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All references to the Chicago Defender and the Pittsburgh Courier are to the city editions of those newspapers.

Abrahams
,
Roger D
.
Singing the Master: The Emergence of African-American Culture in the Plantation South
.
New York
:
Pantheon
,
1992
.
Ace
. “
Hallelujah! Discloses Talents of Actors
.”
Chicago Defender
, 1 February
1930
,
10
.
Adorno
,
Theodor W
. “
On Jazz
.” Trans. Jamie Owen Daniels.
Discourse
12.1 (fall–winter
1989–90
):
45
69
.
Agee
,
James
. “
Films
.”
The Nation
, 16 December
1944
,
753
.
[
Agee
,
James
.] “
Jammin’ the Blues
.”
Time
, 25 December
1944
,
50
.
Agee
,
James
. “
Pseudo-Folk
.”
Partisan Review
11
(
1944
):
219
23
.
Albright
,
Alex
. “
Micheaux, Vaudeville, and Black Cast Film
.”
Black Film Review
7
.
4
(
n.d.
):
6
9
,
36
.
Al Jolson Buys Film Rights to Green Pastures
.”
Chicago Defender
, 6 June
1931
,
7
.
Al Jolson Certain to Get Lead in Film’s Pastures
.”
Chicago Defender
, 20 July
1935
,
8
.
Al Jolson Given the Lead in 1933 Edition of Porgy
.”
Chicago Defender
, 9 December
1933
,
8
.
Al Jolson Gives Morris ‘Lowdown’; ‘Hurt To My Heart.’
Pittsburgh Courier
, 7 May
1938
,
20
.
Al Jolson May Play ‘De Lawd’ On the Screen
.”
Richmond Planet
, 28 September
1935
.
Al Jolson Pleads for Lead in ‘Emperor Jones’ on Stage
.”
Chicago Defender
, 7 April
1934
,
9
.
Al Jolson’s Offer for Green Pastures as Talkie is Refused by Producers
.”
Chicago Defender
, 13 June
1931
,
7
.
Allen
,
Robert C
.
Horrible Prettiness: Burlesque and American Culture
.
Chapel Hill, N.C.
:
University of North Carolina Press
,
1991
.
Allen
,
Robert C.
, and
Gomery
Douglas
.
Film History: Theory and Practice
.
New York
:
Knopf
,
1985
.
All Race Movie Opens on Sunday
.”
Chicago Defender
, 29 October
1938
,
10
.
Alpert
,
Hollis
.
The Life and Times of Porgy and Bess
.
New York
:
Knopf
,
1990
.
Altman
,
Rick
.
The American Film Musical
.
Bloomington
:
Indiana University Press
,
1987
.
Altman
,
Rick
.
Film/Genre
.
London
:
British Film Institute
,
1999
.
Altman
,
Rick
, ed.
Genre: The Musical
.
London
:
Routledge
,
1981
.
Amos ‘n’ Andy Now in the Million Dollar Circle
.”
Chicago Defender
, 5 June
1930
,
6
.
An Angry ‘Prof. Doodle’ Hits Rob Roy’s Claims for ’54
.”
Chicago Defender
, 8 January
1955
,
14
.
At Grand Next Week
.”
Chicago Defender
, 30 April
1927
, sec. 1,
9
.
Attali
,
Jacques
.
Noise: The Political Economy of Music
, trans. Brian Massumi.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota
,
1985
.
Avenue Theater
.
Advertisement
.
Chicago Defender
, 12 November
1938
,
10
.
Babington
,
Bruse
, and
Evans
Peter William
.
Blue Skies and Silver Linings: Aspects of the Hollywood Musical
.
Manchester
:
Manchester University Press
,
1985
.
Baker
,
Houston A.
Jr.
,
Modernism and the Harlem Renaissance
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
,
1987
.
Baldwin
,
James
. “
Carmen Jones: The Light is Dark Enough
.”
1954
. In
The Price of the Ticket: Collected Nonfiction, 1948–1985
,
107
12
.
New York
:
St. Martin’s/Marek
,
1985
.
Baldwin
,
James
.
The Devil FindsWork
.
New York
:
Dell
,
1976
.
Baldwin
,
James
. “
On Catfish Row
.”
1959
. In
The Price of the Ticket: Collected Nonfiction, 1948–1985
,
177
81
.
New York
:
St. Martin’s/Marek
,
1985
.
Balio
,
Tino
.
Grand Design: Hollywood as a Modern Business Enterprise, 1930–1939.
History of American Cinema, vol.
5
, ed.
Harpole
Charles
.
New York
:
Scribner’s
,
1993
.
Balliet
,
Whitney
. “
Pandemonium Pays Off
.” In
The Sound of Surprise: Forty-Six Pieces on Jazz
,
3
10
.
NewYork
:
Da Capo
,
1978
.
Bambara
,
Toni Cade
. “
Programming with School Daze
.” In
Five for Five: The Films of Spike Lee
,
47
55
.
New York
:
Stewart, Tabori, and Chang
,
1991
.
Banes
,
Sally
.
Writing Dancing in the Age of Postmodernism
.
Hanover, N.H.
:
Wesleyan University Press
,
1994
.
Barlow
,
William
.
Lookin’ Up at Down: The Emergence of Blues Culture
.
Philadelphia
:
Temple University Press
,
1989
.
Barrios
,
Richard
.
A Song in the Dark: The Birth of the Musical Film
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
,
1995
.
Bennett
,
Lerone
Jr.
, “
Hollywood’s First Negro Movie Star
.”
Ebony
, May
1959
,
100
108
.
Berlant
,
Lauren
. “
Pax Americana: The Case of Show Boat
.” In
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, ed.
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Deidre
,
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422
.
Durham, N.C.
:
Duke University Press
,
1996
.
Berlant
,
Lauren
.
The Queen of America Goes to Washington City: Essays on Sex and Citizenship
.
Durham, N.C.
:
Duke University Press
,
1997
.
Berliner
,
Paul F
.
Thinking in Jazz: The Infinite Art of Improvisation
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
,
1994
.
Bernardi
,
Daniel
, ed.
The Birth of Whiteness: Race and the Emergence of the U.S. Cinema
.
New Brunswick, N.J.
:
Rutgers University Press
,
1996
.
Bernardi
,
Daniel
, ed.
Classic Hollywood, Classic Whiteness
.
Minneapolis
:
University Press of Minnesota
,
2001
.
Berry
,
Tommye
. “
Kansas City Likes The Film, Hooray for Love
.”
Chicago Defender
, 17 August
1935
,
7
.
Bethea
,
Dennis A
. “
He OK’s Hallelujah!
Chicago Defender
, 8 March
1930
,
14
.
Bhabha
,
Homi
. “
The Other Question
.”
Screen
24
.
6
(November/December
1983
):
18
35
.
Bill Robinson to Sue Papers for Stormy Weather
.”
Chicago Defender
, 17 April
1943
,
18
.
Bime
. “
Mammy
.” Film review.
Variety
, 27 March
1930
.
Blind Wife Sues Cooper, Film Star
.”
Chicago Defender
, 6 August
1938
,
8
.
Block
,
Geoffrey
. “
The Broadway Canon from Show Boat to West Side Story and the European Operatic Ideal
.”
The Journal of Musicology
11
.
4
(fall
1993
):
525
44
.
Block
,
Geoffrey
.
Enchanted Evenings: The Broadway Musical from Show Boat to Sondheim
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
,
1997
.
Bogle
,
Donald
.
Brown Sugar: Eighty Years of America’s Black Female Superstars
.
1980
. Reprint,
New York
:
Da Capo
,
1990
.
Bogle
,
Donald
.
Dorothy Dandridge: A Biography
.
New York
:
Amistad
,
1997
.
Bogle
,
Donald
.
Toms, Coons, Mulattoes, Mammies, and Bucks: An Interpretive History of Blacks in American Films
. Third edition.
New York
:
Continuum
,
1994
.
Bordwell
,
David
,
Staiger
Janet
, and
Thompson
Kristin
.
The Classical Hollywood Cinema: Film Style and Mode of Production to 1960
.
New York
:
Columbia University Press
,
1985
.
Boskin
,
Joseph
.
Sambo: The Rise and Demise of an American Jester
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
,
1986
.
Bowser
,
Pearl
, and
Spence
Louise
. “
Identity and Betrayal: The Symbol of the Unconquered and Oscar Micheaux’s ‘Biographical Legend.’
“ In
The Birth of Whiteness: Race and the Emergence of the U.S. Cinema
, ed.
Bernardi
Daniel
,
56
79
.
New Brunswick, N.J.
:
Rutgers University Press
,
1996
.
Bowser
,
Pearl
, and
Spence
Louise
.
Writing Himself into History: Oscar Micheaux, His Silent Films, and His Audiences
.
New Brunswick, N.J.
:
Rutgers University Press
,
2000
.
Breon
,
Robin
. “
Show Boat: The Revival, the Racism
.”
The Drama Review
39
.
2
(summer
1995
):
86
105
.
Brown
,
Henry
. “
Just Where Did ‘Blackface’ Comedy Get Its Start?
Chicago Defender
, 31 December
1932
,
11
.
Brown
,
Sterling A
.
Negro Poetry and Drama and The Negro in American Fiction
.
1937
. Reprint,
New York
:
Atheneum
,
1969
.
Brown
,
Sterling A
. “
Our Literary Audience
.”
Opportunity
, February
1930
. Reprinted In
Within the Circle: An Anthology of African American Literary Criticism from the Harlem Renaissance to the Present
, ed.
Mitchell
Angelyn
,
69
78
.
Durham, N.C.
:
Duke University Press
,
1994
.
Brown
,
Sterling A
. “
Spirituals, Blues, and Jazz
.”
Jam Session: An Anthology of Jazz
, ed.
Gleason
Ralph J.
,
12
26
.
New York
:
G. P. Putnam’s Sons
,
1958
.
Buckley
,
Gail Lumet
.
The Hornes: An American Family
.
New York
:
Knopf
,
1986
.
Burns
,
Ben
.
Nitty Gritty: A White Editor in Black Journalism
.
Jackson
:
University of Mississippi Press
,
1996
.
By Their Acts, They Help Feed Poor at Christmas Time
.”
Chicago Defender
, 18 December
1937
, sec. 1,
13
.
Cabin in the Sky Invades Chicago ThisWeek
.”
Chicago Defender
, 8 May
1943
,
19
.
Calloway Is Star on Al Jolson Bill
.”
Chicago Defender
, 31 January
1936
,
10
.
Cantor and Kaye Break Radio Rules to Star Negroes
.”
Ebony
, January
1943
,
43
.
Cantor
,
Eddie
. “
Bert Williams—‘The Best Teacher I Ever Had.’
Ebony
, June
1958
:
103
6
.
Cantor
,
Eddie
, as told to David Freeman.
My Life is in Your Hands
.
New York
:
Harper and Brothers
,
1928
.
Cantwell
,
Robert
.
When We Were Good: The Folk Revival
.
Cambridge
:
Harvard University Press
,
1996
.
Carbine
,
Mary
. “
‘The Finest Outside the Loop’: Motion Picture Exhibition in Chicago’s Black Metropolis, 1905–1928
.”
Camera Obscura
23
(May
1990
):
9
42
.
Carby
,
Hazel
.
Race Men
.
Cambridge
:
Harvard University Press
,
1998
.
Carlson
,
Marvin
.
Performance: A Critical Introduction
.
New York
:
Routledge
,
1996
.
Carmen Jones
.”
Time
, 1 November
1954
,
98
.
Carter
,
Elmer Anderson
. “
Of Negro Motion Pictures
.”
Close Up
5
.
2
(August
1929
):
118
22
.
Chandler
,
Alfred D.
Jr.
,
The Visible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in American Business
.
Cambridge
:
Harvard University Press
,
1977
.
Chapman
,
C. E
. “
Dallas, Texas Gets Premiere of Picture Cabin in the Sky.
Chicago Defender
, 20 February
1943
,
18
.
Chapman
,
John
. “
Carmen Jones Simply Superb Negro Adaptation of Carmen
.”
New York Daily News
, 3 December
1943
.
Charters
,
Ann
.
Nobody: The Story of Bert Williams
.
New York
:
Macmillan
,
1970
.
Chicago’s Finest Theater to Open Doors Saturday
.”
Chicago Defender
, 4 February
1928
, sec. 1,
6
.
Clover
,
Carol
. “
Dancin’ in the Rain
.”
Critical Inquiry
21
.
4
(summer
1995
):
722
47
.
Cockrell
,
Dale
.
Demons of Disorder: Early Blackface Minstrels and Their World
.
New York
:
Cambridge University Press
,
1997
.
Cohen
,
Lizabeth
.
Making a New Deal: Industrial Workers in Chicago, 1919–1939
.
New York
:
Cambridge University Press
,
1990
.
Cohen
,
Ralph
. “
History and Genre
.”
NLH
9
.
2
(winter
1986
):
203
18
.
Collier
,
James Lincoln
.
Benny Goodman and the Swing Era
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
,
1989
.
Cooper
,
Ralph
, with
Dougherty
Steve
.
Amateur Night at the Apollo: Ralph Cooper Presents Five Decades of Great Entertainment
.
New York
:
Harper-Collins
,
1990
.
Corbett
,
John
. “
Free, Single, and Disengaged: Listening Pleasure and the Popular Music Object
.”
October
54
(
1990
):
79
101
.
Crafton
,
Donald
.
The Talkies: American Cinema’s Transition to Sound, 1926–1931
. History of the American Cinema, vol.
4
, ed.
Harpole
Charles
.
New York
:
Scribner’s
,
1997
.
Cram
,
Bestor
, and
Bowser
Pearl
.
Midnight Ramble: Oscar Micheaux and the Story of Race Movies
.
Boston
:
Northern Light Productions/American Experience/wgbh
,
1994
.
Cripps
,
Thomas
.
Black Film as Genre
.
Bloomington
:
Indiana University Press
,
1978
.
Cripps
,
Thomas
. “
The Death of Rastus: Negroes in American Films Since 1945
.”
Phylon
28
.
3
(fall
1967
):
267
75
.
Cripps
,
Thomas
. “
The Films of Spencer Williams
.”
Black American Literature Forum
12
.
4
(winter
1978
):
128
34
.
Cripps
,
Thomas
.
Making Movies Black: The Hollywood Message Movie from World War II to the Civil Rights Era
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
,
1993
.
Cripps
,
Thomas
. “
The Myth of the Southern Box Office: A Factor in Racial Stereotyping in American Movies, 1920–1940
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James C.
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Lewis L.
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,
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.
Cripps
,
Thomas
. “
Oscar Micheaux: The Story Continues
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Diawara
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79
.
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Thomas
. “
‘Race Movies’ as Voices of the Black Bourgeoisie: The Scar of Shame (1927)
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John E.
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Martin A.
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55
.
New York
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,
1979
.
Cripps
,
Thomas
.
Slow Fade to Black: The Negro in American Film, 1900–1942
.
New York
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Oxford University Press
,
1977
.
Cripps
,
Thomas
. “
Stepin Fetchit and the Politics of Performance
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Paul
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,
1990
.
Cripps
,
Thomas
, ed.
The Green Pastures
.
Madison
:
University of Wisconsin
,
1979
.
Critic Calls Hallelujah! ‘Best Film.’
Chicago Defender
, 11 January
1930
,
9
.
Crowther
,
Bosley
. “
Carmen Jones Finds American Types Singing Foreign Opera Score
.”
New York Times
, 31 October
1954
, section 2,
1
.
Cruse
,
Harold
. “
The Creative and Performing Arts and the Struggle for Identity and Credibility
.” In
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Harry A.
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.
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,
1978
.
Cruse
,
Harold
.
The Crisis of the Negro Intellectual: A Historical Analysis of the Failure of Black Leadership
.
1967
. Reprint,
New York
:
Quill
,
1984
.
Cullen
,
Countee
. “
Porgy
.” Book review.
Opportunity
, December
1925
,
379
.
Dancer
,
Maurice
. “
Manhattan Critic Reviews New All-Colored ‘Talkie’ Film
.”
Pittsburgh Courier
, 9 March
1929
, sec. 3,
1
.
Daniels
,
George
. “
Amusing Art, People The World Over Should See, Says Another
.”
Chicago Defender
, 17 April
1954
,
10
.
Dates
,
Jannette L.
, and
Barlow
William
, eds.
Split Image: African Americans in the Mass Media
.
Washington, D.C.
:
Howard University Press
,
1990
.
Dauphin
,
Gary
. “
The Show: Sometimes the Audience Produces More Entertainment than the Plotline
.”
Village Voice
, 21 November
1995
, film special sec., 10,
12
.
Davis
,
Albert W
. “
Past Days of Minstrelsy
.”
Americana
, June
1912
,
529
47
.
Davis
,
Francis
. “
Lester Leaps In: The Difficult Life of the First Jazz Modernist
.”
Times Literary Supplement
, 12 June
1992
,
16
.
Defender Will Give 100 Free Tickets to Hallelujah!
Chicago Defender
, 11 January
1930
,
1
.
Denning
,
Michael
.
The Cultural Front: The Laboring of American Culture in the Twentieth Century
.
London
:
Verso
,
1996
.
Dennison
,
Sam
.
Scandalize My Name: Black Imagery in American Popular Music
.
New York
:
Garland
,
1982
.
Dent
,
Gina
, ed.
Black Popular Culture
.
Seattle
:
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,
1992
.
Derrida
,
Jacques
.
The Gift of Death
. Trans. David Willis.
Chicago
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University of Chicago Press
,
1995
.
Derrida
,
Jacques
.
Given Time I: Counterfeit Money
. Trans. Peggy Kamuf.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
,
1992
.
DeVeaux
,
Scott
.
The Birth of Bebop: A Social and Musical History
.
Berkeley
:
University of California
,
1997
.
Dexter
,
Dave
.
Jazz Cavalcade: The Inside Story
, with a foreword by Orson Welles.
1946
. Reprint,
New York
:
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,
1977
.
Diawara
,
Manthia
, ed.
Black American Cinema
.
New York
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Routledge
,
1993
.
Doane
,
Mary Ann
.
The Desire to Desire: The Woman’s Film of the 1940s
.
Bloomington
:
Bloomington University Press
,
1987
.
Doherty
,
Thomas
. “
This Is Where We Came In: The Audible Screen and the Voluble Audience of Early Sound Cinema
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Melvyn
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Shaping the Popular Image of Post-Reconstruction American Blacks: The ‘Coon Song’ Phenomenon of the Gilded Age
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Ann
.
Terrible Honesty: Mongrel Manhattan in the 1920s
.
New York
:
Farrar, Straus and Giroux
,
1995
.
Draw Color Line on Theater Building
.”
Chicago Defender
, 19 March
1927
, sec. 1,
2
.
Driggs
,
Frank
, and
Lewine
Harris
.
Black Beauty, White Heat: A Pictorial History of Classic Jazz, 1920–1950
.
New York
:
William Morrow
,
1982
.
Drops Rags
.”
Chicago Defender
, 14 March
1931
, sec. 1,
9
.
Duberman
,
Martin Bauml
.
Paul Robeson
.
New York
:
Knopf
,
1988
.
[
Du Bois
,
W. E. B
.] “
The Birth of a Nation: An Editorial
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.
Du Bois
,
W. E. B
. “
Drama Among the Black Folk,”
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169
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[
Du Bois
,
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.] “
Dramatis Personae
.”
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, October
1929
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56
.
Du Bois
,
W. E. B
.
The Gift of Black Folk
.
1924
. Reprint,
Millwood, N.Y.
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Kraus-Thomson Organization Limited
,
1975
.
Du Bois
,
W. E. B
.
The Souls of Black Folk
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,
1986
.
Du Bois
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W. E. B
.
Writings
, ed.
Huggins
Nathan
.
New York
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,
1986
.
Du Bois
,
W. E. B
.
Untitled Eulogy for Bert Williams
. In
Bert Williams, Son of Laughter
, ed.
Rowland
Mabel
.
217
18
.
1923
. Reprint,
New York
:
Negro Universities Press
,
1969
.
The Duke is Tops on Way to Regal
.”
Chicago Defender
, 3 September
1938
,
9
.
Duke of Jazz
.”
Time
, 1 February
1943
,
44
.
Dyer
,
Richard
. “
Entertainment and Utopia
.” In
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Rick
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.
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,
1981
.
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See
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Bess, sans Catfish Row, Out as Pix, Scribe Says
.”
Chicago Defender
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See
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Carmen Jones Pix More Sensational than Legit-er
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Should Porgy and Bess Be Taken Abroad Is Question American Negroes Cannot Agree On
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.
Silvera
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. “
Still in Blackface
.”
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.
Speaking of Pictures . . . Mili’s First Movie is Skillfully Lighted Jam Session
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Life
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6
8
.
Spivak Gets Crown From TD [Tommy Dorsey], Duke Wins[,] Bing Is New Voice
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down beat
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Start Work on the Porgy and Bess Pix
.”
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1943
,
19
.
Stearns
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Marshall
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Stearns
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William Grant Still Tells of Screenland’s Many Tricks
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,
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19
.
Stokes
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, and
Maltby
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.
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.
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.”
Chicago Defender
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, sec. 1,
16
Wonder Bar
. Serialized story.
Chicago Defender
, 26 May
1934
,
10
; 2 June
1934
,
8
; 9 June
1934
,
10
; 16 June
1934
,
10
; 23 June
1934
,
10
.
Wynter
,
Sylvia
. “
Sambos and Minstrels
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Social Text
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56
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X
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Malcolm
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The Autobiography of Malcolm X
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New York
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Ballantine
,
1964
.

Figures & Tables

Contents

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References

All references to the Chicago Defender and the Pittsburgh Courier are to the city editions of those newspapers.

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.
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, 9 December
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,
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.
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20
.
Al Jolson May Play ‘De Lawd’ On the Screen
.”
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.
Al Jolson Pleads for Lead in ‘Emperor Jones’ on Stage
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.
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.
Block
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. “
The Broadway Canon from Show Boat to West Side Story and the European Operatic Ideal
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