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References to newspapers in the footnotes pertain, for the most part, to the Tuskegee Institute News Clipping File or the Hampton University Newspaper Clipping File, listed under manuscript and archival material. These collections are invaluable. They contain clippings from many newspapers of the period under consideration. The Hampton file is now available on microfiche, though I examined the original scrapbooks at Virginia’s Hampton University. The Tuskegee file is available on microfilm. Both collections were extremely useful, particularly so because they contain a wealth of material from African American newspapers, including many Southern ones, that are long defunct and extremely rare or impossible to find elsewhere. The custodians of the collections generally wrote the date and source on the clippings, but in some instances the information is missing or the handwritten note is illegible. In these cases, I have cited the newspaper by name and indicated the microfilm reel where the clipping is located in the Tuskegee file. The Tuskegee Institute News Clipping File is referenced as TCF in the notes. The Hampton Clipping File is abbreviated as HCF.
Articles and essays cited from the follOWing periodicals are not independently listed in the bibliography: the Crisis (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People); Oppurtunity (National Urban League); the Southern Wurkman (Hampton Institute); the Negro Farmer (Tuskegee Institute), and Rural America (American Country Life Association). Denominational journals and newspapers, such as the African Methodist Episcopal Church’s Church Review (cited as AME Church Review) and the Christian Recurder, or the National Baptist Union Review of the National Baptist Convention, appear frequently in the footnotes but are not listed in the bibliography. References to denominational minutes and conference appear only in the chapter notes.
Chicago
Chicago Historical Society Claude A. Barnett Papers Archibald J. Carey, Sr., Papers Carter Woodson Regional Library Vivian Harsh Collection illinois Writers Project “The Negro in Illinois” (IWP)’
Hampton, Virginia
Hampton University The Hampton University Newspaper Clipping File (HCF)
Madison, New Jersey
Drew University United Methodist Archives Center Ralph Felton Papers
Nashville, Tennessee
Historical Commission of the Southern Baptist Convention Black Baptist Materials
New York
Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture Schomburg Clipping File
Rochester, New York
American Baptist-Samuel Colgate Historical Library Black Baptist Collection
Tuskegee, Alabama
Tuskegee Institute Tuskegee Institute News Clipping File (TCF)
Springfield, Illinois
Illinois State Historical Library Illinois Federal Writers’ Project Materials (FWP)
Washington, D. C.
Library of Congress, ManUSCripts Division Carter G. Woodson Collection National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Records (NAACP Records). National Urban League. Records
.

GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS AND REPORTS

U.S. Bureau of the Census
.
Negro Population in the United States, 1790–1915
.
Washington, D.C.
:
U.S. Government Printing Office
,
1918
. Reprint.
New York
:
Arno Press and the New York Times
,
1968
.
U.S. Bureau of the Census
.
Negroes in the United States; 1920–1932
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.
U.S. Bureau of the Census
.
Religious Bodies: 1906
.
Part I, Summary and General Tables. Part II, Separare Denominations
.
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:
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,
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.
U.S. Bureau of the Census
.
Religious Bodies: 1916
.
Part I, Summary and General Tables. Part II, Separate Denominations
.
Washington, D.C.
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U. S. Government Printing Office
,
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.
U.S. Bureau of the Census
.
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. Vol.
I
, Summary and Detailed Tables. Vol.
II
, Separate Denominations.
Washington, D.C.
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.
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.
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. Vol.
I
, Summary and Detailed Tables. Vol.
II
, Separate Denominations.
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U.S. Government Printing Office
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1941
.
U.S. Department of the Interior
.
Negro Education
.
Bulletin
,
1916
, No. 39, Vol.
II
.
Washington, D.C.
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U. S. Government Printing Office
,
1917
.
U.S. Department of Labor, Division of Negro Economics
.
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. Intro. by
J. H. Dillard. Washington, D.C.
:
U.S. Government Printing Office
,
1919
.

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44
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69
.
Cripps
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The Reaction of the Negro to the Motion Picture Birth of a Nation.
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26
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62
.
Cuban
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Phylon
28
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311
.
Daniel
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Ritual and Stratification in Chicago Negro Churches.
American Sociological Review 7
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61
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91
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Donald
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6
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Drake
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54
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Drake
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92
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Du Bois
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The Hosts of Black Labor.
Nation
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Eddy
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28
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85
.
Ehrman
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Judaism
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72
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Eighmy
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Church History
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72
.
Ellis
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History Today
43
:
20
27
.
Ellsworth
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Theodore Roosevelt’s Country Life Commission.
Agricultural History
34
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355
72
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Farley
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The Urbanization of Negroes in the United States.
Journal of Social History
1
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1968
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240
58
.
Ferris
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Connecticut: The Nutmeg State.
The Messenger
6
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January
1924
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24
25
.
Fish
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Southern Methodism and Accommodation of the Negro, 1902–1915.
Journal of Negro History
55
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1970
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200
214
.
Fisher
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The Negro Church and the World War.
Journal of Religion
5
(
September
1925
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483
99
.
Fisher
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Negro Churches in Illinois: A Fragmentary History with Emphasis on Chicago.
Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society
56
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1963
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552
69
.
Fisher
,
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Olivet as a Christian Center.
Missions
10
(
March
1919
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199
202
.
Franklin
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Robert M.
The Legacy of W. E. Burghardt Du Bois in Afro-American Religious Scholarship.
Criterion
23
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1984
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8
12
.
Franklin
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Robert M.
Church and City: Black Christianity’s Ministry.
Christian Ministry
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17
19
.
Frazier
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Journal of the Interdenominational Theological Center 6
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1978
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51
68
.
Frey
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Fred C.
Factors Conditioning the Incidence of Migration Among Louisiana Negroes.
Southwestern Social Science Quarterly
15
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1934
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210
17
.
Gravely
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William B.
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Methodist History
18
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October
1979
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3
25
.
Gregg
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88
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Griffin
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Charities
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Grossman
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Hart
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Haynes
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Haynes
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.
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George E.
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19
.
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Academy of Political Science Proceedings
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312
.
Haynes
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Proceedings of the National Conference of Social Work
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.
Haynes
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DISSERTATIONS AND THESES

Branham
,
Charles R.
The Transformation of Black Political Leadership in Chicago, 1864–1942.
” Ph.D. diss.,
University of Chicago
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1981
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Carlson
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Glen R.
The Negro in the Industries of Detroit.
” Ph.D. diss.,
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,
1929
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Daniel
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” Ph.D. diss.,
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Fisher
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The History of the Olivet Baptist Church of Chicago.
” M.A. thesis,
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Fox
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” B.D. diss.,
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1943
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Frazier
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Thomas Richard.
An Analysis of Social Scientific Writing on American Negro Religion.
” Ph.D. diss.,
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Hardy
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Race and Opportunity: Black Philadelphia During the Era of the Great Migration, 1916–1930.
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Hornsby
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Southern Negroes, 1877–1929: The Outsider’s View.
” Ph.D. diss.,
University of Texas at Austin
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1969
.
Kinney
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John William.
Adam Clayton Powell, Sr., and Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.: A Historical Exposition and Theological Analysis.
” Ph.D. diss.,
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1979
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Lewis
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John Henry.
Social Service in Negro Churches.
” M.A. thesis,
Divinity School, University of Chicago
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1914
.
Logsdon
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Joseph A.
The Rev. Archibald J. Carey and the Negro in Chicago Politics.
” M.A. thesis,
University of Chicago
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1961
.
McCarthy
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Joseph J.
History of Black Catholic Education in Chicago, 1871–1971.
” Ph.D. diss.,
Loyola University
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1973
.
McGreevy
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John T.
American Catholics and the African-American Migration, 1919–1970.
” Ph.D. diss.,
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1992
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Montgomery
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Negro Churches in the South, 1865–1915.
” Ph.D. diss.,
University of Texas
,
1975
.
Morris
,
Calvin S.
Reverdy C. Ransom: A Pioneer Black Social Gospeler.
” Ph.D. diss.,
Boston University
,
1982
.
Nelson
,
Douglas J.
For Such a Time as This: The Story of Bishop William J. Seymour and the Azuza Street Revival.
” Ph.D. diss.,
University of Birmingham, England
,
1981
.
Perlman
,
Daniel T.
Stirring the White Conscience: The Life of George Edmund Haynes.
” Ph.D. diss.,
New York University
,
1972
.
Phillips
,
Harold Cooke.
The Social Significance of Negro Churches in Harlem.
” M.A. thesis,
Columbia University
,
1922
.
Piper
,
John Franklin
, Jr.
The Social Policy of the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America During World War I.
” Ph.D. diss.,
Duke University
,
1964
.
Russell
,
Daniel.
The Negro Church in Relation to Migration.
” M.A. thesis,
University of Chicago
,
1923
.
Schafer
,
Marvin R.
The Catholic Church in Chicago, Its Growth and Administration.
” Ph.D. diss.,
University of Chicago
,
1929
.
Smith
,
Herbert Morrisohn.
Three Negro Preachers in Chicago: A Study in Religious Leadership.
” M.A. thesis,
University of Chicago Divinity School
,
1935
.
Smith
,
Howard Preston
II.
The Limitations of Racial Democracy: The Politics of the Chicago Urban League, 1916–1940.
” Ph.D. diss.,
University of Massachusetts
,
1990
.
Somerville
,
Wendell Clary.
A Study of 311 Rural Negro Baptist Churches of 15 Counties in North Carolina, with a View to Suggesting Some Improvements.
” M.A, thesis,
Oberlin College
,
1939
.
Sutherland
,
Robert.
An Analysis of Negro Churches in Chicago.
” Ph.D. diss.,
University of Chicago
,
1930
.
Tyler
,
Mary Ann Lancaster.
The Music of Charles Henry Pace and Its Relationship to the Afro-American Church Experience.
” Ph.D. diss.,
University of Pittsburgh
,
1980
.
Welty
,
William M.
Black Shepherds: A Study of the Leading Negro Clergymen in New York City, 1900–1940.
” Ph.D. diss.,
New York University
,
1969
.
White
,
Ronald Cedric, J.
Social Christianity and the Negro in the Progressive Era, 18901920.
” Ph.D. diss.,
Princeton University
,
1972
.
Whiting
,
Albert N.
The United House of Prayer for All People: A Case Study of a Charismatic Sect.
” Ph.D. diss.,
American University
,
1952
.
Williams
,
Chancellor.
The Socio-Economic Significance of the Store-Front Church Movement in the United States Since 1920.
” Ph.D. diss.,
American University
,
1949
.
Wills
,
David W.
Aspects of Social Thought in the African Methodist Episcopal Church, 1884–1910.
” Ph.D. diss.,
Harvard University
,
1975
.
Wright
,
Richard R.
, Jr.
The Industrial Condition of Negroes in Chicago.
” B.D. thesis,
University of Chicago Divinity School
,
1901
.

Figures & Tables

Contents

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References

Chicago
Chicago Historical Society Claude A. Barnett Papers Archibald J. Carey, Sr., Papers Carter Woodson Regional Library Vivian Harsh Collection illinois Writers Project “The Negro in Illinois” (IWP)’
Hampton, Virginia
Hampton University The Hampton University Newspaper Clipping File (HCF)
Madison, New Jersey
Drew University United Methodist Archives Center Ralph Felton Papers
Nashville, Tennessee
Historical Commission of the Southern Baptist Convention Black Baptist Materials
New York
Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture Schomburg Clipping File
Rochester, New York
American Baptist-Samuel Colgate Historical Library Black Baptist Collection
Tuskegee, Alabama
Tuskegee Institute Tuskegee Institute News Clipping File (TCF)
Springfield, Illinois
Illinois State Historical Library Illinois Federal Writers’ Project Materials (FWP)
Washington, D. C.
Library of Congress, ManUSCripts Division Carter G. Woodson Collection National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Records (NAACP Records). National Urban League. Records
.

GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS AND REPORTS

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.
Negro Population in the United States, 1790–1915
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Washington, D.C.
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U.S. Government Printing Office
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New York
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Washington, D.C.
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U.S. Bureau of the Census
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Part I, Summary and General Tables. Part II, Separare Denominations
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U.S. Bureau of the Census
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Part I, Summary and General Tables. Part II, Separate Denominations
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Washington, D.C.
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U.S. Bureau of the Census
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Washington, D.C.
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Religious Bodies: 1916
. Vol.
I
, Summary and Detailed Tables. Vol.
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Washington, D.C.
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U.S. Department of Labor, Division of Negro Economics
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. Intro. by
J. H. Dillard. Washington, D.C.
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BOOKS AND PAMPHLETS

Abell
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Aaron I.
The Urban Impact on American Protestantism, 1865–1900
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Cambridge, Mass.
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1943
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Adero
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Anderson
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The Education of Blacks in the South, 1860–1935
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Chapel Hill
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Angell
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Bishop Henry McNeal Turner and African-American Religion in the South
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Baer
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Knoxville
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Cripps
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Ferris
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The Messenger
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24
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Fish
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Southern Methodism and Accommodation of the Negro, 1902–1915.
Journal of Negro History
55
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214
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Fisher
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5
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99
.
Fisher
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56
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69
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Fisher
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Olivet as a Christian Center.
Missions
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202
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Franklin
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The Legacy of W. E. Burghardt Du Bois in Afro-American Religious Scholarship.
Criterion
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Franklin
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Frazier
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68
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Frey
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Factors Conditioning the Incidence of Migration Among Louisiana Negroes.
Southwestern Social Science Quarterly
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17
.
Gravely
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Methodist History
18
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25
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Gregg
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312
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Haynes
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Haynes
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