
.
Malone
,
Richard J.
2010
. “
Bishop Malone Objects to TCT Editorials
.”
Twin City Times
,
April
8
.
Mamgain
,
Vaishali
, and
Collins
Karen
.
2003
. “
Off the Boat, Now Off to Work: Refugees in the Labour Market in Portland, Maine
.”
Journal of Refugee Studies
16
(
2
):
113
46
.
Manning
,
Rob
.
2004
. “
Somali Bantus Find a Home in Oregon
.”
Oregon Public Broadcasting
,
June
23
.
Manz
,
Beatriz
.
2004
.
Paradise in Ashes: A Guatemalan Journey of Courage, Terror, and Hope
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Mbembe
,
Achille
.
2011
. “
Provincializing France?
Public Culture
23
(
1
):
85
119
.
McCabe
,
Carolyn
.
2010
. “
Bridging the Gap? An Exploratory Study of the Role of Ethnic Community-Based Organizations in Refugee Integration in the United States
.”
Institute for Social and Economic Development Applied Innovations Working Paper
.
Menkhaus
,
Kenneth
.
1989
. “
Rural Transformation and the Roots of Underdevelopment in Somalia’s Lower Jubba Valley
.”
PhD diss.
,
University of South Carolina
.
Menkhaus
,
Kenneth
.
1992
.
Report on an Emergency Needs Assessment of the Lower Jubba Region (Kismaayo, Jamaame, and Jilib Districts), Somalia
.
Seattle
:
World Concern
.
Menkhaus
,
Kenneth
.
2008
. “
Somalia: A Country in Peril, a Policy Nightmare
.”
Enough
,
September
3
. .
Menkhaus
,
Kenneth
.
2010
. “
The Question of Ethnicity in Somali Studies: The Case of Somali Bantu Identity
.” In
Milk and Peace, Drought and War: Somali Culture, Society and Politics
, edited by
Hoehne
Markus V.
and
Luling
Virginia
,
87
104
.
London
:
Hurst
.
Meyer
,
Judith
.
2010
. “
Advice for America
.”
Lewiston Sun Journal
,
February
7
.
Moore
,
Henrietta
.
2004
. “
Global Anxieties: Concept-Metaphors and Pre-theoretical Commitments in Anthropology
.”
Anthropological Theory
4
(
1
):
71
88
.
Muehlenbach
,
Andrea
.
2011
. “
Affective Labor in Post-Fordist Italy
.”
Cultural Anthropology
26
(
1
):
59
82
.
Muehlenbach
,
Andrea
.
2013a
. “
The Catholicization of Neoliberalism: On Love and Welfare in Lombardy, Italy
.”
American Anthropologist
115
(
3
):
452
65
.
Muehlenbach
,
Andrea
.
2013b
. “
On Precariousness and the Ethical Imagination: The Year 2012 in Sociocultural Anthropology
.”
American Anthropologist
115
(
2
):
295
311
.
Nadeau
,
Phil
.
2005
. “
The Somalis of Lewiston: Effects of Rapid Immigration to a Homogenous Maine City
.”
Southern Maine Review
,
April
,
104
46
.
Nadeau
,
Phil
.
2007
.
City of Lewiston Report to Maine’s Congressional Delegation: Federal Funding Deficiencies for Refugee and Secondary Migrant Services and Programming
.
October
17
.
Nadeau
,
Phil
.
2008
. “
The Flawed U.S. Refugee Workforce Development Strategy for Somali Economic Self Sufficiency in Lewiston
.”
Paper presented at Race, Ethnicity and Place Conference IV
,
Miami, Florida
.
Nadeau
,
Phil
.
2011
. “
A Work in Progress: Lewiston Responds to the Rapid Migration of Somali Refugees
.” In
Somalis in Maine: Crossing Cultural Currents
, edited by
Huisman
Kimberly A.
,
Langellier
Kristin M.
,
Hough
Mazie
, and
Toner
Carol Nordstrom
,
53
72
.
Berkeley, CA
:
North Atlantic
.
Noguera
,
Pedro
.
2008
. “
What Discipline Is For: Connecting Students to the Benefits of Learning
.” In
Everyday Antiracism: Getting Real about Race in School
, edited by
Pollock
Mica
,
132
37
.
New York
:
New Press
.
Nyamnjoh
,
Francis B.
2006
.
Insiders and Outsiders: Citizenship and Xenophobia in Contemporary South Africa
.
Dakar
:
codesria
.
Nyers
,
Peter
.
2006
.
Rethinking Refugees: Beyond States of Emergency
.
New York
:
Routledge
.
Oka
,
Rahul Chandrashekhar
.
2014
. “
Coping with the Refugee Wait: The Role of Consumption, Normalcy, and Dignity in Refugee Lives at Kakuma Refugee Camp, Kenya
.”
American Anthropologist
116
(
1
):
23
37
.
Ong
,
Aihwa
.
1996
. “
Cultural Citizenship as Subject-Making: Immigrants Negotiate Racial and Cultural Boundaries in the United States
.”
Current Anthropology
37
(
5
):
737
62
.
Ong
,
Aihwa
.
2003
.
Buddha Is Hiding: Refugees, Citizenship, the New America
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Ordoñez
,
J. Thomas
.
2008
. “
The State of Confusion: Reflections on Central American Asylum Seekers in the Bay Area
.”
Ethnography
9
(
1
):
35
60
.
Papasterdiadis
,
Nikos
.
2012
. “
Seeing through Multicultural Perspectives
.”
Identities
19
(
4
):
398
410
.
Pina-Cabral
,
João de
.
2013
. “
The Two Faces of Mutuality: Contemporary Themes in Anthropology
.”
Anthropological Quarterly
86
(
1
):
257
76
.
Pollock
,
Mica
.
2004
.
Colormute: Race Talk Dilemmas in an American School
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
.
Pollock
,
Mica
, ed.
2008
.
Everyday Antiracism: Getting Real about Race in School
.
New York
:
New Press
.
Portes
,
Alejandro
, and
Rumbaut
Rubén G.
.
1996
.
Immigrant America: A Portrait
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Portes
,
Alejandro
, and
Zhou
Min
.
1993
. “
The New Second Generation: Segmented Assimilation and Its Variants
.”
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
530
(
1
):
74
96
.
Povinelli
,
Elizabeth
.
2009
. “
Beyond Good and Evil: Whither Liberal Sacrificial Love?
Public Culture
21
(
1
):
77
100
.
Povinelli
,
Elizabeth
.
2011
.
Economies of Abandonment
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
.
Rabben
,
Linda
.
2011
.
Give Refuge to the Stranger: The Past, Present, and Future of Sanctuary
.
Walnut Creek, CA
:
Left Coast
.
Rawson
,
David
.
1994
. “
Dealing with Disintegration: U.S. Assistance and the Somali State
.” In
The Somali Challenge: From Catastrophe to Renewal?
, edited by
Samatar
Ahmed I.
,
147
87
.
Boulder, CO
:
Lynne Reinner
.
Rector
,
Amanda K.
2008
. “
An Analysis of the Employment Patterns of Somali Immigrants to Lewiston from 2001 through 2006
.”
Center for Workforce Research and Information, Maine
Department of Labor, Maine State Planning Office
.
Refugees International
.
2011
. “
Somalia
.” .
Richards
,
Paul
.
1996
.
Fighting for the Rain Forest: War, Youth, and Resources in Sierra Leone
.
Oxford
:
Heinemann
.
Ricouer
,
Paul
.
2010
. “
Being a Stranger
.” Translated by
Scott-Baumann
Alison
.
Theory, Culture and Society
27
(
5
):
37
48
.
Robins
,
Steven
.
2009
. “
Humanitarian Aid beyond ‘Bare Survival’: Social Movement Responses to Xenophobic Violence in South Africa
.”
American Ethnologist
36
(
4
):
637
50
.
Roy
,
Laura A.
, and
Kevin
C. Roxas
2011
. “
Whose Deficit Is This Anyhow? Exploring Counter-Stories of Somali Bantu Refugees’ Experiences in ‘Doing School.’
Harvard Educational Review
81
(
3
):
521
41
.
Rozakou
,
Katerina
.
2012
. “
The Biopolitics of Hospitality in Greece: Humanitarianism and the Management of Refugees
.”
American Ethnologist
39
(
3
):
562
77
.
Sahlins
,
Marshall
.
2011a
. “
What Kinship Is (Part One)
.”
Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute
17
:
2
19
.
Sahlins
,
Marshall
.
2011b
. “
What Kinship Is (Part Two)
.”
Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute
17
:
227
42
.
Salazar
,
Noel B.
, and
Smart
Alan
.
2011
. “
Anthropological Takes on ‘(Im)Mobility.’
Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power
18
(
6
):
i
ix
.
Samatar
,
Ahmed I.
2004
. “
Beginning Again: From Refugee to Citizen
.”
Bildhaan
4
:
1
17
.
Sanchez
,
George J.
2000
. “
Race and Immigration History
.” In
Immigration Research for a New Century
, edited by
Foner
Nancy
,
Rumbaut
Rubén G.
, and
Gold
Steven J.
,
54
59
.
New York
:
Russell Sage Foundation
.
Sanders
,
Edmund
, and
Zucchino
David
.
2006
. “
Left Behind as His Family Flees: Bantu Refugees Heading to US Often Split Up
.”
Los Angeles Times
,
January
15
.
Sassen
,
Saskia
.
1999
.
Guests and Aliens
.
New York
:
New Press
.
Schiller
,
Nina Glick
.
2012
. “
Situating Identities: Towards an Identities Studies without Binaries of Difference
.”
Identities
19
(
4
):
520
32
.
Schrag
,
Peter
.
2011
.
Not Fit for Our Society: Immigration and Nativism in America
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Scott
,
James
.
1999
.
Seeing Like a State
.
New Haven, CT
:
Yale University Press
.
Seele
,
Peter
.
2009
. “
Report: Employers Should Relax Standards to Hire Somalis
.”
Twin City Times
,
January
22
.
Seele
,
Peter
.
2010
. “
L-A Needs Gentrification, Not Ghetto-fication
.”
Twin City Times
,
March
18
.
Sheikh
,
Hassan
, and
Healy
Sally
.
2009
. “
Somalia’s Missing Million: The Somali Diaspora and Its Role in Development
.”
New York
:
United Nations Development Programme
.
Shemak
,
April
.
2010
.
Asylum Speakers: Caribbean Refugees and Testimonial Discourse
.
New York
:
Fordham University Press
.
Shepard
,
Raynel M.
2008
.
Cultural Adaptation of Somali Refugee Youth
.
New York
:
LFB Scholarly Publishing
.
Smydo
,
Joe
.
2006
. “
City Schools Settle Complaint Filed for Somali Refugees
.”
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette
,
May
23
.
Suárez-Orozco
,
Carola
,
Bang
,
Hee Jin
O’Connor
,
Erin
Gaytán
X. Francisco
,
Pakes
Juliana
, and
Rhodes
Jean
.
2010
. “
Academic Trajectories of Newcomer Immigrant Youth
.”
Developmental Psychology
46
(
3
):
602
18
.
Swarns
,
Rachel L.
2003a
. “
Africa’s Lost Tribe Discovers American Way
.”
New York Times
,
March
10
.
Swarns
,
Rachel L.
2003b
. “
U.S. a Place of Miracles for Somali Refugees
.”
New York Times
,
July
20
,
1.1
.
Taylor
,
Scott
.
2011
. “
Lewiston Mayoral Candidates Want More Development
.”
Lewiston Sun Journal
,
October
6
.
Terry
,
Fiona
.
2002
.
Condemned to Repeat? The Paradox of Humanitarian Action
.
Ithaca, NY
:
Cornell University Press
.
Thomas
,
Deborah A.
2009
. “
The Violence of Diaspora: Governmentality, Class Culture, and Circulations
.”
Radical History Review
103
:
83
104
.
Ticktin
,
Miriam
.
2006
. “
Where Ethics and Politics Meet: The Violence of Humanitarianism in France
.”
American Ethnologist
33
(
1
):
33
49
.
Toner
,
Carol Nordstrom
, and
Hough
Mazie
.
2011
. “
L.L. Bean, Community Gardens, and Biil: Somalis Working in Maine
.” In
Somalis in Maine: Crossing Cultural Currents
, edited by
Huisman
Kimberly A.
,
Langellier
Kristin M.
,
Hough
Mazie
, and
Toner
Carol Nordstrom
,
169
89
.
Berkeley, CA
:
North Atlantic
.
Torpey
,
John
.
2000
.
The Invention of the Passport: Surveillance, Citizenship and the State
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Turner
,
Simon
.
2004
. “
Under the Gaze of the ‘Big Nations’: Refugees, Rumours and the International Community in Tanzania
.”
African Affairs
103
:
227
47
.
Turner
,
Simon
.
2010
.
Politics of Innocence: Hutu Identity, Conflict, and Camp Life
.
Oxford
:
Berghahn
.
Twin City Times
.
2011
. “
Macdonald to Run for Mayor of Lewiston
.”
September
15
.
UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees)
.
2002
. “
America Here We Come
.”
Refugees
3
(
128
). .
UNHCR
.
2012
. “
Global Trends Report: 800,000 New Refugees in 2011, Highest This Century
.”
June
18
. .
U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants
.
2009
. “
World Refugee Survey: 2009
.” .
U.S. Department of State
.
n.d.
Office of Refugee Resettlement Report from the 2003 National Consultation Somali Bantu Planning Workshop
.
U.S. Department of State
.
1999
.
Unclassified State 239014 cable from PRM on Designation of Somali Bantu Refugee Group in Kenya for Resettlement Processing, sent from Secretary of State in Washington, DC, to all African diplomatic posts
.
December
19
.
U.S. Department of State
.
2004
. “
Annex to Chapter 1, Resettlement of the Somali Bantu: A Case Study of Processing Complexity and Unforeseen Delays
.” In
The United States Refugee Admissions Program: Reforms for a New Era of Refugee Resettlement
.
April
20
.
Washington, DC
:
U.S. Department of State
. .
U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations
.
2010
. “
Abandoned upon Arrival: Implications for Refugees and Local Communities Burdened by a U.S. Resettlement System That Is Not Working
.”
July
21
.
Washington, DC
:
U.S. Government Printing Office
.
U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee Hearing
.
2004
. “
Global Refugee Problem
.”
Testimony by Mr. Charles Kuck, Managing Partner, Weathersby, Howard and Kuck, LLC
.
September
21
.
U.S Senate Judiciary Committee Hearing Immigration Subcommittee
.
2002
.
Testimony by Gene Dewey, Assistant Secretary of State, Bureau of Refugees, Population, and Migration, Leonard Glickman, President of Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society, and Bill Frelick, Director of Policy, U.S. Committee on Refugees
.
February
12
.
Van Lehman
,
Daniel James
.
1999
. “
Expanding Protection for Marginalized Refugee Minorities: Resettling Somali Mushungulis to Southeast Africa
.”
Master’s thesis
,
Cornell University
.
Van Lehman
,
Daniel
, and
Eno
Omar
.
2002
. “
The Somali Bantu: Their History and Culture
.”
Washington, DC
:
Center for Applied Linguistics
. .
Van Lehman
,
Dan
, and
Eno
Omar
.
2003
. “
Objectives, Itinerary and Outcomes of the Mission to Kakuma
.”
March
14
.
Unpublished report
.
Vaznis
,
James
.
2009
. “
US Inspects Boston’s Language Instruction: Schools Neglected English Learners
.”
Boston Globe
,
August
26
.
Verdirame
,
Guglielmo
, and
Harrell-Bond
Barbara
.
2005
.
Rights in Exile: Janus-Faced Humanitarianism
.
New York
:
Berghahn
.
Vertovec
,
Steven
.
2011
. “
The Cultural Politics of Nation and Migration
.”
Annual Review of Anthropology
40
:
241
56
.
Wagner
,
Angie
.
2003
. “
The New Land: A Somali Bantu Clan Readjusts in America
.”
Seattle Times
,
August
10
,
A3
.
Waters
,
Mary
.
1994
. “
Ethnic and Racial Identities of Second-Generation Black Immigrants in New York City
.”
International Migration Review
28
(
4
):
795
820
.
Waters
,
Mary
.
2000
. “
The Sociological Roots and Multidisciplinary Future of Immigration Research
.” In
Immigration Research for a New Century
, edited by
Foner
Nancy
,
Rumbaut
Rubén G.
, and
Gold
Steven J.
,
44
48
.
New York
:
Russell Sage Foundation
.
Weston
,
Kath
.
2005
. “
Class Politics and Scavenger Anthropology in Dinesh D’Souza’s Virtue of Prosperity
.” In
Why America’s Top Pundits Are Wrong: Anthropologists Talk Back
, edited by
Besteman
Catherine
and
Gusterson
Hugh
,
154
179
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
White
,
James D.
, and
Marsella
J. Anthony
.
2007
.
Fear of Persecution: Global Human Rights, International Law, and Human Well-Being
.
Lanham, MD
:
Lexington
.
Wimmer
,
Andreas
, and
Schiller
Nina Glick
.
2002
. “
Methodological Nationalism and Beyond: Nation-State Building, Migration and the Social Sciences
.”
Global Networks
2
(
4
):
301
34
.
Zhou
,
Min
.
1997
. “
Growing Up American: The Challenge of Confronting Immigrant Children and Children of Immigrants
.”
Annual Review of Sociology
23
:
63
95
.

Figures & Tables

Contents

Advertisement

References

References

References
Abdi
,
Cawo M.
2012
. “
The Newest African-Americans? Somali Struggles for Belonging
.”
Bildhaan
11
:
90
107
.
Abdi
,
Cawo
.
2014
. “
Threatened Identities and Gendered Opportunities: Somali Migration to America
.”
Signs
39
(
21
):
459
83
.
Agamben
,
Giorgio
.
1995
. “
We Refugees
.” Translated by
Rocke
Michael
.
Symposium
49
(
2
):
114
19
.
Agamben
,
Giorgio
.
1998
.
Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life
. Translated by
Heller-Roazen
Daniel
.
Palo Alto, CA
:
Stanford University Press
.
Agier
,
Michel
.
2005
.
On the Margins of the World: The Refugee Experience Today
.
Cambridge
:
Polity
.
Agier
,
Michel
.
2010
. “
Humanity as an Identity and Its Political Effects (A Note on Camps and Humanitarian Government)
.”
Humanity
1
(
1
):
29
45
.
Agier
,
Michel
, and
Bouchet-Saulnier
Françoise
.
2004
. “
Humanitarian Spaces: Spaces of Exception
.” In
In the Shadows of “Just Wars”: Violence, Politics and Humanitarian Action
, edited by
Weissman
Fabrice
, translated by
Homolka
Vincent
,
Leverdier
Roger
, and
Terry
Fiona
,
297
313
.
Ithaca, NY
:
Cornell University Press
.
Ahmed
,
Ismail
.
2011
. “
Fragmented and Collaborative Leadership in a Changing Somali Community
.” In
Somalis in Maine: Crossing Cultural Currents
, edited by
Huisman
Kimberly A.
,
Langellier
Kristin M.
,
Hough
Mazie
, and
Toner
Carol Nordstrom
.
Berkeley, CA
:
North Atlantic
.
Ahmed
,
Ismail
,
Besteman
Catherine
, and
Osman
Rilwan
.
2010
. “
The Top Ten Myths about Somalis and Why They Are Wrong
.”
Twin City Times
,
July
1
.
Aleinikoff
,
T. Alexander
.
1995
. “
State-Centered Refugee Law: From Resettlement to Containment
.” In
Mistrusting Refugees
, edited by E.
Daniel
Valentine
and
Knudsen
John C.
,
257
78
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Ali
,
Ayaan Hirsi
.
2007
.
Infidel
.
New York
:
Atria
.
Ali
,
Ihotu
.
2009
. “
Staying off the Bottom of the Melting Pot: Somali Refugees Respond to a Changing U.S. Immigration Climate
.”
Bildhaan
9
:
82
114
.
Al-Sharmani
Mulki
.
2007
. “
Diasporic Somalis in Cairo: The Poetics and Practices of Soomaalinimo
.” In
From Mogadishu to Dixon: The Somali Diaspora in a Global Context
, edited by
Kusow
Abdi M.
and
Bjork
Stephanie R.
,
71
94
.
Trenton, NJ
:
Red Sea
.
Amelina
,
Anna
, and
Faist
Thomas
.
2012
. “
De-naturalizing the National in Research Methodologies: Key Concepts of Transnational Studies in Migration
.”
Ethnic and Racial Studies
35
(
10
):
1707
24
.
Amin
,
Ash
.
2013
. “
Land of Strangers
.”
Identities
20
(
1
):
1
8
.
Anderson
,
John Lee
.
2009
. “
The Most Failed State
.”
New Yorker
,
December
14
.
Arendt
,
Hannah
.
(1951) 1966
.
The Origins of Totalitarianism
.
New York
:
Harcourt, Brace and World
.
Barnett
,
Don
.
2003
. “
Out of Africa: Somali Bantu and the Paradigm Shift in Refugee Resettlement
.”
Center for Immigration Studies
. .
Bates College Department of Anthropology
.
2008
. “
Perceived Barriers to Somali Immigrant Employment in Lewiston: A Supplement to Maine’s Department of Labor Report
.” .
Bauman
,
Zygmunt
.
2004
.
Wasted Lives: Modernity and Its Outcasts
.
Cambridge
:
Polity
.
BBC News
.
2008
. “
Somalia Is ‘Most Ignored Tragedy.’
October
6
. .
BBC News
.
2012
. “
African Migrants Who Call America’s Whitest State Home
.”
September
12
. .
Besteman
,
Catherine
.
1994
. “
Individualisation and the Assault on Customary Tenure in Africa: Land Registration Programmes and the Case of Somalia
.”
Africa
64
(
4
):
484
515
.
Besteman
,
Catherine
.
1996a
. “
Representing Violence and ‘Othering’ Somalia
.”
Cultural Anthropology
11
(
1
):
120
33
.
Besteman
,
Catherine
.
1996b
. “
Violent Politics and the Politics of Violence: The Dissolution of the Somali Nation-State
.”
American Ethnologist
23
(
3
):
579
96
.
Besteman
,
Catherine
.
1998
. “
Primordialist Blinders: A Reply to I. M. Lewis
.”
Cultural Anthropology
13
(
1
):
109
20
.
Besteman
,
Catherine
.
1999a
. “
A Reply to Bernhard Helander
.”
American Ethnologist
26
(
4
):
981
83
.
Besteman
,
Catherine
.
1999b
.
Unraveling Somalia
.
Philadelphia
:
University of Pennsylvania Press
.
Besteman
,
Catherine
.
2010
. “
In and Out of the Academy: The Case for a Strategic Anthropology
.”
Human Organization
69
(
4
):
407
17
.
Besteman
,
Catherine
.
2014
. “
On Ethnographic Love
.” In
Mutuality
, edited by
Sanjek
Roger
,
259
84
.
Philadelphia
:
University of Pennsylvania Press
.
Besteman
,
Catherine
, and
Ahmed
Ismail
.
2010
. “
Refugee Economic Impact Study.” Available as a link from Andrew Cullen, “Somalis: A Decade in Lewiston
,”
Lewiston Sun Journal
,
December
18
,
2011
.
Besteman
,
Catherine
, and
Cassanelli
Lee V.
, eds.
2000
.
The Struggle for Land in Southern Somalia: The War behind the War
. Reprint,
London
:
Haan
.
Besteman
,
Catherine
, and
Gusterson
Hugh
, eds.
2005
.
Why America’s Top Pundits Are Wrong
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Besteman
,
Catherine
, and
Gusterson
Hugh
.
2009
. “
Introduction
.” In
The Insecure American
, edited by
Gusterson
Hugh
and
Besteman
Catherine
,
1
23
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Billings
,
Randy
.
2014
. “
Asylum Seekers, Maine Advocates, Protest Change in Aid Rules
.”
Portland Press Herald
,
January
11
. .
Blommaert
,
Jan
.
2009
. “
Language, Asylum, and the National Order
.”
Current Anthropology
50
(
4
):
415
41
.
Boas
,
Heidi
.
2007
. “
The New Face of America’s Refugees: African Refugee Resettlement to the United States
.”
Georgetown Immigration Law Journal
21
(
3
):
431
68
.
Bohmer
,
Carol
, and
Shuman
Amy
.
2007
. “
Producing Epistemologies of Ignorance in the Political Asylum Process
.”
Identities
14
:
603
29
.
Bohmer
,
Carol
, and
Shuman
Amy
.
2008
.
Rejecting Refugees: Political Asylum in the 21st Century
.
London
:
Routledge
.
Bornstein
,
Erica
.
2012
.
Disquieting Gifts: Humanitarianism in New Delhi
.
Palo Alto, CA
:
Stanford University Press
.
Brettell
,
Caroline
.
2007
. “
Introduction: Race, Ethnicity, and the Construction of Immigrant Identities
.” In
Constructing Borders/Crossing Boundaries: Race, Ethnicity, and Immigration
, edited by
Brettell
Caroline
,
1
23
.
New York
:
Lexington
.
Briggs
,
John
.
2005
. “
Bantu Refugee Family Together Again
.”
Burlington Free Press
,
January
8
.
Bringe
,
Tone
, and
Christie
Debbie
.
1993
. “
We Are All Neighbours
.”
Disappearing World
,
Granada Television
.
Brodwin
,
Paul E.
2013
.
Everyday Ethics: Voices from the Front Line of Community Psychiatry
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Brown
,
Wendy
.
2006
.
Regulating Aversion: Tolerance in the Age of Identity and Empire
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
.
Canfield
,
Clark
.
2012
. “
Paul LePage, Republican Governor of Maine, Calls State Workers ‘Corrupt.’
Huffington Post
,
April
27
. .
Cassanelli
,
Lee V.
1982
.
The Shaping of Somali Society
.
Philadelphia
:
University of Pennsylvania Press
.
Castles
,
Stephen
, and
Miller
Mark J.
.
1993
.
The Age of Migration
.
New York
:
Guilford
.
Chanoff
,
Sasha
.
2002
. “
After Three Years: Somali Bantus Prepare to Come to America
.”
Refugee Reports
23
(
8
):
1
11
.
Churgin
,
Michael
.
1996
. “
Mass Exodus: The Response of the United States
.”
International Migration Review
30
(
1
):
310
44
.
Collins
,
Jane
, and
Mayer
Victoria
.
2010
.
Both Hands Tied: Welfare Reform and the Race to the Bottom in the Low-Wage Labor Market
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Crisp
,
Jeff
.
1999
. “
A State of Insecurity: The Political Economy of Violence in Refugee-Populated Areas of Kenya
.”
Working Paper No. 16
.
Geneva
:
UNHCR
.
Cullen
,
Andrew
.
2011
. “
A Decade Later: The City, Somalis, and Spending
.”
Lewiston Sun Journal
,
December
18
.
Daniel
,
E. Valentine
, and
Knudsen
John C.
, eds.
1996
.
Mistrusting Refugees
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Danish Immigration Service
.
2000
.
Report on Minority Groups in Somalia
.
Joint British, Danish, and Dutch Fact-Finding Mission to Nairobi, Kenya
,
September
17–24
. .
Declich
,
Francesca
.
1987
. “
I Goscia della regione del medio Giuba nella Somalia meridionale: Un gruppo etnico di origine Bantu
.”
Africa (Rome)
42
(
2
):
570
99
.
Declich
,
Francesca
.
2000
. “
Fostering Ethnic Reinvention: Gender Impact of Forced Migration on Bantu Somali Refugees in Kenya
.”
Cahiers d’Etudes Africaines
40
(
157
):
25
63
.
De Genova
,
Nicolas
.
2005
.
Working the Boundaries: Race, Space, and “Illegality” in Mexican Chicago
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
.
Derrida
,
Jacques
, and
Dufourmantelle
Anne
.
2000
.
Of Hospitality
. Translated by
Bowlby
Rachel
.
Palo Alto, CA
:
Stanford University Press
.
Economist
.
2003
. “
A Home at Last, but Not for Many
.”
May
31
,
29
32
.
Edkins
,
Jenny
.
2000
. “
Sovereign Power, Zones of Indistinction, and the Camp
.”
Alternatives: Global, Local, Political
25
(
1
):
3
26
.
Eggers
,
Dave
.
2007
.
What Is the What: The Autobiography of Valentino Achak Deng
.
New York
:
Vintage
.
Einolf
,
Christopher
.
2001
.
The Mercy Factory: Refugees and the American Asylum System
.
Chicago
:
Ivan R. Dee
.
Ellison
,
Jesse
.
2009
. “
The Refugees Who Saved Lewiston
.”
Newsweek
,
January
26
,
69
.
Eno
,
Mohamed
.
2008
.
The Bantu-Jareer Somalis: Unearthing Apartheid in the Horn of Africa
.
London
:
Adonis and Abbey
.
Eno
,
Omar A.
, and
Eno
Mohamed A.
.
2007
. “
The Journey Back to the Ancestral Homeland: The Return of the Somali Bantu (Wazigwa) to Modern Tanzania
.” In
From Mogadishu to Dixon: The Somali Diaspora in a Global Context
, edited by
Kusow
Abdi M.
and
Bjork
Stephanie R.
,
13
43
.
Trenton, NJ
:
Red Sea
.
Eno
,
Omar
,
Eno
Mohamed
, and
Lehman
Dan Van
.
2010
. “
Defining the Problem in Somalia: Perspectives from the Southern Minorities
.”
Journal of Somali-Anglo Society
, no.
47
:
19
.
Fadlalla
,
Amal Hassan
.
2009
. “
Contested Borders of (In)humanity: Sudanese Refugees and the Mediation of Suffering and Subaltern Visibilities
.”
Urban Anthropology
38
(
1
):
22
41
.
Fassin
,
Didier
.
2005
. “
Compassion and Repression: The Moral Economy of Immigration Policies in France
.”
Cultural Anthropology
20
(
3
):
362
87
.
Fassin
,
Didier
.
2007
. “
Humanitarianism as a Politics of Life
.”
Public Culture
19
(
3
):
499
520
.
Fassin
,
Didier
.
2013
. “
The Precarious Truth of Asylum
.”
Public Culture
25
(
1
):
39
63
.
Fassin
,
Didier
, and
Rechtman
Richard
.
2009
.
Empire of Trauma: An Inquiry into the Condition of Victimhood
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
.
Feldman
,
Ilana
.
2007
. “
Difficult Distinctions: Refugee Law, Humanitarian Practice, and Political Identification in Gaza
.”
Cultural Anthropology
22
(
1
):
129
69
.
Feldman
,
Ilana
.
2012
. “
The Humanitarian Condition: Palestinian Refugees and the Politics of Living
.”
Humanity
1
(
1
):
155
72
.
Fergusson
,
James
.
2013
.
The World’s Most Dangerous Place: Inside the Outlaw State of Somalia
.
Boston
:
Da Capo
.
Finkel
,
David
.
2002
. “
For Chosen Few, First Steps to a New Life: Somali Refugees Delayed by Post-9/11 Security Worries Begin Journey to America
.”
Washington Post
,
August
18
,
a1
.
Finnström
,
Sverker
.
2008
.
Living with Bad Surroundings: War, History, and Everyday Moments in Northern Uganda
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
.
Fiskejö
,
Magnus
.
2012
. “
Outlaws, Barbarians, Slaves: Critical Reflections on Agamben’s Homo Sacer
.”
HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory
2
(
1
):
161
80
.
Foley
,
Doug
.
2008
. “
Questioning ‘Cultural’ Explanations of Classroom Behaviors
.” In
Everyday Antiracism: Getting Real about Race in School
, edited by
Pollock
Mica
,
222
25
.
New York
:
New Press
.
Foner
,
Nancy
.
2005
.
In a New Land: A Comparative View of Immigration
.
New York
:
NYU Press
.
Foner
,
Nancy
, and
Fredrickson
George M.
.
2004
. “
Introduction: Immigration, Race, and Ethnicity in the United States: Social Constructions and Social Relations in Historical and Contemporary Perspectives
.” In
Not Just Black and White: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives on Immigration, Race, and Ethnicity in the United States
, edited by
Foner
Nancy
and
Fredrickson
George M.
,
1
19
.
New York
:
Russell Sage Foundation
.
Foner
,
Nancy
,
Rumbaut
Ruben G.
, and
Gold
Steven J.
, eds.
2000
.
Immigration Research for a New Century
.
New York
:
Russell Sage Foundation
.
Foreign Policy
.
2008
. “
The 2008 Failed States Index
.”
June
23
.
http://www.foreignpolicy.com. Accessed November 19, 2012
.
Foreign Policy
.
2009
. “
The 2009 Failed States Index
.”
June
22
. .
Forman
,
Murray
.
2005
. “
Straight Outta Mogadishu: Prescribed Identities and Performative Practices among Somali Youth in North American High Schools
.” In
Youthscapes: The Popular, the National, the Global
, edited by
Maira
Sunaina
and
Soep
Elisabeth
,
3
22
.
Philadelphia
:
University of Pennsylvania Press
.
Frelick
,
Bill
.
2007
. “
Paradigm Shifts in the International Responses to Refugees
.” In
Fear of Persecution: Global Human Rights, International Law, and Human Well-Being
, edited by
White
James D.
and
Marsella
Anthony J.
,
32
56
.
Lanham, MD
:
Lexington
.
Gabiam
,
Nell
.
2012
. “
When ‘Humanitarianism’ Becomes ‘Development’: The Politics of International Aid in Syria’s Palestinian Refugee Camps
.”
American Anthropologist
114
(
1
):
95
107
.
Garvelink
,
William
, and
Tahir
Farha
.
2011
. “
Somalia Remains the Worst Humanitarian Crisis in the World
.”
Center for Strategic and International Studies
,
December
16
. .
Gatrell
,
Peter
.
2013
.
The Making of the Modern Refugee
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
.
GCIR (Grantmakers Concerned with Immigrants and Refugees)
.
2006
. “
Immigrant Integration Toolkit
.”
Sebastopol, California
. .
Gerstle
,
Gary
, and
Mollenkopf
John
, eds.
2001
.
E Pluribus Unum? Contemporary and Historical Perspectives on Immigrant Political Incorporation
.
New York
:
Russell Sage Foundation
.
Gibney
,
Matthew J.
2004
.
The Ethics and Politics of Asylum: Liberal Democracy and the Response to Refugees
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Gilbert
,
Larry
.
2011
.
Written testimony of Mayor Larry Gilbert Sr., Mayor, City of Lewiston, Maine, before the U.S. Senate Committee on the Judiciary, Subcommittee on Immigration, Refugees and Border Security
,
July
26
.
Gilbert
,
Lauren
.
2009
. “
Citizenship, Civic Virtue, and Immigrant Integration: The Enduring Power of Community-Based Norms
.”
Yale Law and Policy Review
27
:
335
97
.
Gilroy
,
Paul
.
2012
. “
‘My Britain Is Fuck All’: Zombie Multiculturalism and the Race Politics of Citizenship
.”
Identities
19
(
4
):
380
97
.
Glater
,
Jonathan
.
2006
. “
Agreement Is Reached for Students from Somalia
.”
New York Times
,
March
2
.
Goad
,
Meredith
.
2002
. “
Somalis Use Few Benefits: Municipal Officials Say Rumors of Abuse Untrue
.”
Waterville Morning Sentinel
.
Goffe
,
Leslie
.
2004
. “
New Life in US for Somali Bantus
.”
BBC News
,
August
13
.
Gorlick
,
Brian
.
2003
. “
Refugee Protection in Troubled Times: Reflections on Institutional and Legal Developments at the Crossroads
.” In
Problems of Protection: The unhcr, Refugees, and Human Rights
, edited by
Steiner
Niklaus
,
Gibney
Mark
, and
Loescher
Gil
,
79
99
.
New York
:
Routledge
.
Gourevitch
,
Philip
.
2010
. “
The Alms Dealers: Can You Provide Humanitarian Aid without Facilitating Conflicts?
New Yorker
,
October
11
,
102
9
.
Grey
,
Mark
.
2000
. “
New Immigrants in Old Iowa
.”
Anthropology News
41
(
8
):
9
.
Gross
,
Jan
.
2001
.
Neighbors: The Destruction of the Jewish Community in Jedwabne, Poland
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
.
Haines
,
David
.
2010
.
Safe Haven? A History of Refugees in America
.
Sterling, VA
:
Kumarian
.
Hall
,
Suzanne M.
2013
. “
The Politics of Belonging
.”
Identities
20
(
1
):
46
53
.
Hammond
,
Laura
.
2010
. “
Obliged to Give: Remittances and the Maintenance of Transnational Networks between Somalis at Home and Abroad
.”
Bildhaan
9
:
125
51
.
Hammond
,
Laura
.
2011
. “
Defying Conventional Wisdom? Diaspora Youth and Participation in Somalia
.”
Horn of Africa Journal
2
. .
Hammond
,
Laura
,
Awad
Mustafa
,
Dagane
Ali Ibrahim
,
Hansen
Peter
,
Horst
Cindy
,
Menkhaus
Ken
, and
Obare
Lynette
.
2011
. “
Cash and Compassion: The Role of the Somali Diaspora in Relief, Development and Peace-Building
.”
United Nations Development Program
. .
Hamzeh
,
Ziad
.
2003
.
The Letter: An American Town and the “Somali Invasion.”
Hamzeh Mystique Films
.
Hardt
,
Michael
.
1999
. “
Affective Labor
.”
boundary 2
26
(
2
):
89
99
.
Hardt
,
Michael
, and
Negri
Antonio
.
2009
.
Commonwealth
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
.
Harman
,
Danna
.
2001
. “
US Opens Arms to Bantu Somalis
.”
Christian Science Monitor
94
(
14
):
6
.
Helander
,
Bernhard
.
1996
. “
The Hubeer in the Land of Plenty: Land, Labor, and Vulnerability among a Southern Somali Clan
.” In
The Struggle for Land in Southern Somalia: The War behind the War
, edited by
Besteman
Catherine
and
Cassanelli
Lee V.
,
47
72
.
Boulder, CO
:
Westview
.
Herzfeld
,
Michael
.
1993
.
The Social Production of Indifference: Exploring the Symbolic Roots of Western Bureaucracy
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Hill
,
Martin
.
2010
.
No Redress: Somalia’s Forgotten Minorities
.
London
:
Minority Rights Group
.
Ho
,
Christine G. T.
, and
Loucky
James
.
2012
.
Humane Migration: Establishing Legitimacy and Rights for Displaced People
.
Sterling, VA
:
Kumarian
.
Holtzman
,
Jon D.
2000
. “
Dialing 911 in Nuer: Gender Transformations and Domestic Violence in a Midwestern Sudanese Refugee Community
.” In
Immigration Research for a New Century
, edited by
Foner
Nancy
,
Rumbaut
Rubén G.
, and
Gold
Steven J.
,
390
408
.
New York
:
Russell Sage Foundation
.
Honig
,
Bonnie
.
2001
.
Democracy and the Foreigner
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
.
Horst
,
Cindy
.
2006
.
Transnational Nomads: How Somalis Cope with Refugee Life in the Dadaab Camps of Kenya
.
Oxford
:
Berghahn
.
Hudson
,
Susan
.
2006
.
The Quiet Revolutionaries: How the Grey Nuns Changed the Social Welfare Paradigm of Lewiston, Maine
.
New York
:
Taylor and Francis
.
Huisman
,
Kimberly A.
2011
. “
Why Maine? An Examination of the Secondary Migration Decisions of Somali Refugees
.” In
Somalis in Maine: Crossing Cultural Currents
, edited by
Huisman
Kimberly A.
,
Langellier
Kristin M.
,
Hough
Mazie
, and
Toner
Carol Nordstrom
.
Berkeley, CA
:
North Atlantic
.
Huntington
,
Samuel
.
1993
. “
The Clash of Civilizations?
Foreign Affairs
72
(
3
):
22
49
.
Huntington
,
Samuel
.
2004
.
Who Are We? The Challenges to America’s National Identity
.
New York
:
Simon and Schuster
.
Hyndman
,
Jennifer
.
2000
.
Managing Displacement: Refugees and the Politics of Humanitarianism
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
.
Inda
,
Jonathan Xavier
.
2006
.
Targeting Immigrants: Government, Technology, and Ethics
.
Malden, MA
:
Blackwell
.
Itzigsohn
,
José
.
2009
.
Encountering American Faultlines: Race, Class, and the Dominican Experience in Providence
.
New York
:
Russell Sage Foundation
.
Jacklet
,
Ben
.
2004
. “
Refugees Find Freedom Isn’t Free: Life Is Confusing and Expensive for Portland’s Somali Bantus
.”
Portland Tribune
,
August
31
.
Jones
,
Maggie
.
2004
. “
The New Yankees
.”
Mother Jones
,
March–April
.
Jones-Correa
Michael
.
2011
. “
All Immigration Is Local: Receiving Communities and Their Role in Successful Immigrant Integration
.”
Washington, DC
:
Center for American Progress
.
Kaplan
,
Robert
.
1994
. “
The Coming Anarchy
.”
Atlantic
,
February
.
Kapteijns
,
Lidwien
.
2012
.
Clan Cleansing in Somalia: The Ruinous Legacy of 1991
.
Philadelphia
:
University of Pennsylvania Press
.
Kapteijns
,
Lidwien
, and
Arman
Abukar
.
2004
. “
Educating Immigrant Youth in the United States: An Exploration of the Somali Case
.”
Bildhaan
4
:
18
43
.
Kasinitz
,
Philip
.
2004
. “
Race, Assimilation and ‘Second Generations,’ Past and Present
.” In
Not Just Black and White: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives on Immigration, Race, and Ethnicity in the United States
, edited by
Foner
Nancy
and
Fredrickson
George M.
,
278
98
.
New York
:
Russell Sage Foundation
.
Kelley
,
Robin D. G.
2000
. “
Introduction: A Poetics of Anticolonialism
.” In
Césaire
Aimé
,
Discourse on Colonialism
(
1955
).
New York
:
Monthly Review Press
.
Kennedy
,
David
.
2004
.
The Dark Sides of Virtue: Reassessing International Humanitarianism
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
.
Khosravi
,
Shahram
.
2010
.
“Illegal” Traveller: An Auto-ethnography of Borders
.
New York
:
Palgrave Macmillan
.
King
,
Desmond
.
2001
. “
Making Americans: Immigration Meets Race
.” In
E Pluribus Unum? Contemporary and Historical Perspectives on Immigrant Political Incorporation
, edited by
Gerstle
Gary
and
Mollenkopf
John
,
143
72
.
New York
:
Russell Sage Foundation
.
Kingfisher
,
Catherine
.
1998
. “
How Providers Make Policy: An Analysis of Everyday Conversation in a Welfare Office
.”
Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology
8
:
119
36
.
Kingfisher
,
Catherine
.
2006
. “
The Dialectic of Insecurity
.”
Insecurities
13
:
173
85
.
Kingfisher
,
Catherine
.
2007
. “
Discursive Constructions of Homelessness in a Small City in the Canadian Prairies: Notes on Destructuration, Individualization, and the Production of (Raced and Gendered) Unmarked Categories
.”
American Ethnologist
34
(
1
):
91
107
.
Kingfisher
,
Catherine
, and
Goldsmith
Michael
.
2001
. “
Reforming Women in the United States and Aotearoa/New Zealand: A Comparative Ethnography of Welfare Reform in Global Context
.”
American Anthropologist
103
(
3
):
714
32
.
Kleist
,
Nauja
.
2010
. “
Negotiating Respectable Masculinity: Gender and Recognition in the Somali Diaspora
.”
African Diaspora
3
:
185
206
.
Lacey
,
Marc
.
2001
. “
Somali Bantu, Trapped in Kenya, Seek a Home
.”
New York Times
,
December
9
,
1a
.
LaFlamme
,
Mark
.
2009
. “
Police Investigate Somali Attacks
.”
Lewiston Sun Journal
,
December
17
.
Levitt
,
Peggy
.
2012
. “
What’s Wrong with Migration Scholarship? A Critique and a Way Forward
.”
Identities
19
(
4
):
493
500
.
Lewis
,
I. M.
1961
.
A Pastoral Democracy
.
London
:
Oxford University Press
.
Lewis
,
I. M.
1988
.
A Modern History of Somalia
.
Boulder, CO
:
Westview
.
Lewis
,
I. M.
1998
. “
Doing Violence to Ethnography: A Response to Catherine Besteman’s ‘Representing Violence and “Othering” Somalia.’
Cultural Anthropology
13
(
1
):
100
108
.
Lindkvist
,
Heather
.
2003
. “
Lead Hazard Awareness in Lewiston, ME
.”
Auburn/Lewiston Lead Hazard Control Program
. .
Lindley
,
Anna
.
2010
.
The Early Morning Phone Call: Somali Refugees’ Remittances
.
New York
:
Berghahn
.
Loescher
,
Gil
.
2003
. “
UNHCR at Fifty: Refugee Protection and World Politics
.” In
Problems of Protection: The UNHCR, Refugees, and Human Rights
, edited by
Steiner
Niklaus
,
Gibney
Mark
, and
Loescher
Gil
,
1
18
.
New York
:
Routledge
.
Loescher
,
Gil
, and
Scanlan
John A.
.
1986
.
Calculated Kindness: Refugees and America’s Half-Open Door, 1945 to the Present
.
New York
:
Free Press
.
Lorch
,
Donatella
.
2002
. “
Following Freedom’s Trail
.”
Newsweek
,
September
2
.
Lovgren
,
Stefan
.
2003
. “
Refugees in the US: One Family’s Story
.”
National Geographic News
,
June
20
.
Luhrmann
,
T. M.
2010
. “
Uneasy Street
.” In
The Insecure American: How We Got Here and What We Should Do about It
, edited by
Gusterson
Hugh
and
Besteman
Catherine
,
207
23
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Macdonald
,
Robert E.
2012a
. “
Enough Is Enough: Extremist Liberals Widen the Divide with Somalis
.”
Twin City Times
,
September
6
.
Macdonald
,
Robert E.
2012b
. “
Enough Is Enough: lhs Graduation Marred by Teens’ Rude Behavior
.”
Twin City Times
,
June
9
.
Makepeace
,
Anne
.
2006
.
Rain in a Dry Land
.
Makepeace Productions. Distributed by Bullfrog Films
.
Malkki
,
Liisa
.
1992
. “
National Geographic: The Rooting of People and the Territorialization of National Identity among Scholars and Refugees
.”
Cultural Anthropology
7
(
21
):
24
44
.
Malkki
,
Liisa
.
1995a
.
Purity and Exile: Violence, Memory, and National Cosmology among Hutu Refugees in Tanzania
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Malkki
,
Liisa
.
1995b
. “
Refugees and Exile: From ‘Refugee Studies’ to the National Order of Things
.”
Annual Review of Anthropology
24
:
495
523
.
Malkki
,
Liisa
.
1996
. “
Speechless Emissaries: Refugees, Humanitarianism, and Dehistoricization
.”
Cultural Anthropology
11
(
3
):
377
404
.
Malkki
,
Liisa
.
2002
. “
News from Nowhere: Mass Displacement and Globalized ‘Problems’ of Organization
.”
Ethnography
3
(
3
):
351
60
.
Malkki
,
Liisa
.
2007
. “
Commentary: The Politics of Trauma and Asylum: Universals and Their Effects
.”
Ethos
35
(
3
):
336
43
.
Malone
,
Richard J.
2010
. “
Bishop Malone Objects to TCT Editorials
.”
Twin City Times
,
April
8
.
Mamgain
,
Vaishali
, and
Collins
Karen
.
2003
. “
Off the Boat, Now Off to Work: Refugees in the Labour Market in Portland, Maine
.”
Journal of Refugee Studies
16
(
2
):
113
46
.
Manning
,
Rob
.
2004
. “
Somali Bantus Find a Home in Oregon
.”
Oregon Public Broadcasting
,
June
23
.
Manz
,
Beatriz
.
2004
.
Paradise in Ashes: A Guatemalan Journey of Courage, Terror, and Hope
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Mbembe
,
Achille
.
2011
. “
Provincializing France?
Public Culture
23
(
1
):
85
119
.
McCabe
,
Carolyn
.
2010
. “
Bridging the Gap? An Exploratory Study of the Role of Ethnic Community-Based Organizations in Refugee Integration in the United States
.”
Institute for Social and Economic Development Applied Innovations Working Paper
.
Menkhaus
,
Kenneth
.
1989
. “
Rural Transformation and the Roots of Underdevelopment in Somalia’s Lower Jubba Valley
.”
PhD diss.
,
University of South Carolina
.
Menkhaus
,
Kenneth
.
1992
.
Report on an Emergency Needs Assessment of the Lower Jubba Region (Kismaayo, Jamaame, and Jilib Districts), Somalia
.
Seattle
:
World Concern
.
Menkhaus
,
Kenneth
.
2008
. “
Somalia: A Country in Peril, a Policy Nightmare
.”
Enough
,
September
3
. .
Menkhaus
,
Kenneth
.
2010
. “
The Question of Ethnicity in Somali Studies: The Case of Somali Bantu Identity
.” In
Milk and Peace, Drought and War: Somali Culture, Society and Politics
, edited by
Hoehne
Markus V.
and
Luling
Virginia
,
87
104
.
London
:
Hurst
.
Meyer
,
Judith
.
2010
. “
Advice for America
.”
Lewiston Sun Journal
,
February
7
.
Moore
,
Henrietta
.
2004
. “
Global Anxieties: Concept-Metaphors and Pre-theoretical Commitments in Anthropology
.”
Anthropological Theory
4
(
1
):
71
88
.
Muehlenbach
,
Andrea
.
2011
. “
Affective Labor in Post-Fordist Italy
.”
Cultural Anthropology
26
(
1
):
59
82
.
Muehlenbach
,
Andrea
.
2013a
. “
The Catholicization of Neoliberalism: On Love and Welfare in Lombardy, Italy
.”
American Anthropologist
115
(
3
):
452
65
.
Muehlenbach
,
Andrea
.
2013b
. “
On Precariousness and the Ethical Imagination: The Year 2012 in Sociocultural Anthropology
.”
American Anthropologist
115
(
2
):
295
311
.
Nadeau
,
Phil
.
2005
. “
The Somalis of Lewiston: Effects of Rapid Immigration to a Homogenous Maine City
.”
Southern Maine Review
,
April
,
104
46
.
Nadeau
,
Phil
.
2007
.
City of Lewiston Report to Maine’s Congressional Delegation: Federal Funding Deficiencies for Refugee and Secondary Migrant Services and Programming
.
October
17
.
Nadeau
,
Phil
.
2008
. “
The Flawed U.S. Refugee Workforce Development Strategy for Somali Economic Self Sufficiency in Lewiston
.”
Paper presented at Race, Ethnicity and Place Conference IV
,
Miami, Florida
.
Nadeau
,
Phil
.
2011
. “
A Work in Progress: Lewiston Responds to the Rapid Migration of Somali Refugees
.” In
Somalis in Maine: Crossing Cultural Currents
, edited by
Huisman
Kimberly A.
,
Langellier
Kristin M.
,
Hough
Mazie
, and
Toner
Carol Nordstrom
,
53
72
.
Berkeley, CA
:
North Atlantic
.
Noguera
,
Pedro
.
2008
. “
What Discipline Is For: Connecting Students to the Benefits of Learning
.” In
Everyday Antiracism: Getting Real about Race in School
, edited by
Pollock
Mica
,
132
37
.
New York
:
New Press
.
Nyamnjoh
,
Francis B.
2006
.
Insiders and Outsiders: Citizenship and Xenophobia in Contemporary South Africa
.
Dakar
:
codesria
.
Nyers
,
Peter
.
2006
.
Rethinking Refugees: Beyond States of Emergency
.
New York
:
Routledge
.
Oka
,
Rahul Chandrashekhar
.
2014
. “
Coping with the Refugee Wait: The Role of Consumption, Normalcy, and Dignity in Refugee Lives at Kakuma Refugee Camp, Kenya
.”
American Anthropologist
116
(
1
):
23
37
.
Ong
,
Aihwa
.
1996
. “
Cultural Citizenship as Subject-Making: Immigrants Negotiate Racial and Cultural Boundaries in the United States
.”
Current Anthropology
37
(
5
):
737
62
.
Ong
,
Aihwa
.
2003
.
Buddha Is Hiding: Refugees, Citizenship, the New America
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Ordoñez
,
J. Thomas
.
2008
. “
The State of Confusion: Reflections on Central American Asylum Seekers in the Bay Area
.”
Ethnography
9
(
1
):
35
60
.
Papasterdiadis
,
Nikos
.
2012
. “
Seeing through Multicultural Perspectives
.”
Identities
19
(
4
):
398
410
.
Pina-Cabral
,
João de
.
2013
. “
The Two Faces of Mutuality: Contemporary Themes in Anthropology
.”
Anthropological Quarterly
86
(
1
):
257
76
.
Pollock
,
Mica
.
2004
.
Colormute: Race Talk Dilemmas in an American School
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
.
Pollock
,
Mica
, ed.
2008
.
Everyday Antiracism: Getting Real about Race in School
.
New York
:
New Press
.
Portes
,
Alejandro
, and
Rumbaut
Rubén G.
.
1996
.
Immigrant America: A Portrait
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Portes
,
Alejandro
, and
Zhou
Min
.
1993
. “
The New Second Generation: Segmented Assimilation and Its Variants
.”
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
530
(
1
):
74
96
.
Povinelli
,
Elizabeth
.
2009
. “
Beyond Good and Evil: Whither Liberal Sacrificial Love?
Public Culture
21
(
1
):
77
100
.
Povinelli
,
Elizabeth
.
2011
.
Economies of Abandonment
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
.
Rabben
,
Linda
.
2011
.
Give Refuge to the Stranger: The Past, Present, and Future of Sanctuary
.
Walnut Creek, CA
:
Left Coast
.
Rawson
,
David
.
1994
. “
Dealing with Disintegration: U.S. Assistance and the Somali State
.” In
The Somali Challenge: From Catastrophe to Renewal?
, edited by
Samatar
Ahmed I.
,
147
87
.
Boulder, CO
:
Lynne Reinner
.
Rector
,
Amanda K.
2008
. “
An Analysis of the Employment Patterns of Somali Immigrants to Lewiston from 2001 through 2006
.”
Center for Workforce Research and Information, Maine
Department of Labor, Maine State Planning Office
.
Refugees International
.
2011
. “
Somalia
.” .
Richards
,
Paul
.
1996
.
Fighting for the Rain Forest: War, Youth, and Resources in Sierra Leone
.
Oxford
:
Heinemann
.
Ricouer
,
Paul
.
2010
. “
Being a Stranger
.” Translated by
Scott-Baumann
Alison
.
Theory, Culture and Society
27
(
5
):
37
48
.
Robins
,
Steven
.
2009
. “
Humanitarian Aid beyond ‘Bare Survival’: Social Movement Responses to Xenophobic Violence in South Africa
.”
American Ethnologist
36
(
4
):
637
50
.
Roy
,
Laura A.
, and
Kevin
C. Roxas
2011
. “
Whose Deficit Is This Anyhow? Exploring Counter-Stories of Somali Bantu Refugees’ Experiences in ‘Doing School.’
Harvard Educational Review
81
(
3
):
521
41
.
Rozakou
,
Katerina
.
2012
. “
The Biopolitics of Hospitality in Greece: Humanitarianism and the Management of Refugees
.”
American Ethnologist
39
(
3
):
562
77
.
Sahlins
,
Marshall
.
2011a
. “
What Kinship Is (Part One)
.”
Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute
17
:
2
19
.
Sahlins
,
Marshall
.
2011b
. “
What Kinship Is (Part Two)
.”
Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute
17
:
227
42
.
Salazar
,
Noel B.
, and
Smart
Alan
.
2011
. “
Anthropological Takes on ‘(Im)Mobility.’
Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power
18
(
6
):
i
ix
.
Samatar
,
Ahmed I.
2004
. “
Beginning Again: From Refugee to Citizen
.”
Bildhaan
4
:
1
17
.
Sanchez
,
George J.
2000
. “
Race and Immigration History
.” In
Immigration Research for a New Century
, edited by
Foner
Nancy
,
Rumbaut
Rubén G.
, and
Gold
Steven J.
,
54
59
.
New York
:
Russell Sage Foundation
.
Sanders
,
Edmund
, and
Zucchino
David
.
2006
. “
Left Behind as His Family Flees: Bantu Refugees Heading to US Often Split Up
.”
Los Angeles Times
,
January
15
.
Sassen
,
Saskia
.
1999
.
Guests and Aliens
.
New York
:
New Press
.
Schiller
,
Nina Glick
.
2012
. “
Situating Identities: Towards an Identities Studies without Binaries of Difference
.”
Identities
19
(
4
):
520
32
.
Schrag
,
Peter
.
2011
.
Not Fit for Our Society: Immigration and Nativism in America
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Scott
,
James
.
1999
.
Seeing Like a State
.
New Haven, CT
:
Yale University Press
.
Seele
,
Peter
.
2009
. “
Report: Employers Should Relax Standards to Hire Somalis
.”
Twin City Times
,
January
22
.
Seele
,
Peter
.
2010
. “
L-A Needs Gentrification, Not Ghetto-fication
.”
Twin City Times
,
March
18
.
Sheikh
,
Hassan
, and
Healy
Sally
.
2009
. “
Somalia’s Missing Million: The Somali Diaspora and Its Role in Development
.”
New York
:
United Nations Development Programme
.
Shemak
,
April
.
2010
.
Asylum Speakers: Caribbean Refugees and Testimonial Discourse
.
New York
:
Fordham University Press
.
Shepard
,
Raynel M.
2008
.
Cultural Adaptation of Somali Refugee Youth
.
New York
:
LFB Scholarly Publishing
.
Smydo
,
Joe
.
2006
. “
City Schools Settle Complaint Filed for Somali Refugees
.”
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette
,
May
23
.
Suárez-Orozco
,
Carola
,
Bang
,
Hee Jin
O’Connor
,
Erin
Gaytán
X. Francisco
,
Pakes
Juliana
, and
Rhodes
Jean
.
2010
. “
Academic Trajectories of Newcomer Immigrant Youth
.”
Developmental Psychology
46
(
3
):
602
18
.
Swarns
,
Rachel L.
2003a
. “
Africa’s Lost Tribe Discovers American Way
.”
New York Times
,
March
10
.
Swarns
,
Rachel L.
2003b
. “
U.S. a Place of Miracles for Somali Refugees
.”
New York Times
,
July
20
,
1.1
.
Taylor
,
Scott
.
2011
. “
Lewiston Mayoral Candidates Want More Development
.”
Lewiston Sun Journal
,
October
6
.
Terry
,
Fiona
.
2002
.
Condemned to Repeat? The Paradox of Humanitarian Action
.
Ithaca, NY
:
Cornell University Press
.
Thomas
,
Deborah A.
2009
. “
The Violence of Diaspora: Governmentality, Class Culture, and Circulations
.”
Radical History Review
103
:
83
104
.
Ticktin
,
Miriam
.
2006
. “
Where Ethics and Politics Meet: The Violence of Humanitarianism in France
.”
American Ethnologist
33
(
1
):
33
49
.
Toner
,
Carol Nordstrom
, and
Hough
Mazie
.
2011
. “
L.L. Bean, Community Gardens, and Biil: Somalis Working in Maine
.” In
Somalis in Maine: Crossing Cultural Currents
, edited by
Huisman
Kimberly A.
,
Langellier
Kristin M.
,
Hough
Mazie
, and
Toner
Carol Nordstrom
,
169
89
.
Berkeley, CA
:
North Atlantic
.
Torpey
,
John
.
2000
.
The Invention of the Passport: Surveillance, Citizenship and the State
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Turner
,
Simon
.
2004
. “
Under the Gaze of the ‘Big Nations’: Refugees, Rumours and the International Community in Tanzania
.”
African Affairs
103
:
227
47
.
Turner
,
Simon
.
2010
.
Politics of Innocence: Hutu Identity, Conflict, and Camp Life
.
Oxford
:
Berghahn
.
Twin City Times
.
2011
. “
Macdonald to Run for Mayor of Lewiston
.”
September
15
.
UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees)
.
2002
. “
America Here We Come
.”
Refugees
3
(
128
). .
UNHCR
.
2012
. “
Global Trends Report: 800,000 New Refugees in 2011, Highest This Century
.”
June
18
. .
U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants
.
2009
. “
World Refugee Survey: 2009
.” .
U.S. Department of State
.
n.d.
Office of Refugee Resettlement Report from the 2003 National Consultation Somali Bantu Planning Workshop
.
U.S. Department of State
.
1999
.
Unclassified State 239014 cable from PRM on Designation of Somali Bantu Refugee Group in Kenya for Resettlement Processing, sent from Secretary of State in Washington, DC, to all African diplomatic posts
.
December
19
.
U.S. Department of State
.
2004
. “
Annex to Chapter 1, Resettlement of the Somali Bantu: A Case Study of Processing Complexity and Unforeseen Delays
.” In
The United States Refugee Admissions Program: Reforms for a New Era of Refugee Resettlement
.
April
20
.
Washington, DC
:
U.S. Department of State
. .
U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations
.
2010
. “
Abandoned upon Arrival: Implications for Refugees and Local Communities Burdened by a U.S. Resettlement System That Is Not Working
.”
July
21
.
Washington, DC
:
U.S. Government Printing Office
.
U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee Hearing
.
2004
. “
Global Refugee Problem
.”
Testimony by Mr. Charles Kuck, Managing Partner, Weathersby, Howard and Kuck, LLC
.
September
21
.
U.S Senate Judiciary Committee Hearing Immigration Subcommittee
.
2002
.
Testimony by Gene Dewey, Assistant Secretary of State, Bureau of Refugees, Population, and Migration, Leonard Glickman, President of Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society, and Bill Frelick, Director of Policy, U.S. Committee on Refugees
.
February
12
.
Van Lehman
,
Daniel James
.
1999
. “
Expanding Protection for Marginalized Refugee Minorities: Resettling Somali Mushungulis to Southeast Africa
.”
Master’s thesis
,
Cornell University
.
Van Lehman
,
Daniel
, and
Eno
Omar
.
2002
. “
The Somali Bantu: Their History and Culture
.”
Washington, DC
:
Center for Applied Linguistics
. .
Van Lehman
,
Dan
, and
Eno
Omar
.
2003
. “
Objectives, Itinerary and Outcomes of the Mission to Kakuma
.”
March
14
.
Unpublished report
.
Vaznis
,
James
.
2009
. “
US Inspects Boston’s Language Instruction: Schools Neglected English Learners
.”
Boston Globe
,
August
26
.
Verdirame
,
Guglielmo
, and
Harrell-Bond
Barbara
.
2005
.
Rights in Exile: Janus-Faced Humanitarianism
.
New York
:
Berghahn
.
Vertovec
,
Steven
.
2011
. “
The Cultural Politics of Nation and Migration
.”
Annual Review of Anthropology
40
:
241
56
.
Wagner
,
Angie
.
2003
. “
The New Land: A Somali Bantu Clan Readjusts in America
.”
Seattle Times
,
August
10
,
A3
.
Waters
,
Mary
.
1994
. “
Ethnic and Racial Identities of Second-Generation Black Immigrants in New York City
.”
International Migration Review
28
(
4
):
795
820
.
Waters
,
Mary
.
2000
. “
The Sociological Roots and Multidisciplinary Future of Immigration Research
.” In
Immigration Research for a New Century
, edited by
Foner
Nancy
,
Rumbaut
Rubén G.
, and
Gold
Steven J.
,
44
48
.
New York
:
Russell Sage Foundation
.
Weston
,
Kath
.
2005
. “
Class Politics and Scavenger Anthropology in Dinesh D’Souza’s Virtue of Prosperity
.” In
Why America’s Top Pundits Are Wrong: Anthropologists Talk Back
, edited by
Besteman
Catherine
and
Gusterson
Hugh
,
154
179
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
White
,
James D.
, and
Marsella
J. Anthony
.
2007
.
Fear of Persecution: Global Human Rights, International Law, and Human Well-Being
.
Lanham, MD
:
Lexington
.
Wimmer
,
Andreas
, and
Schiller
Nina Glick
.
2002
. “
Methodological Nationalism and Beyond: Nation-State Building, Migration and the Social Sciences
.”
Global Networks
2
(
4
):
301
34
.
Zhou
,
Min
.
1997
. “
Growing Up American: The Challenge of Confronting Immigrant Children and Children of Immigrants
.”
Annual Review of Sociology
23
:
63
95
.
Close Modal
This Feature Is Available To Subscribers Only

Sign In or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal