Expanded Sharia: The Northern Ummah and the Fourth Republic
The chapter explores the fierce conflict over the meaning of sharia among Nigeria’s contending ethno-religious and ethno-regional political classes during the country’s ongoing civil-democratic government following a prolonged era of military misrule in the 1990s. The chapter engages contentious constitutional and political issues such as the implications of expanded sharia for a secular Nigerian state, a plural Nigerian society, and citizenship rights for women and religious minorities. Through this prism of sharia politics, the chapter reveals how a deep structural divide between Hausa-Fulani Muslim rulers (Northern Muslim states) and the political class of Southern and Middle Belt states deepened the crisis of the nation-state in the global era.
Assistant District Officer H. M. Brice-Smith to the Resident of Kano Province, C. L. Temple. Mss. Afr. March 1915.
Conference on the Future of Law in Africa, December 1959–January 1960. Mss. Afr. s. 1193.
Customary Law and Its Application to English Law. CO/537 6/59.
Guy, J. C., Assistant District Officer, Katagum Division. Touring Diary. Bauchi Province. Mss. Afr.
Institute of Administration, Northern Nigeria, Local Government Wing. Lecture Note Series, November 1954. Mss. Afr. s. 1871.
Institute of Administration, Northern Nigeria, Local Government Wing. Lecture Note Series, November 1954. Mss. Afr. s. 1871 (2), 1954.
Jacob, S. M. Report on Taxation. Mss. Afr. T. 16.
Letchworth, Assistant District Officer. Nassarawa Division, 1926.
Lethem, G. J. Confidential File.
Lethem, G. J. Intelligence Report, Islamic Propaganda in Northern Nigeria, LMSS. Mss. British Empire.
Lethem, G. J., Former Administrative Officer. 192 Ferry Road: Edinburgh, Scotland. “Circular, Number 49–203, Kaduna, June 29, 1920.” From the Secretary, Northern Provinces, G. R. Matthews to the Resident Bornu Province.
Letters of the Reverend Canon R. A. Wright to His Mother.
Macpherson, Sir John Stuart, Former Governor of Nigeria. Typescript of interview, 1969.
Macpherson, Sir John Stuart, Former Governor of Nigeria. Typescript of interview, 1970.
Macpherson, Sir John Stuart, Former Governor of Nigeria. Typescript of interview, No. 10, 1969.
Maguire, Reverend. Typescript of interview conducted by Andrew Barnes.
Marshall, Hedley H. Interview conducted and transcribed by A. H. M. Kirk- Greene in Oxford on May 15, 1970. Mss. Afr. s. 2339.
Morley, J. A. E., Assistant District Officer. Re-Organization of East Tangale District. Gombe, August 1945. Mss. British Empire.
Northern Nigerian Native Administration Law of 1954.
Papers of Assistant District Officer Letchworth.
Patterson, Bishop Cecil. C.M.S. Missionary File. Mss. Afr. s. 2302, 1969.
Patterson, Bishop Cecil. Typescript of interview. Mss. Afr. s. 1680.
Richards, Arthur, former Governor of Nigeria. Typescript of interview, 1969.
Sharwood-Smith, Bryn. Mss. Afr. s. 2103, SG, 3228/1957, Governor’s Office, Northern Region, Kaduna. February 20, 1957.
Temple, C. L., Resident. Annual Report, 41, for the year ending December 31, 1909, Kano Province. Mss. Afr. s. 230.
Watt, J. W. Diaries of Administrative Officer. Mss. Afr. 117, 1960
Wright, Reverend Canon. Letter to His Mother, May 7, 1929.
Wright, Reverend Canon. Letter to His Mother, July 2, 1929.
Wright, Reverend Canon. Letter to His Mother, September 16, 1929.
Wright, Reverend Canon. Letter to His Mother, October 25, 1929.
Wright, Reverend Canon. Letter to His Mother, November 21, 1929.
Wright, Reverend Canon. Letter to His Mother, January 12, 1930.
Wright, Reverend Canon. Canon. Letter to His Mother, May 15, 1930
Catholic Bishops of Nigeria (pamphlet).
Kaduna State Shari’ah Penal Code.
Church Missionary Gleaner. 1848, 1850, and 1851.
Address Delivered at the Inaugural Meeting of the Committee on Nigeria’s Membership of the Organization of Islamic Conference by Major General Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida, CFR, President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, at Abuja, February 3, 1986.
Adegbite, Lateef, Secretary- General, Nigerian Supreme Council for Islamic Affairs. Keynote Address, delivered at the opening ceremony of the 16th Annual Conference of the Nigerian Association for the Study of Religions, October 8, 1991, Ilorin, Nigeria.
Constitution of Nigeria, 1999.
Licensed to Harm: Framework of the Area Courts, pamphlet, undated.
Logan Family Papers, 1952–1994
McGee Family Papers, 1957–2013
Pool Family Papers, 1928–1998
Roberson Family Papers, 1917–1977
Loy Connell Smith and Eunice Andrews Smith Bland Papers, 1958–1999
Taylor Family Papers, 1950–1975
BGG Reel number 99 and SIM Reel number SR-19, 1912–1971, (Nigeria) Kano-Karu
The National Counter-Terrorism Strategy
Nigeria’s CVE Program: Changing Minds and Influencing Communities
Presidential Initiatives for the North East. Published by the Office of the National Security Adviser, Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2014.
Pentecostal Doctrine, The Redeemed Christian Church of God, undated.
Africa Confidential New Nigerian
BBC News Africa New Nigerian Weekly
BBCNews, HARDtalk New York Times
Christian Science Monitor New York Times Magazine
Christianity Today Sunday Concord
Compass Direct News Weekend Concord
National Catholic Reporter World
National Concord World Press Review