Skip to Main Content
Skip Nav Destination

Chapter 2 argues that following the transformation of the Northern Nigerian region by the Sokoto Jihad in the nineteenth century, Islamic structures provided the crucial structural and ideological frameworks on which the British colonial administrative system was rationalized in the Northern Nigeria Protectorate in the first half of the twentieth century. The chapter also explores how colonial rule set the framework for Muslim and Christian collective political action in this vast region by the end of the Second World War, when the British authorities embarked on a process of decolonization in Nigeria. 

This content is only available as PDF.

Bibliography

Bibliography
Primary Sources
Rhodes House Library, University of Oxford
Anderson
,
J. N. D.
,
School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London
. “
Introduction: Relationship between Islamic Law and Customary Law in Africa, Emphasis on Northern Nigeria
.”
Conference on the Future of Law in Africa
,
December 1959
.
Arnett
,
E. J.
,
Resident
. “
Intelligence Report
.”
Sokoto Province
,
June
8
,
1918
.

Assistant District Officer H. M. Brice-Smith to the Resident of Kano Province, C. L. Temple. Mss. Afr. March 1915.

Birks
,
D. T. M.
,
Assistant District Officer
.
Waja Native Authority
.
Gombe Division
,
1945
.
Carrow J. H.
,
Commander
. “
Interview by A. H. M. Kirk- Greene
.”
Typescript
,
1966
.
Carrow J. H.
,
Commander
.
Kano Province Annual Report, 1909
.
Carrow J. H.
,
Commander
.
Kano Province Annual Report, 1910
.
Carrow J. H.
,
Commander
.
Native Administration, Kano Province
.
Carrow J. H.
,
Commander
.
Native Administration, Sokoto Province
.
Carrow J. H.
,
Commander
.
Typescript
.
Carrow-Heussler Papers on Northern Nigeria
. “
Commander Carrow’s Letter, April 5, 1965: Dorset, England
.”
Colonial Records Project, Institute of Commonwealth Studies
,
Queen Elizabeth House
,
1965–1972
.
Mss. Afr. s. 1489
.
Clifford
,
Hugh
Governor
. “
Circular
.”
Native Administration
,
1923
.

Conference on the Future of Law in Africa, December 1959–January 1960. Mss. Afr. s. 1193.

Correspondence
.”
District Officer, G. J. Lethem to the Resident, Bornu, 15/3
,
September
25
,
1923
.

Customary Law and Its Application to English Law. CO/537 6/59.

De Foucauld of the Sahara, a Great Son of France and of View of French Muslim Policy and Problems
.
West Africa
,
January
19
,
1924
.
Mss. Afr. s. 783, 1/11, 1922. Published posthumously
.
Great Britain. Colonial Office
.
Nigeria: Report of the Commission Appointed to Enquire into the Fears of Minorities and Means of Allaying Them; Presented to Parliament by the Secretary of State for the Colonies by Command of Her Majesty July 1958
.
Norwich, UK
:
HM Stationery Office
,
1958
.

Guy, J. C., Assistant District Officer, Katagum Division. Touring Diary. Bauchi Province. Mss. Afr.

Hickey
,
Raymond
.
Typescript of Interview
,
Catholic Mission in Northern Nigeria
(
Gongola
).

Institute of Administration, Northern Nigeria, Local Government Wing. Lecture Note Series, November 1954. Mss. Afr. s. 1871.

Institute of Administration, Northern Nigeria, Local Government Wing. Lecture Note Series, November 1954. Mss. Afr. s. 1871 (2), 1954.

Jacob, S. M. Report on Taxation. Mss. Afr. T. 16.

Letchworth, Assistant District Officer. Nassarawa Division, 1926.

Letchworth
,
Resident
.
Typescript of interview, former Resident, Bornu Province
,
1969
.
Letchworth
,
Resident
.
Typescript of interview, Resident, Northern Provinces
,
1969
.
Lethem
,
G. J.
Confidential Document, Islamic Propaganda. Mss. British Empire
.
Maiduguri
,
November
15
,
1924
.

Lethem, G. J. Confidential File.

Lethem
,
G. J.
Intelligence Report, Islamic Propaganda, 11, 5. Mss. British Empire
.
Nazaru, Maiduguri
,
August
1924
.

Lethem, G. J. Intelligence Report, Islamic Propaganda in Northern Nigeria, LMSS. Mss. British Empire.

Lethem
,
G. J.
Islamic Propaganda. Mss. British Empire (Lethem)
13
,
1924
.
Lethem
,
G. J.
,
Acting Resident. 42/1923 of 9/6/1924, 231/123
.
Bornu Province
,
Maiduguri
,
October
15
,
1923
.
Lethem
,
G. J.
District Officer to the Resident. Confidential Correspondence (file 9/1923)
.
Bornu
,
September
22
,
1923
.

Lethem, G. J., Former Administrative Officer. 192 Ferry Road: Edinburgh, Scotland. “Circular, Number 49–203, Kaduna, June 29, 1920.” From the Secretary, Northern Provinces, G. R. Matthews to the Resident Bornu Province.

Lethem
,
G. J.
,
Resident. “Circular: Number 89/285/1920.” From the Secretary, Northern Provinces, to the Resident, Bornu Province, Kaduna, September 23, 1920, 15/3
(
Dikwa District
:
May
10
,
1990
).

Letters of the Reverend Canon R. A. Wright to His Mother.

Macpherson, Sir John Stuart, Former Governor of Nigeria. Typescript of interview, 1969.

Macpherson, Sir John Stuart, Former Governor of Nigeria. Typescript of interview, 1970.

Macpherson, Sir John Stuart, Former Governor of Nigeria. Typescript of interview, No. 10, 1969.

Maddocks
,
Sir Kenneth
. “
Secret and Personal Documents, 30 July 1953, signed by A. E. T. Benson Esq. cmg, Nigerian Secretariat
.”
Nigerian Constitution Conference. Mss. Afr. s. 11794
.
Lagos
,
1953
.

Maguire, Reverend. Typescript of interview conducted by Andrew Barnes.

Maguire
,
Reverend
.
Typescript of oral interview
,
April–June
1993
.
Marshall
,
Hedley H.
,
Former Attorney General of Northern Nigeria. Typescript of interview
,
1969
.
Marshall
,
Hedley H.
Typescript of interview
, No.
7
,
1969
.
Marshall
,
Hedley H.
Typescript of interview
, No.
8
,
1969
.
Marshall
,
Hedley H.
Typescript of interview
, No.
9
,
1969
.
Marshall
,
Hedley H.
Typescript of interview
, No.
10
,
1969
.

Marshall, Hedley H. Interview conducted and transcribed by A. H. M. Kirk- Greene in Oxford on May 15, 1970. Mss. Afr. s. 2339.

Matthews
,
H. F.
,
Assistant District Officer, Agaie-Lapai Division
.
Handing Over Notes
,
November
7
,
1919
.
Mss. Afr. s. 783, box 2/6
.

Morley, J. A. E., Assistant District Officer. Re-Organization of East Tangale District. Gombe, August 1945. Mss. British Empire.

Northern Nigerian Native Administration Law of 1954.

Papers of Assistant District Officer Letchworth.

Patterson
,
Bishop Cecil
. “
C.M.S. Missionary Account (CMS Mission 2)
.”
Interview
.
Mss. Afr
.

Patterson, Bishop Cecil. C.M.S. Missionary File. Mss. Afr. s. 2302, 1969.

Patterson, Bishop Cecil. Typescript of interview. Mss. Afr. s. 1680.

Resident
.
Confidential Memorandum
.
Bornu Province
,
Potiskum
,
August
31
,
1923
.

Richards, Arthur, former Governor of Nigeria. Typescript of interview, 1969.

Sharwood-Smith, Bryn. Mss. Afr. s. 2103, SG, 3228/1957, Governor’s Office, Northern Region, Kaduna. February 20, 1957.

Temple
,
C. L.
Kano Province Annual Report, 1909
.

Temple, C. L., Resident. Annual Report, 41, for the year ending December 31, 1909, Kano Province. Mss. Afr. s. 230.

Temple
,
C. L.
Kano Province Annual Report, 1909
.

Watt, J. W. Diaries of Administrative Officer. Mss. Afr. 117, 1960

Wright, Reverend Canon. Letter to His Mother, May 7, 1929.

Wright, Reverend Canon. Letter to His Mother, July 2, 1929.

Wright, Reverend Canon. Letter to His Mother, September 16, 1929.

Wright, Reverend Canon. Letter to His Mother, October 25, 1929.

Wright, Reverend Canon. Letter to His Mother, November 21, 1929.

Wright, Reverend Canon. Letter to His Mother, January 12, 1930.

Wright, Reverend Canon. Canon. Letter to His Mother, May 15, 1930

Documents from the Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

Catholic Bishops of Nigeria (pamphlet).

General Observations and Recommendation of the Donli Panel
.
Kaduna
,
1987
.
Herman
,
Jessi
. “
A Divided Nigeria
.”
Institute for Global Engagement
,
unpublished manuscript
,
November
30
,
2001
.

Kaduna State Shari’ah Penal Code.

Ngban
,
Moni Odo
.
Is Shari’ah the Law of God? Why Christians Reject It: The Implications on a Nation
.
Self published
,
2001
.
Press Conference Addressed by Citizen’s League for Peace and Democracy on the Kaduna Crisis
.” (
press release
)
March
30
,
2000
.
Reaction of the Christian Association of Nigeria to the Report and Recommendation Submitted by the Committee to Investigate Causes of Riots and Disturbances in Kaduna State
.
1987
.
Church Missionary Society Digital Archive

Church Missionary Gleaner. 1848, 1850, and 1851.

Niger Mission
.”
CMS Original Papers
,
1907
.
Niger Mission
.”
CMS Original Papers
,
1932
.
Yoruba Mission
.”
CMS Original Papers
,
1907
.
University of Ibadan Library, Africana Collection

Address Delivered at the Inaugural Meeting of the Committee on Nigeria’s Membership of the Organization of Islamic Conference by Major General Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida, CFR, President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, at Abuja, February 3, 1986.

Adegbite, Lateef, Secretary- General, Nigerian Supreme Council for Islamic Affairs. Keynote Address, delivered at the opening ceremony of the 16th Annual Conference of the Nigerian Association for the Study of Religions, October 8, 1991, Ilorin, Nigeria.

Broadcast to the Nation by His Excellency Major- General J. T. U. Aguiyi Ironsi, Head of the National Government and Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces, Tuesday, 24 May, 1966
.
Lagos
:
Government Printer
,
1966
.
Committee of Concerned Citizens (Nigeria)
.
The Sharia Issue: Working Papers for a Dialogue
.
Nigeria
:
Committee of Concerned Citizens
,
2002
.

Constitution of Nigeria, 1999.

Licensed to Harm: Framework of the Area Courts, pamphlet, undated.

Onaiyekan
,
John
, ed.
Religion: Peace and Justice in Nigeria. Breaking New Grounds, Communiqué of the Catholic Bishops’ Conference of Nigeria, February 1989 and related Documents
.
Lagos
:
Ilorin Diocese Catechetical Resource Centre
,
1989
.
Report of the Political Bureau
.
Lagos
:
Federal Government Printer
,
1986
.
Family Papers of Southern Baptist Convention Missionaries at the David M. Rubenstein Rare Books and Manuscript Library, Duke University

Logan Family Papers, 1952–1994

McGee Family Papers, 1957–2013

Pool Family Papers, 1928–1998

Roberson Family Papers, 1917–1977

Loy Connell Smith and Eunice Andrews Smith Bland Papers, 1958–1999

Taylor Family Papers, 1950–1975

Records of the Sudan Interior Mission International, Wheaton College, Illinios

BGG Reel number 99 and SIM Reel number SR-19, 1912–1971, (Nigeria) Kano-Karu

Publications of the Office of the National Security Adviser, Federal Republic of Nigeria

The National Counter-Terrorism Strategy

Nigeria’s CVE Program: Changing Minds and Influencing Communities

Presidential Initiatives for the North East. Published by the Office of the National Security Adviser, Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2014.

Publications of Pentecostal Churches
Adeboye
,
E. A.
Open Heavens: A Daily Guide to Close Fellowship with God
.
Redemption Camp, Ogun State
:
Open Heavens International
,
2013
.
Aransiola
,
Moses
.
Praying for National Transformation: Securing Divine Visitation for Nigeria
.
Ibadan
:
Gethsemane
,
2008
.
Aransiola
,
Moses
.
Prophetic Destiny of Africa
.
Ibadan
:
Gethsemane
,
2008
.
Fadele
,
James O.
Your 4 Fathers and Their Kingdom
.
Greenville, TX
:
Fadel
,
2014
.
Oyedepo
,
David O.
The Mandate: A Timeless Operational Manual
.
Canan Land, Ota
:
Dominion
,
2012
.
Oyedepo
,
David O.
On Eagle’s Wings: My First 30-Year Adventure in Ministry
.
Canan Land, Ota
:
Dominion
,
2013
.
Oyedepo
,
David O.
Ruling Your World: A Recipe for Impactful Living
.
Canan Land, Ota
:
Dominion
,
2005
.
Oyedepo
,
David O.
The Unlimited Power of Faith: Operating in a World of Unlimited Possibilities
.
Canan Land, Ota
:
Dominion
,
2011
.
Oyedepo
,
David O.
Winning Prayer
.
Canan Land, Ota
:
Dominion
,
2008
.
Oyedepo
,
Faith A.
Overcoming Anxiety
.
Canan Land, Ota
:
Dominion
,
2008
.

Pentecostal Doctrine, The Redeemed Christian Church of God, undated.

Redeemed Christian Church of God
.
Illustrating the Fundamental Beliefs in the Bible
.
Ibadan
:
Feyisetan Press
,
1998
.
.
The Redeemed Christian Church of God, The King’s Parish
,
Walthamstow, London E17 5QX
,
accessed April 12, 2008
.
Newspapers and Magazines

Africa Confidential New Nigerian

BBC News Africa New Nigerian Weekly

BBCNews, HARDtalk New York Times

Christian Science Monitor New York Times Magazine

Christianity Today Sunday Concord

Compass Direct News Weekend Concord

National Catholic Reporter World

National Concord World Press Review

SECONDARY SOURCES
Abdullah
,
Zain
. “
Towards an African Muslim Globality: The Parading of Transnational Identities in Black America
.” In
West African Migrations: Transnational and Global Pathways in a New Century
, edited by
Okome
Mojubaolu Olufunke
and
Vaughan
Olufemi
.
New York
:
Palgrave Macmillan
,
2011
.
Abdulraheem
,
Tajudeen
. “
Politics in Nigeria’s Second Republic
.”
DPhil thesis
,
University of Oxford
,
1990
.
Abimbola
,
Adesoji
. “
The Boko Haram Uprising and Islamic Revivalism in Nigeria
.”
Afrika Spectrum
45
, no.
2
(
2010
):
95
108
.
Abimbola
,
Wande
.
Ifa: An Exposition of the Literary Corpus
.
Ibadan
:
Oxford University Press
,
1976
.
Abubakar
,
Dauda
. “
Ethnic Identity, Democratization, and the Future of the African State: Lessons from Nigeria
.”
African Issues
29
, nos.
1 and 2
(
2001
):
31
36
.
Adamu
,
Fatima L.
Gender, Hisba and the Enforcement of Morality in Northern Nigeria
.”
Africa
78
, no.
1
(
2008
).
Adebanwi
,
Wale
.
Yoruba Elites and Ethnic Politics in Nigeria: Obafemi Awolowo and Corporate Agency
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
,
2014
.
Adebiyi
,
P. A.
Church and Anglican Education
.” In
The Anglican Church in Nigeria
, edited by
Omoyajowo
Akinyele
.
Ibadan
:
Macmillan Nigeria
,
1994
.
Adesoji
,
Abimbola
. “
The Boko Haram Uprising and Islamic Revivalism in Nigeria
.”
Africa Spectrum
,
45
, no.
2
(
2010
):
95
108
.
Adigwe
,
Hypolite A.
Nigeria Joins the Organization of Islamic Conference, O.I.C.: The Implications for Nigeria
.”
Paper presented at the Symposium on OIC, Bigard Memorial Seminary Enugu
,
March 15, 1986
.
Adogame
,
Afe
. “
Engaging the Rhetoric of Spiritual Warfare: The Public Face of Aladura in Diaspora
.”
Journal of Religion in Africa
34
, no.
4
(
1998
):
278
315
.
Adogame
,
Afe
. “
Online for God: Media and Negotiation and Africa New Religious Movement
.” In
Who Is Afraid of the Holy Ghost? Pentecostalism and Globalization in Africa and Beyond
.
Trenton, NJ
:
Africa World Press
,
2011
.
Ado-Kurawa
,
Ibrahim
. “
Nigeria: State of the Nation
.” In
Shari’ah and the Press in Nigeria: Islam versus Western Christian Civilization
.
Kano, Nigeria
:
Kurawa Holdings
,
2000
.
Ado-Kurawa
,
Ibrahim
.
Shari’ah and the Press in Nigeria: Islam versus Western Christian Civilization
.
Kano, Nigeria
:
Kurawa Holdings
,
2000
.
Afigbo
,
A. E.
The National Question in Nigerian History, Politics and Affairs
.” In
Nigerian History, Politics and Affairs: The Collected Essays of Adiele Afigbo
, edited by
Falola
Toyin
.
Trenton, NJ
:
Africa World Press
,
2005
.
Afolabi
,
Niyi
.
Afro-Brazilians: Cultural Production in a Racial Democracy
.
Rochester, NY
:
University of Rochester Press
,
2009
.
Afolayan
,
Funso
. “
The Church in Northern Nigeria, 1842–1992
.” In
The Anglican Church in Nigeria (1842–1992)
, edited by
Omoyajowo
Akinyele
.
Lagos
:
Macmillan Nigeria
,
1994
.
Ajasin
,
M. A.
Ajasin: Memoirs and Memories
.
Lagos
:
Ajasin Foundation
,
2003
.
Ajayi
,
J. F. Ade
. “
Bishop Crowther: A Patriot to the Core
.” In
Tradition and Change in Africa: The Essays of J. F. Ade Ajayi
, edited by
Falola
Toyin
.
Trenton
:
Africa World Press
,
2000
.
Ajayi
,
J. F. Ade
.
Christian Missions in Nigeria 1841–1891: The Making of a New Elite
.
Evanston, IL
:
Northwestern University Press
,
1965
.
Ajayi
,
J. F. Ade
. “
Henry Venn and the Policy of Development
.” In
Tradition and Change in Africa: The Essays of J. F. Ade Ajayi
, edited by
Falola
Toyin
.
Trenton
:
Africa World Press
,
2000
.
Ajayi
,
J. F. Ade
. “
Introduction
.” In
The Anglican Church in Nigeria (1842–1992)
, edited by
Omoyajowo
Akinyele
.
Ibadan
:
Macmillan Nigeria
,
1994
.
Akintoye
,
S. Adebanji
.
A History of the Yoruba People
.
Dakar, Senegal
:
Amalion
,
2010
.
Al-Hajj
,
M. A.
Hayatu Said: A Revolutionary Mahdist in the Western Sudan
.” In
Sudan in Africa
, edited by
Hasan
Y. F.
.
Khartoum
:
Khartoum University Press
,
1971
.
Al-Hajj
,
M. A.
The Writings of Shehu Uthman dan Fodio
.”
Kano Studies
1
, no.
2
(
1974
).
Aliyu
,
Abubakar Y.
, ed.
The Role of Local Government in the Social, Political, and Economic Development of Nigeria
.
Zaria
:
Ahmadu Bello University
,
1982
.
Alkali
,
Muhammad
,
Abubakar
Nur
,
Monguno
Kawu
, and
Mustafa
Ballama Shettima
. “
Overview of Islamic Actors in Northwestern Nigeria
.”
Working Paper No. 2, Nigeria Research Network, Oxford Department of International Development
,
Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford
,
January
2012
.
Amadi
,
E. Lawrence
. “
Church-State Involvement in Educational Development in Nigeria, 1842–1948
.”
Journal of Church and State
19
, no.
3
(
1977
):
481
496
.
Amnesty International
.
Nigeria: Time to End Contempt for Human Rights
.
November
6
,
1996
.
Anderson
,
Allan
. “
Globalization and Independent Pentecostals in Africa: A South African Perspective
.” In
Who Is Afraid of the Holy Ghost? Pentecostalism and Globalization in Africa and Beyond
, edited by
Adogame
Afe
.
Trenton, NJ
:
Africa World Press
,
2011
.
Anderson
,
J. N. D.
Conflict of Laws in Northern Nigeria: A New Start
.”
International and Comparative Law Quarterly
8
, no.
3
(
July
1959
):
442
456
.
Anderson
,
J. N. D.
Islamic Law in Africa
.
London
:
Frank Cass & Co.
,
1955
.
Anih
,
Stan
.
The Cathedral and the Mosque Can Co- exist in Nigeria
.
Enugu, Nigeria
:
Stan Anih
,
1984
.
Anih
,
Stan
.
An Introduction to the Fundamentals of Religious Ecumenism in Nigeria
.
Enugu, Nigeria
:
SNAAP
,
1990
.
Anih
,
Stan
.
Religious Ecumenism and Education for Tolerance
.
Enugu, Nigeria
:
SNAAP
,
1992
.
Arinze
,
Francis A. (Cardinal)
.
Progress in Christian- Muslim Relations Worldwide
.
Jos, Plateau State
:
Augustinian Publications Nigeria
,
1988
.
Asaju
,
Dapo
. “
Globalization, Politicization of Religion, and Religious Networking: The Case of the Pentecostal Fellowship in Nigeria
.” In
Who Is Afraid of the Holy Ghost? Pentecostalism and Globalization in Africa and Beyond
, edited by
Adogame
Afe
.
Trenton, NJ
:
Africa World Press
,
2011
.
Atanda
,
J. A.
, ed.
Baptist Churches in Nigeria: Accounts of Their Foundation and Growth, 1850–1950
.
Ibadan
:
University of Ibadan Press
,
1988
.
Atanda
,
J. A.
The New Oyo Empire: Indirect Rule and Change in Western Nigeria 1894–1934
.
London
:
Longman
,
1973
.
Awofeso
,
Niyi
,
Ritchie
Jan
, and
Degeling
Pieter
. “
The Almajiri Heritage and the Threat of Non- State Terrorism in Northern Nigeria: Lessons from Central Asia and Pakistan
.”
Studies in Conflict and Terrorism
26
, no.
4
(
2003
):
311
325
.
Awolowo
,
Obafemi
.
Path to Nigerian Freedom
.
London
:
Faber
,
1947
.
Ayandele
,
E. A.
Holy Johnson, Pioneer of African Nationalism, 1836–1917
.
Africana Modern Library 13
.
New York
:
Routledge
,
1970
.
Ayandele
,
E. A.
The Ijebu of Yorubaland, 1850–1950: Politics, Economy and Society
.
Ibadan
:
Heinemann Educational Books
,
1992
.
Ayandele
,
E. A.
The Missionary Factor in Northern Nigeria, 1870–1919
.” In
The History of Christianity in West Africa: The Nigerian Story
, edited by
Kalu
Ogbu Uke
,
Ibadan
:
Daystar
,
1978
.
Ayandele
,
E. A.
The Missionary Impact on Modern Nigeria, 1842–1914: A Political and Social Analysis
.
London
:
Longman
,
1966
.
Ayantuga
,
Obafemi
, “
Ijebu and Its Neighbours, 1851–1914
.”
PhD diss.
,
University of London
,
1965
.
Ayegboyin
,
Deji
. “
New Pentecostal Churches and Prosperity Theology in Nigeria
.” In
Who Is Afraid of the Holy Ghost? Pentecostalism and Globalization in Africa and Beyond
, edited by
Adogame
Afe
.
Trenton, NJ
:
Africa World Press
,
2011
.
Azikiwe
,
Nnamdi
.
Zik: A Se lection from the Speeches of Azikiwe
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
,
1961
.
Badren
,
Margot
. “
Sharia Activism and Zina in Nigeria in the Era of Hudud
.” In
Gender and Islam in Africa: Rights, Sexuality, and Law
, edited by
Badren
Margot
.
Bloomington
:
Indiana University Press
,
2012
.
Badru
,
Pade
. “
The Hausa Speaking People of West Africa
.” in
Encyclopaedia of Africa and the Middle East
,
127
129
.
Santa Barbara, CA
:
ABC-CLIO
,
2011
.
Badru
,
Pade
. “
Historical Foundations and Basic Philosophy of Islam
.” In
Islam in Sub- Saharan Africa: Changing Gender Relations and Political Reforms
, edited by
Badru
Pade
and
Sackey
Brigid
.
New York
:
Rowman & Littlefield
,
2012
.
Balewa
,
Abubakar Tafawa
Sir
,
Alhaji
.
Shaihu Umar: A Novel about Slavery in Africa
. Edited by
Mack
Beverly
. Translated by
Hiskett
Mervyn
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Markus Wiener Publishers
,
1989
.
Barnes
,
Andrew E.
Making Headway: The Introduction of Western Civilization in Colonial Nigeria
.
Rochester, NY
:
University of Rochester Press
,
2009
.
Barnes
,
Andrew E.
Religious Insults: Christian Critiques of Islam and Colonial Government in Northern Nigeria
.”
Journal of Religion in Africa
14
, no.
1 and 2
(
2004
):
62
81
.
Bassey
,
Magnus O.
Missionary Rivalry and Educational Expansion in Southern Nigeria, 1885–1932
.”
Journal of Negro Education
60
, no.
1
(
1991
).
Bassey
,
Magnus O.
Missionary Rivalry and Educational Expansion in Nigeria, 1885–1945
.
Lewiston, NY
:
Edwin Mellen
,
1999
.
Bateye
,
Bolaji
. “
Female Religious Leadership in Nigerian Pentecostalism: Embers or Gale?
” In
Who Is Afraid of the Holy Ghost? Pentecostalism and Globalization in Africa and Beyond
, edited by
Adogame
Afe
.
Trenton, NJ
:
Africa World Press
,
2011
.
BBC News
.
Interview with Sule Lamido
.
HardTalk
,
November
12
,
2000
.
Behrouz
,
Andra Nahal
. “
Transforming Islamic Family Law: State Responsibility and the Role of Internal Initiative
.”
Columbia Law Review
103
, no.
5
(
2003
):
1136
1162
.
Bello
,
Mohammed
,
former Chief Justice of Federal Republic of Nigeria
. “
Sharia and the Constitution
.” In
The Sharia Issue: Working Papers for a Dialogue
, edited by
Edu
S. L.
et al
.,
5
13
.
Lagos
:
Committee of Concerned Citizens
,
2000
.
Bello
,
Sir Ahmadu
.
My Life
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
,
1962
.
Berry
,
Sara S.
Cocoa, Custom, and Socioeconomic Change in Rural Western Nigeria
.
Oxford
:
Clarendon
,
1975
.
Bienen
,
Henry
. “
Religion, Legitimacy, and Conflict in Nigeria
.”
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
483
, no.
1
(
January
1986
):
50
60
.
Boer
,
Jan H.
Nigeria’s Decades of Blood, 1980–2002
. Vol.
1
of
Studies in Christian-Muslim Relations
.
Belle ville, ON
:
Essence
,
2003
.
Braudel
,
Fernand
. “
Histoire et sciences sociales: La longue durée
.”
Réseaux: Communication- Technologie- Société
5
, no.
27
(
1987
):
7
37
.
Byang
,
Danjuma
.
Shari’a in Nigeria: A Christian Perspective
.
Jos, Nigeria
:
Challenge
,
1988
.
Callaway
,
Barbara J.
Education and the Emancipation of Hausa Muslim Women in Nigeria
.
Working Paper for Women in International Development 129
.
East Lansing
:
Michigan State University Press
,
1986
.
Callaway
,
Barbara J.
Muslim Hausa Women in Nigeria: Tradition and Change
.
Syracuse, NY
:
Syracuse University Press
,
1987
.
Callaway
,
Barbara J.
, and
Creevey
Lucy
.
The Heritage of Islam: Women, Religion, and Politics in West Africa
.
Boulder, CO
:
Lynne Rienner
,
1993
.
Cameron
,
Donald C.
The Principle of Native Administration and Their Application
.
Lagos
:
Government Printers
,
1934
.
Campbell
,
John
.
Nigeria: Dancing on the Brink
.
Lanham, MD
:
Rowman & Littlefield
,
2013
.
Casey
,
C.
‘Policing’ through Violence: Fear, Vigilantism, and the Politics of Islam in Northern Nigeria
.” In
Global Vigilantes: Perspectives on Justice and Violence
, edited by
Pratten
David
and
Sen
A.
.
London
:
Hurst
; and
New York
:
Columbia University Press
,
2007
.
Catholic Bishops’ Stand on the O.I.C. Issue
.
Lagos
:
Catholic Secretariat Publications
,
September
1986
.
Chidester
,
David
. “
African Christian Communities
.” In
The Oxford Handbook of Global Religions
, edited by
Juergensmeyer
Mark
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
,
2006
.
Clarke
,
Kamari Maxine
.
Local Practices, Global Controversies: Islam in Sub- Saharan African Contexts
.
MacMillan Center Working Paper Series
.
New Haven, CT
:
MacMillan Center
,
2005
.
Coleman
,
James S.
Nigeria: Background to Nationalism
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
1958
.
Coles
,
Catherine
, and
Mack
Beverly
, eds.
Hausa Women in the Twentieth Century
.
Madison
:
University of Wisconsin Press
,
1991
.
Collett
,
Adrian
. “
Recent Legislation and Reform Proposals for Customary and Area Courts in Nigeria
.”
Journal of African Law
22
, no.
2
(Autumn
1978
):
161
187
.
Comaroff
,
Jean
, and
Comaroff
John
.
Of Revelation and Revolution
, volume
1
:
Christianity, Colonialism, and Consciousness of a South African People
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
,
1991
.
Cook
,
David
. “
Boko Haram: A Prognosis
.”
James A. Baker III Institute of Public Policy
,
Rice University
,
unpublished manuscript
,
December
16
,
2010
.
Crampton
,
E. P. T.
Christianity in Northern Nigeria
.
London
:
Geoffrey Chapman
,
1979
.
Crampton
,
E. P. T.
Christianity in Northern Nigeria
.” In
Christianity in West Africa: The Nigerian Story
, edited by
Kalu
Ogbu
.
Ibadan
:
Daystar
,
1978
.
Creech Jones
,
Arthur
.
Labour’s Colonial Policy
.
London
:
Fabian Colonial Bureau
,
1947
.
Crowder
,
Michael
.
The Story of Nigeria
.
London
:
Faber & Faber
,
1966
.
Danfulani
,
Umar Habila Dadem
. “
Globalization, Fundamentalism and the Pentecostal/ Charismatic Movement in Nigeria
.” In
Who Is Afraid of the Holy Ghost? Pentecostalism and Globalization in Africa and Beyond
, edited by
Adogame
Afe
.
Trenton, NJ
:
Africa World Press
,
2011
.
David
,
P.
Islamic Law May Spread in Nigeria
.”
Washington Report on Middle East Affairs
19
, no.
3
(
April
2000
).
Davidson
,
Basil
.
The African Genius
.
Athens
:
Ohio University Press
,
2004
.
Debki
,
Bee
.
The Tragedy of Sharia: Cry and Voice of Masses. Kaduna Crisis from an Eye Witness
.
Kaduna, Nigeria
:
Bee Debki
,
2000
.
Diamond
,
Larry
.
Class, Ethnicity, and Democracy in Nigeria: The Failure of the First Republic
.
London
:
Macmillan
,
1988
.
Diamond
,
Larry
. “
Nigeria: The Uncivic Society and the Descent into Praetorianism
.” In
Politics in Developing Countries: Comparing Experience with Democracy
, 2nd ed., edited by
Diamond
Larry
,
Linz
Juan J.
, and
Lipset
Seymour Martin
.
Boulder, CO
:
Lynne Rienner
,
1995
.
Dike
,
K. Onwuka
. “
Origins of the Niger Mission, 1841–1891
.”
A paper read at the Centenary of the Mission of Christ Church
,
Onisha
, on
November 13, 1957
.
Ibadan
:
Published for CMS Niger Mission by Ibadan University Press
,
1962
.
Doi
,
Abdur Rahman I.
The Impact of English Law and Concepts on the Administration of Islamic Law in Nigeria
.” In
African and Western Legal Systems in Contact
, translated by
Aguda
T. Akinola
et al
.,
25
56
.
Bayreuth African Studies Series
.
Bavaria, Germany
:
Bayreuth University
,
1989
.
Dudley
,
B. J.
Instability and Political Order: Politics and Crisis in Nigeria
.
Ibadan
:
Ibadan University Press
,
1970
.
Dudley
,
B. J.
Parties and Politics in Northern Nigeria
.
London
:
Frank Cass
,
1968
.
Durham
,
W. Cole
Jr
. “
Nigeria’s ‘State Religion’ Question in Comparative Perspective
.” In
Comparative Perspectives on Shari’ah in Nigeria
, edited by
Ostien
Philip
,
Nasir
Jamila M.
, and
Kogelman
Franz
,
144
177
.
Ibadan
:
Spectrum Books
,
2005
.
Edu
,
S. L.
et al
., eds.
The Sharia Issue: Working Papers for a Dialogue
.
Lagos
:
Committee of Concerned Citizens
,
2000
.
Emekwue
,
Henry
.
Democracy and Religion: Sharia in Nigeria
.
Enugu, Nigeria
:
SNAAP
,
2000
.
Enwerem
,
Iheanyi M.
A Dangerous Awakening: The Politicization of Religion in Nigeria
.
Ibadan
:
Institut Francais de Recherche en Afrique
,
1995
.
Esposito
,
John L.
, ed.
The Oxford History of Islam
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
,
1999
.
Essien
,
E.
The Jurisdiction of State High Courts in Nigeria
.”
Journal of African Law
44
, no.
2
(
2000
).
Falola
,
Toyin
.
Ibadan: Foundation, Growth and Change, 1830–1960
.
Ibadan
:
Bookcraft
,
2012
.
Falola
,
Toyin
.
Religious Militancy and Self Assertion: Islam and Politics in Nigeria
.
London
:
Avebury
,
1996
.
Falola
,
Toyin
.
Violence in Nigeria: The Crisis of Religious Politics and Secular Ideologies
.
Rochester, NY
:
University of Rochester Press
,
1998
.
Falola
,
Toyin
, and
Ihonvbere
Julius
.
The Rise and Fall of Nigeria’s Second Republic
.
London
:
Zed Press
,
1985
.
Falola
,
Toyin
, and
Oguntomisin
Dare
.
The Military in Nineteenth Century Yoruba Politics
.
Ile-Ife
:
University of Ife Press
,
1982
.
Federici
,
Sylvia
, and
Caffentzis
George
. “
Globalization and Professionalization in Africa
.”
Social Text
22
, no.
2
(Summer
2004
):
81
99
.
Flint
,
J. E.
The Growth of European Influence in West Africa in the Nineteenth Century
.” In
A Thousand Years of West African History
, edited by
Ajayi
A. Ade
and
Espie
Ian
.
London
:
Nelson
,
1969
.
Galadima
,
Justice Suleiman
. “
Marriage and Inheritance Laws in a Plural Society— Nigerian Experience
.”
Journal of Private and Public Law
1
, no.
1
(
2008
):
86
99
.
Gbadamosi
,
T. G. O.
The Growth of Islam among Yoruba Muslim
.
London
:
Longman
,
1978
.
Goody
,
Jack
.
The Logic of Writing and the Organization of Society
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
,
1986
.
Gumi
,
Sheikh Abubakar
, with
Tsiga
Ismaila Abubakar
.
Where I Stand
.
Ibadan
:
Spectrum Books
,
1992
.
Gurin
,
Aminu M.
The Concept of Honesty in Islam: Its Role in Fostering Discipline in Nigeria
.
Occasional Publication of the National Orientation Agency, no. 1
.
Zaria, Nigeria
:
Centre for Islamic Legal Studies, Institute of Administration, Ahmadu Bello University
.
Gusau
,
Nababa Sanda
.
A Case for Shari’ah in Nigeria
.
Kaduna
,
1994
.
Gwarzo
,
Tahir Haliru
. “
Activities of Islamic Civic Associations in the Northwest of Nigeria: With Particular Reference to Kano State
.”
Africa Spectrum
38
, no.
3
(
2003
):
289
318
.
Hackett
,
Rosalind I. J.
Is Satan Local or Global? Reflections on a Nigerian Deliverance Movement
.” In
Who Is Afraid of the Holy Ghost? Pentecostalism and Globalization in Africa and Beyond
, edited by
Adogame
Afe
.
Trenton, NJ
:
Africa World Press
,
2011
.
Hackett
,
Rosalind I. J.
Rethinking the Role of Religion in the Public Sphere: Local and Global Perspectives
.” In
Comparative Perspectives on Shari’ah in Nigeria
, edited by
Ostien
Philip
,
Nasir
Jamila M.
, and
Kogelman
Franz
.
Ibadan
:
Spectrum Books
,
2005
.
Harnischfeger
,
Johannes
.
Democratization and Islamic Law: The Sharia Conflict in Nigeria
.
New York
:
Campus Verlag
,
2008
.
Harnischfeger
,
Johannes
. “
Sharia and Control over Territory: Conflicts between ‘Settlers’ and ‘Indigenes’ in Nigeria
.”
African Affairs
103
, no.
412
(
2004
):
431
452
.
Harunah
,
Hakeem B.
Shari’ah under Western Democracy in Contemporary Nigeria: Contradictions, Crises, and the Way Forward
.
Ikeja, Nigeria
:
Perfect Printers
,
2002
.
Haynes
,
Jeffrey
. “
Popular Religion and Politics in Africa
.”
Third World Quarterly
16
, no.
1
(
1995
):
89
108
.
Haynes
,
Jeffrey
.
Religion and Politics in Africa
.
London
:
Zed Books
,
1996
.
Hefner
,
Robert W.
Introduction: World Building and the Rationality of Conversion
.” In
Conversion to Christianity: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives on a Great Transformation
, edited by
Hefner
Robert W.
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
1993
.
Hefner
,
Robert W.
September 11 and the Struggle for Islam
.”
New York
:
Social Science Research Council
,
2002
.
Held
,
David
, and
McGrew
Anthony
.
Globalization/Anti- Globalization: Beyond the Great Divide
. 2nd ed.
Cambridge
:
Polity
,
2007
.
Hendrixson
,
Joyce
. “
The Changing Significance of Ethnicity and Power Relations, Sokoto, Nigeria
.”
Studies in Third World Societies
11
(
1980
):
51
93
.
Hills
,
Alice
. “
Policing a Plurality of Worlds: The Nigeria Police in Metropolitan Kano
.”
African Affairs
111
, no.
442
(
January
2012
):
46
66
.
Hiskett
,
Mervyn
. “
Kitāb Al-Farq: A Work on the Habe Kingdoms Attributed to ‘Uthman Dan Fodio
.”
Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies
23
(
1960
):
570
571
.
Hiskett
,
Mervyn
.
The Sword of Truth: The Life and Times of the Shehu Usuman Dan Fodio
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
,
1973
.
Hodgkin
,
Thomas
. “
Madhism, Messianism, and Marxism in the African Setting
.” In
African Social Studies: A Radical Reader
, edited by
Hodgkin
Thomas
,
Monthly Review Press
,
New York
(
1977
):
306
323
.
Hodgkin
,
Thomas
.
Nigerian Perspectives: An Historical Anthology
.
London
:
Oxford University Press
,
1960
.
Horton
,
Robin
. “
African Conversion
.”
Africa
41
, no.
2
(
1971
):
85
108
.
Horton
,
Robin
. “
On the Rationality of Conversion: Part One
.”
Africa
,
45
, no.
3
(
1975
):
219
235
.
Horton
,
Robin
. “
On the Rationality of Conversion: Part Two
.”
Africa
,
45
, no.
4
(
1975
):
373
399
.
Human Rights Watch
.
“Political Sharia”? Human Rights and Islamic Law in Northern Nigeria
.
International Crisis Group
,
Northern Nigeria
:
Background to Conflict
,
December
20
,
2010
.
Human Rights Watch
.
Spiraling Violence: Boko Haram Attacks and Security Force Abuses in Nigeria
.
October
11
,
2012
.
Hunwick
,
John
. “
An African Case Study of Political Islam
.”
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences
525
(
November
1992
):
143
155
.
Hunwick
,
John
. “
The Nineteenth Century Jihad
.” In
On Thousand Years of West African History
, edited by
Ajayi
F. Ade
and
Espie
Ian
.
London
:
Nelson
,
1969
.
Ibrahim
,
Hassan Ahmed
.
Sayyid ‘Abd al- Rahman al- Mahdi: A Study of Neo- Mahdism in the Sudan, 1899–1956
.
Islam in Africa 4
.
Leiden, Netherlands
:
Brill Academic
,
2004
.
Ibrahim
,
Jibrin
. “
Religion and Political Turbulence in Nigeria
.”
Journal of Modern African Studies
29
, no.
1
(
March
1991
):
115
136
.
Ibrahim
,
Yakubu Yahaya
.
Shari’ah and Muslims in Nigeria
.
Kaduna, Nigeria
:
Fisbas Media Services
,
1991
.
Ihonvbere
,
Julius
.
Nigeria: The Politics of Adjustment and Democracy
.
New Brunswick, NJ
:
Transaction
,
1994
.
Ilesanmi
,
Simeon O.
From Periphery to Center: Pentecostalism Is Transforming the Secular State in Africa
.”
Harvard Divinity Bulletin
35
, no.
4
(Autumn
2007
).
Ilesanmi
,
Simeon O.
Religious Pluralism and the Nigerian State
.
Athens
:
Ohio University Press
,
1997
.
Imam
,
Ayesha M.
Ideology, the Mass Media, and Women: A Study of Radio Kaduna, Nigeria
.” In
Hausa Women in the Twentieth Century
, edited by
Coles
Catherine
and
Mack
Beverly
.
Madison
:
University of Wisconsin Press
,
1991
.
Isyaku
,
Bashir
.
The Kafanchan Carnage
.
Zaria, Nigeria
:
Bashir Isyaku
,
1991
.
Jinadu
,
L. Adele
. “
Federalism, the Consociational State, and Ethnic Conflict in Nigeria
.”
Publius
15
, no.
2
(
1985
):
71
100
.
Johnson
,
Samuel
.
The History of the Yorubas: From the Earliest Times to the Beginning of the British Protectorate
.
Lagos
:
CMS (Nigeria) Bookshops
,
1921
.
Joseph
,
Richard A.
Democracy and Pre- Bendel Politics in Nigeria: The Rise and Fall of the Second Republic
.
Ibadan
:
Spectrum Books
,
1987
.
Reprint
,
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
,
2013
.
July
,
Robert
.
The Origins of Modern African Thought: Its Development in West Africa during the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries
.
New York
:
Praeger
,
1967
.
Kalu
,
Ogbu Uke
. “
African Pentecostalism in Global Perspective
.” In
Kalu
,
Wariboko
, and
Falola
,
African Pentecostalism
.
Kalu
,
Ogbu Uke
. “
Black Joseph: Early African American Charismatic and Pentecostal Linkages and Their Impact on Africa
.” In
Kalu
,
Wariboko
, and
Falola
,
African Pentecostalism
.
Kalu
,
Ogbu Uke
. “
Christianity in Africa: A Synopsis
.” In
Kalu
,
Wariboko
, and
Falola
,
African Pentecostalism
.
Kalu
,
Ogbu Uke
. “
Constructing a Global Pentecostal Discourse: An African Example
.” In
African Pentecostalism: Global Discourses, Migrations, Exchanges and Connections
, edited by
Kalu
Wihelmina J.
,
Wariboko
Nimi
, and
Falola
Toyin
.
Trenton, NJ
:
Africa World Press
,
2010
.
Kalu
,
Ogbu Uke
. “
The Distorted Lens of Edinburgh 1910
.” In
African Pentecostalism: Global Discourses, Migrations, Exchanges and Connections
, edited by
Kalu
Wihelmina J.
,
Wariboko
Nimi
, and
Falola
Toyin
.
Trenton, NJ
:
Africa World Press
,
2010
.
Kalu
,
Ogbu Uke
. “
Holy Praiseco: Negotiating Sacred and Popular Music and Dance
.” In
African Pentecostalism: Global Discourses, Migrations, Exchanges and Connections
, edited by
Kalu
Wihelmina J.
,
Wariboko
Nimi
, and
Falola
Toyin
.
Trenton, NJ
:
Africa World Press
,
2010
.
Kalu
,
Ogbu Uke
. “
Pentecostalism and Mission in Africa, 1970–2000
.” In
Kalu
,
Wariboko
, and
Falola
,
African Pentecostalism
.
Kalu
,
Ogbu Uke
. “
Who Is Afraid of the Holy Ghost? Presbyterians and Early Charismatic Movement in Nigeria, 1966–1975
.” In
Who Is Afraid of the Holy Ghost? Pentecostalism and Globalization in Africa and Beyond
, edited by
Adogame
Afe
.
Trenton, NJ
:
Africa World Press
,
2011
.
Kalu
,
Wihelmina J.
,
Wariboko
Nimi
, and
Falola
Toyin
, eds.
African Pentecostalism: Global Discourses, Migrations, Exchanges and Connections
.
Trenton, NJ
:
Africa World Press
,
2010
.
Kane
,
Osuman
. “
Izala: The Rise of Muslim Reformism in Northern Nigeria
.” In
Accounting for Fundamentalism: The Dynamic Character of Movements
, edited by
Marty
Martin F.
and
Appleby
R. Scott
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
,
1994
.
Kane
,
Osuman
.
Muslim Modernity in Postcolonial Nigeria: A Study of the Society for the Removal of Innovation and Reinstatement of Tradition
.
Leiden
:
E. J. Brill
,
2003
.
Kastfelt
,
Niels
. “
African Resistance to Colonialism in Adamawa
.”
Journal of Religion in Africa
8
, no.
1
(
1976
):
1
12
.
Kastfelt
,
Niels
. “
Christianity, Colonial Legitimacy, and the Rise of Nationalist Politics in Northern Nigeria
.” In
Legitimacy and the State in Twentieth Century Africa: Essays in Honor of A. H. M. Kirk-Greene
, edited by
Ranger
Terence
and
Vaughan
Olufemi
.
London
:
Macmillan
,
1993
.
Kelly
,
Robin
,
G.
D.
Race Rebels
.
New York
:
Free Press
,
1994
.
Kendhammer
,
Brendan
. “
Muslims Talking Politics: Framing Islam and Democracy in Northern Nigeria
.”
PhD diss.
,
University of Wisconsin
,
Madison
,
2010
.
Kenny
,
Joseph
. “
Shari’a and Christianity in Nigeria: Islam and a ‘Secular’ State
.”
Journal of Religion in Africa
26
, no.
4
(
1996
):
338
364
.
Kirk-Greene
,
A. H. M.
, ed.
Crisis and Conflict in Nigeria: A Documentary Source Book, 1966–1969
.
London
:
Oxford University Press
,
1971
.
Kirk-Greene
,
A. H. M.
, ed.
The Principle of Native Administration in Nigeria: Selected Documents, 1900–1947
.
London
:
Oxford University Press
,
1965
.
Kolapo
,
Femi J.
CMS Missionaries of African Origin and Extra-Religious Encounters at the Niger- Benue Confluence, 1858–1880
.”
African Studies Review
43
, no.
2
(
2000
):
87
110
.
Kopytoff
,
Jean H.
A Preface to Modern Nigeria: The “Sierra Leonians” in Yorubaland, 1830–1890
.
Madison
:
University of Wisconsin Press
,
1965
.
Kukah
,
Matthew H.
Religion, Politics, and Power in Northern Nigeria
.
Ibadan
:
Spectrum Books
,
1993
.
Ladan
,
Muhammad Tawfiq
. “
Women’s Rights and Access to Justice under Sharia in Northern Nigeria
.”
Paper presented at a conference on Islamic Legal System and Women’s Rights in Northern Nigeria
,
Abuja, Nigeria
,
October 27–30, 2002
.
Laitin
,
David D.
Hegemony and Culture: Politics and Change among the Yoruba
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
,
1986
.
Laitin
,
David D.
The Sharia Debate and the Origins of Nigeria’s Second Republic
.”
Journal of Modern African Studies
20
, no.
3
(
September
1982
):
411
430
.
Larémont
,
Ricardo Rene
.
Islamic Law and Politics in Northern Nigeria
.
Trenton, NJ
:
Africa World Press
,
2011
.
Larkin
,
Brian
, and
Meyer
Brigit
. “
Pentecostalism, Islam and Culture: New Religious Movements in West Africa
.” In
Themes in West African History
, edited by
Akyeampong
Emmanuel Kwaku
.
Oxford
:
James Currey
,
2006
.
Last
,
Murray
. “
The Search for Security in Muslim Northern Nigeria
.”
Africa
78
, no.
1
(
2008
):
41
63
.
Last
,
Murray
.
The Sokoto Caliphate
.
London
:
Longman
,
1967
.
Law
,
Robin
.
The Oyo Empire, c.1600– c1836: A West African Imperialism in the Era of the Atlantic Slave Trade
.
Oxford
:
Clarendon
,
1974
.
Lewis
,
I. M.
Introduction to Islam in Tropical Africa
. Edited by
Lewis
I. M.
.
Bloomington
:
Indiana University Press
,
1980
.
Lloyd
,
P. C.
Africa in Social Change
.
London
:
Penguin
,
1972
.
Loimeier
,
Roman
. “
Boko Haram: The Development of a Militant Religious Movement in Nigeria
.”
Africa Spectrum
47
, nos.
2–3
(
2012
).
Loimeier
,
Roman
.
Islamic Reform and Political Change in Northern Nigeria
,
Evanston, IL
:
Northwestern University Press
,
2011
.
Lovejoy
,
Paul
, and
Hogendorn
J. S.
. “
Revolutionary Mahdism and Resistance to Colonial Rule in the Sokoto Caliphate, 1905–06
.”
Journal of African History
31
(
1991
):
217
244
.
Lovejoy
,
Paul
.
Slow Death for Slavery: The Course of Abolition in Northern Nigeria, 1897–1936
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
,
1993
.
Lubeck
,
Paul
. “
Islamic Protest under Semi- industrial Capitalism: ‘Yan Tastine Explained
.”
Africa
55
, no.
4
(
1985
):
369
389
.
Lubeck
,
Paul
. “
Nigeria: Mapping a Sharia Restorationist Movement
.” In
Sharia Politics: Islamic Law and Society in the Modern World
, edited by
Hefner
Robert W.
.
Bloomington
:
Indiana University Press
,
2011
.
Lubeck
,
Paul
,
Lipshutz
Ronnie
, and
Weeks
Erik
. “
The Globality of Islam: Sharia as a Nigerian ‘Self-Determination’ Movement
.”
Queen Elizabeth House Working Paper Series 106
.
Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford
,
2003
.
Ludwig
,
Frieder
. “
Christian- Muslim Relations in Northern Nigeria since the Introduction of Shari’ah in 1999
.”
Journal of the American Academy of Religion
76
, no.
3
(
September
2008
):
602
637
.
Lugard
,
Fredrick D.
The Dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa
.
Edinburgh
:
Blackwood
,
1929
.
Lynch
,
Hollis R.
Edward Wilmot Blyden: Pan-Negro Patriot, 1832–1912
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
,
1967
.
Mack
,
Beverly
. “
Muslim Women’s Knowledge Production in the Greater Maghreb: The Example of Nana Asm’u of Northern Nigeria
.” In
Gender and Islam in Africa: Rights, Sexuality, and Law
, edited by
Badren
Margot
.
Bloomington
:
Indiana University Press
,
2011
.
Mahmud
,
Alkali Alhaji Abubakar
.
Notes on Islamic Civil Law Procedure
.
Yola, Nigeria
:
Al Abumahdi
,
1997
.
Mann
,
Kristin
.
Marrying Well: Marriages, Status, and Social Change among the Educated Elite in Colonial Lagos
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
,
1985
.
Marshall
,
Ruth
.
Political Spiritualities: The Pentecostal Revolution in Nigeria
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
,
2009
.
Marshall
,
Ruth
. “
Power in the Name of Jesus: Social Transformation and Pentecostalism in Western Nigeria Revisited
.” In
Legitimacy and the State in Twentieth Century Africa: Essays in Honor of A. H. M. Kirk-Greene
, edited by
Ranger
Terence
and
Vaughan
Olufemi
.
London
:
Macmillan
,
1993
.
Marshall-Fratani
,
Ruth
. “
Mediating the Global and the Local in Nigerian Pentecostalism
.”
Journal of Religion in Africa
28
, no.
3
(
1998
):
278
315
.
McGarvey
,
Kathleen
.
Muslim and Christian Women in Dialogue: The Case of Northern Nigeria
. Vol.
42
,
Religions and Discourse
.
Oxford
:
Peter Lang
,
2009
.
A Memorandum on the 1999 Constitution to the Government and National Assembly
.
Abuja, Nigeria
,
2000
.
Miller
,
Lisa
. “
E. A. Adeboye: A Pentecostal Preacher from Nigeria Has Made Big Plans to Save Your Soul
.”
Newsweek’s 50 Most Influential People in 2008
,
December
19
,
2008
.
Mohammed
,
Abubakar Siddique
,
Adamu
Sa’idu Hassan
, and
Abba
Alkasum
.
Human Living Conditions and Reforms of Legal Systems: The Talakawa and the Issue of the Shari’ah in Con temporary Nigeria
.
Zaria, Nigeria
:
Centre for Democratic Development, Research and Training
,
2000
.
Mohammed
,
Bello
. “
Sharia and the Constitution
.” In
The Sharia Issue: Working Papers for a Dialogue
, edited by
Edu
S. L.
et al
.,
5
13
.
Lagos
:
Committee of Concerned Citizens
,
2000
.
Morgan
,
Kemi
.
Akinyele’s Outline of History of Ibadan
.
Part III
.
Ibadan
:
Caxton
,
1972
.
Muhibbu-Din
,
M. A.
, ed.
Shari’ah in a Multi- Faith Nigeria
.
Ibadan
:
Association of Teachers of Arabic and Islamic Studies (natais)
,
2005
.
Mukoro
,
Akpomuvire
. “
The Interface between Customary Law and Local Government Legislation in Nigeria: A Retrospect and Prospect
.”
Journal of Social Sciences
26
, no.
2
(
2011
):
139
145
.
Musa
,
Sulaiman
.
The Da’awah Approach of Shaikh Uthman Danfodiyo
.
Kaduna, Nigeria
:
Alkausar Printing and Publishing Co.
,
1994
.
Musa
,
Sulaiman
.
Shari’ah in a Multi- Faith Nigeria: The Effects of British Colonial Administration on the Shari’ah Legal System in Northern Nigeria
.
Mustapha
,
Abdul Raufu
. “
Structural Adjustment and Agrarian Change in Nigeria
.” In
The Politics of Structural Adjustment in Nigeria
, edited by
Olukoshi
Adebayo
.
London
:
James Currey
,
1993
.
Nasir
,
Jemila
. “
Women’s Human Rights in Secular and Religious Legal System
.”
Paper presented at a conference on Islamic Legal System and Women’s Rights in Northern Nigeria
,
Abuja, Nigeria
,
October 27–30, 2002
.
Nigeria: In God’s Name
.”
Africa Confidential
41
, no.
5
(
March
3
,
2000
).
Nigeria Miss World Strife Goes On
.”
CNN News
,
November
27
,
2002
, .
Nmehielle
,
Vincent O.
Sharia Law in the Northern States of Nigeria: To Implement or Not to Implement, the Constitutionality in the Question
.”
Human Rights Quarterly
26
, no.
3
(
2004
):
730
759
.
Nolte
,
Insa
.
Obafemi Awolowo and the Making of Remo: The Local Politics of a Nigerian Nationalist
.
Edinburgh, UK
:
Edinburgh University Press
,
2009
.
Nwobi
,
Simeon Okezuo
.
Sharia in Nigeria: What a Christian Must Know
.
Abuja, Nigeria
:
Totan
,
2000
.
Oba
,
Abdulmumini A.
Islamic Law as Customary Law: The Changing Perspective in Nigeria
.”
International and Comparative Law Quarterly
41
, no.
4
(
2002
):
817
850
.
Oba
,
Abdulmumini A.
The Sharia Court of Appeal in Northern Nigeria: The Continuing Crises of Jurisdiction
.”
American Journal of Comparative Law
52
, no.
4
(Autumn
2004
):
859
900
.
Obadare
,
Ebenezer
. “
In Search of a Public Sphere: The Fundamentalist Challenge to Civil Society in Nigeria
.”
Patterns of Prejudice
8
, no.
2
(
2004
):
177
198
.
Obadare
,
Ebenezer
. “
The Muslim Response to the Pentecostal Surge in Nigeria: The Rise of Charismatic Islam
.”
Journal of Religious and Political Practice
,
forthcoming
,
2016
.
Obadare
,
Ebenezer
. “
Pentecostal Presidency? The Lagos- Ibadan ‘Theocratic Class’ and the Muslim ‘Other’
.”
Review of African Political Economy
110
(
2006
):
665
678
.
Obadare
,
Ebenezer
. “
Religious NGOS, Civil Society and the Struggle for a Public Sphere in Nigeria
.”
African Identities
5
, no.
1
(
2007
):
135
153
.
Obilade
,
Akintunde
. “
Jurisdiction in Customary Law Matters in Nigeria: A Critical Examination
.”
Journal of African Law
17
, no.
2
(
1973
):
227
240
.
Ochonu
,
Moses
.
Colonialism by Proxy: Hausa Imperial Agents and Middle Belt Consciousness
.
Bloomington
:
Indiana University Press
,
2014
.
Ochonu
,
Moses
. “
Colonialism within Colonialism: The Hausa- Caliphate Imaginary and British Colonial Administration of the Nigerian Middle Belt
.”
African Studies Quarterly
10
, no.
2
(
2008
).
Odinkalu
,
Ansel Chidi
, and
Civil Liberties Organisation (Lagos)
.
Justice Denied: The Area Courts System in the Northern States of Nigeria
.
Ibadan
:
Kraft Books
,
1992
.
Oduyoye
,
Modupe
. “
The Church in Yorubaland, 1842–1892
.” In
The Anglican Church in Nigeria
, edited by
Omoyajowo
Akinyele
.
Ibadan
:
Macmillan Nigeria
,
1994
.
Ojo
,
Matthews A.
The Contextual Significance of Charismatic Movements in In dependent Nigeria
.”
Africa
58
, no.
2
(
1988
):
175
192
.
Ojo
,
Matthews A.
Deeper Christian Life Ministry: A Case Study of the Charismatic Movements in Western Nigeria
.”
Journal of Religion in Africa
17
, no.
2
(
1988
):
141
162
.
Ojo
,
Olatunji
. “
Afro- Brazilians in Lagos: Atlantic Commerce, Kinship, and Transnationalism
.” In
Back to Africa: Afro- Brazilian Returnees and Their Communities
, edited by
Prah
Kwesi Kwaa
.
Cape Town, South Africa
:
Centre for Advanced Studies of African Society
,
2009
.
Ojo-Ade
,
Femi
. “
Afro- Brazilians in Lagos: A Question of Home or Exile
.” In
Back to Africa: Afro- Brazilian Returnees and their Communities
, edited by
Prah
Kwesi Kwaa
.
Cape Town, South Africa
:
Centre for Advanced Studies of African Society
,
2009
.
Okereafoezeke
,
Nonso
.
Law and Justice in Post- British Nigeria: Conflicts and Interactions between Native and Foreign Systems of Social Control in Igbo
.
Westport, CT
:
Greenwood
,
2002
.
Oladimeji
,
Lateef
. “
An Appraisal of the Place of Shari’ah in the Nigerian Constitution
.”
Presented at the 21st National Conference of the Nigerian Association of Teachers of Arabic and Islamic Studies
.
Olupona
,
Jacob K.
The Changing Face of African Christianity: Reverse Mission in Transnational and Global Perspective
.” In
Transnational Africa and Globalization
, edited by
Okome
Mojubaolu Olufunke
and
Vaughan
Olufemi
.
New York
:
Palgrave Macmillan
,
2012
.
Olupona
,
Jacob K.
Globalization and African Immigrant Communities in America
.” In
Who Is Afraid of the Holy Ghost? Pentecostalism and Globalization in Africa and Beyond
, edited by
Adogame
Afe
.
Trenton, NJ
:
Africa World Press
,
2011
.
Olupona
,
Jacob K.
Kingship, Religion, and Rituals in a Nigerian Community: A Phenomenological Study of Ondo Yoruba Festivals
.
Stockholm
:
Almuiist and Wiksell
,
1991
.
Olupona
,
Jacob K.
, and
Gemignani
Regina
, eds.
African Immigrant Religions in America
.
New York
:
New York University Press
,
2005
.
Ostien
,
Philip
.
A Study of the Court Systems of Northern Nigeria with a Proposal for the Creation of Lower Sharia Courts in Some Northern States
.
Jos, Nigeria
:
Centre for Development Studies, University of Jos
,
1999
.
Oyediran
,
Oyeleye
. “
Transition without End: From Hope to Despair— Reflections of a Participant Observer
.” In
Dilemmas of Democracy in Nigeria
, edited by
Beckett
Paul A.
and
Young
Crawford
.
Rochester, NY
:
University of Rochester Press
,
1997
.
Ozigboh
,
Ikenga R. A.
An Introduction to the Religion and History of Islam
.
Enugu, Nigeria
:
Fourth Dimension
,
1988
.
Paden
,
John N.
Ahmadu Bello, Sarduna of Sokoto: Values and Leadership in Nigeria
.
Zaria
:
Hudahuda
,
1986
.
Paden
,
John N.
Faith and Politics in Nigeria: Nigeria as a Pivotal State in the Muslim World
.
Washington, DC
:
U.S. Institute of Peace Press
,
2008
.
Paden
,
John N.
Islam and Democratic Federalism in Nigeria
.”
Africa Notes, Center for Strategic and International Studies
, no.
8
(
March
2002
).
Paden
,
John N.
Religion and Political Culture in Kano
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
1973
.
Peel
,
J. D. Y.
Aladura: A Religious Movement among the Yoruba
.
London
:
Oxford University Press
,
1968
.
Peel
,
J. D. Y.
Conversion and Tradition in Two African Societies: Ijebu and Buganda
.”
Past and Present
77
, no.
1
(
1977
):
108
141
.
Peel
,
J. D. Y.
Ijeshas and Nigerians: The Incorporation of a Yoruba Kingdom, 1890s–1970s
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
,
1983
.
Peel
,
J. D. Y.
Inequality and Action: The Forms of Ijesha Social Conflict
.”
Canadian Journal of African Studies
14
, no.
3
(
1980
):
473
502
.
Peel
,
J. D. Y.
Change Religious in Yorubaland
.”
Africa
37
(
1967
):
292
306
.
Peel
,
J. D. Y.
Religious Encounter and the Making of the Yoruba
.
Bloomington
:
Indiana University Press
,
2003
.
Peters
,
Rudolf
.
Islam and Colonialism: The Doctrine of Jihad in Modern History
.
The Hague
:
Mouton
;
Berlin
:
De Gruyter
,
1979
.
Phillips
,
Barnaby
. “
Archbishop Visits Zamfara
.”
BBC News
,
February
3
,
2001
, .
Post
,
Kenneth
, and
Vickers
Michael
.
Structure and Conflict in Nigeria, 1960–1966
.
London
:
Heinemann
,
1973
.
Ranger
,
Terence
. “
The Local and the Global in Southern African Religious History
.” In
Conversion to Christianity: Historical and Anthropological Perspective on a Great Transformation
, edited by
Hefner
Robert W.
.
Berkeley
:
University of Calfornia Press
,
1993
.
Ranger
,
Terence
. “
Religious Movements and Politics in Sub-Saharan Africa
.”
African Studies Review
29
(
1986
).
Ranger
,
Terence
. “
The Invention of Tradition Revisited: The Case of Africa
.” In
Legitimacy and the State in Twentieth Century Africa: Essays in Honour of A. H. M. Kirk- Greene
, edited by
Ranger
Terence
and
Vaughan
Olufemi
.
London
:
Macmillan
,
1993
.
Rashid
,
Syed Khalid
, ed.
Islamic Law in Nigeria: Application and Teaching
.
Lagos
:
Islamic Publications Bureau
,
1986
.
Religion of Peace: Followers Torch Christian Churches: Hundreds Seek Refuge as Mobs Riot over Alleged ‘Insult’ to Muhammad
.”
World Net Daily
,
September
23
,
2006
.
“Reports on Ethnic Relations” (ten articles)
.
November
2002
, .
Revenge in the Name of Religion
.”
Human Rights Watch
,
May
26
,
2005
, .
Reynolds
,
Jonathan
. “
Good and Bad Muslims: Islam and Indirect Rule in Northern Nigeria
.”
International Journal of African Historical Studies
34
, no.
3
(
2001
):
601
618
.
Robertson
,
A. F.
Histories and Political Opposition, Ahafo, Ghana
.”
Africa
43
(
1973
).
Salamone
,
Frank A.
Ethnic Identities and Religion
.” In
Religion and Society in Nigeria: Historical and Sociological Perspectives
, edited by
Olupona
Jacob K.
and
Falola
Toyin
,
Ibadan
:
Spectrum Books
,
1991
.
Robertson
,
A. F.
Religion and Resistance in Pre- colonial and Colonial Nigeria
.” In
Religion and Society in Nigeria: Historical and Sociological Perspectives
, edited by
Olupona
Jacob K.
and
Falola
Toyin
.
Ibadan
:
Spectrum Books
,
1991
.
Sambo
,
Bashir
.
Shari’a and Justice: Lectures and Speeches
.
Zaria, Nigeria
:
Sankore Educational Publishers
,
2003
.
Sanneh
,
Lamin
. “
The CMS and African Transformation: Samuel Ajayi Crowther and the Opening of Nigeria
.” In
The Church Mission Society and World Christianity, 1799–1999
, edited by
Ward
Kevin
and
Stanley
Brian
.
Grand Rapids, MI
:
William B. Eerdmans
,
1999
.
Sanneh
,
Lamin
.
The Crown and the Turban: Muslim and West African Pluralism
.
Boulder, CO
:
Westview
,
1997
.
Sanusi
,
Sanusi Lamido
. “
The West and the Rest: Reflections on the Intercultural Dialogue about Shari’ah
.” In
Comparative Perspectives on Shari’ah in Nigeria
, edited by
Ostien
Philip
,
Nasir
Jamila M.
, and
Kogelman
Franz
,
251
302
.
Ibadan
:
Spectrum Books
,
2005
.
Schacht
,
Joseph F.
Islam in Northern Nigeria
.”
Studia Islamica
8
(
1957
):
123
146
.
Scholte
,
Jan Aart
. “
Defining Globalization
.”
World Economy
31
, no.
11
(
November
2008
):
1471
1502
.
Shankar
,
Shobana
.
Who Shall Enter Paradise: Christian Origins in Muslim Northern Nigeria, ca. 1890–1975
.
Athens
:
Ohio University Press
,
2014
.
Shariacracy on Trial
.”
Africa Confidential
42
, no.
17
(
August
31
,
2001
).
Shehu
,
Emman Usman
.
Sharia: The Fate of Northern Christians
(
Church and Society Margazine
),
2000
.
Sklar
,
Richard
.
Nigerian Political Parties: Power in an Emergent African Nation
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
,
1963
.
Smith
,
A. D.
The Nation, Invented, Imagined, and Reconstructed
.”
Millennium
26
(
1991
).
Smith
,
M. G.
Government in Zazzau, 1800–1950
.
London
:
Oxford University Press
,
1960
.
Sodiq
,
Yushau
. “
A History of Islamic Law in Nigeria
.”
Islamic Studies
31
(Spring
1992
):
85
108
.
State of the Nation
2
, no.
2
(
March
2000
).
Strayer
,
Robert
. “
Mission History in Africa: New Perspective on an Encounter
.”
African Studies Review
19
(
1976
):
1
15
.
Suberu
,
Rotimi T.
Religion and Institutions: Federalism and the Management of Conflicts over Sharia in Nigeria
.”
Journal of International Development
21
, no.
4
(
2009
):
547
560
.
Sulaiman
,
Ibraheem
.
The Islamic State and the Challenge of History: Ideals, Policies, and Operation of the Sokoto Caliphate
.
East-West University Islamic Studies
.
New York
:
Mansell
,
1987
.
Rashid
Syed Khalid
, ed.,
Islamic Law in Nigeria: Application and Teaching
,
Lagos
:
Islamic Publications Bureau
,
1986
.
Tabi’u
,
Mohammed
. “
Constraints in the Application of Islamic Law in Nigeria
.” In
Islamic Law in Nigeria: Application and Teaching
, edited by
Rashid
S. Khalid
.
Lagos
:
Islamic Publications Bureau
,
1986
.
Tayob
,
Abdulkader I.
The Demand for Shari’ah in African Democratisation Processes: Pitfalls or Opportunities?
” In
Comparative Perspectives on Shari’ah in Nigeria
, edited by
Ostien
Phillip
,
Nasir
Jamila M.
, and
Kogelmann
Franz
,
27
57
.
Ibadan
:
Spectrum Books Limited
,
2005
.
Tayob
,
Abdulkader I.
Sub- Saharan African Islam
.” In
The Oxford Handbook of Global Religions
, edited by
Jeurgensmeyer
Mark
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
,
2011
.
Time to Withdraw from O.I.C
.”
Challenge
, no.
4
(
1986
).
Umar
,
Muhammad S.
Hausa Traditional Political Culture, Islam, and Democracy: Historical Perspectives on Three Political Traditions
.” In
Democracy and Prebendalism in Nigeria: Critical Interpretations
, edited by
Adebanwi
Wale
and
Obadare
Ebenezer
.
New York
:
Palgrave Macmillan
,
2013
.
Vandu
,
Chippla
. “
The Talibanization of Northern Nigeria
.”
February
10
,
2006
,
http://chippla.blogspot.com, accessed March 2007
.
Vatican Council 11
.
Declaration on the Relations of the Church to Non- Christian Religions
, No.
3
.
Vaughan
,
Olufemi
. “
Africa, Transnationalism, and Globalization: An Overview
.” In
Transnational Africa and Globalization
, edited by
Okome
Mojubaolu Olufunke
and
Vaughan
Olufemi
.
New York
:
Palgrave Macmillan
,
2012
.
Vaughan
,
Olufemi
.
Nigerian Chiefs: Traditional Power in Modern Politics, 1890s–1990s
.
Rochester, NY
:
University of Rochester Press
,
2000
.
Vaughan
,
Olufemi
, and
Banu
Suraiya Zubair
. “
Muslim Women’s Rights in Northern Nigeria
.”
Africa Program Occasional Papers Series
.
Washington, DC
:
Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars
,
2014
.
Verini
,
James
. “
The War for Nigeria: A Bloody Insurgent Tears at the Fabric of Africa’s Most Populous Nation
.”
National Geographic
,
December
17
,
2013
.
Vickers
,
Michael
.
Ethnicity and Sub- Nationalism in Nigeria: Movement for a Mid- West State
.
African Studies Series 3
.
Oxford
:
Worldview
,
2000
.
Walker
,
Andrew
. “
What Is Boko Haram?
United Institute of Peace, Special Report
(
June
2012
):
1
16
.
Wallerstein
,
Immanuel
. “
Con temporary Capitalist Dilemma, the Social Sciences, and the Geopolitics of the Twenty- First Century
.”
Canadian Journal of Sociology
23
,
2/3
, (
1998
):
141
158
Wariboko
,
Nimi
.
Nigerian Pentecostalism
.
Rochester, NY
:
University of Rochester Press
,
2014
.
Warner
,
Zach
. “
The Sad Rise of Boko Haram
.”
New African
,
April
2012
,
Webster
,
J. B.
, and
Boahen
A. Adu
.
History of West Africa: The Revolutionary Years—1815 to Independence
.
New York
:
Praeger
,
1967
.
Whitaker
,
C. S.
Jr
.
The Politics of Tradition: Continuity and Change in Northern Nigeria, 1946–1966
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
,
1970
.
Williams
,
David
.
President and Power in Nigeria: The Life of Shehu Shagari
.
London
:
Frank Cass
,
1982
.
Williams
,
Patricia A.
The State, Religion, and Politics in Nigeria
.”
PhD diss.
,
University of Ibadan
,
1988
.
Yadudu
,
Auwalu H.
Colonialism and the Transformation of the Substance and Form of Islamic Law in the Northern States of Nigeria
.”
Journal of Law and Religion
9
, no.
1
(
1991
):
17
47
.
Yesufu
,
Tijani M.
, ed.
World Inter- Religious Crisis: An Islamic Initiative for Peace
.
Lagos
:
West Africa Book Publishers
,
2005
.
Yusuf
,
Ahmed Beita
.
Nigerian Legal System: Pluralism and Conflict of Laws in the Northern States
.
Delhi, India
:
National Publishing House
,
1982
.
Zeleza
,
Paul
. “
Africa and Its Diaspora: Remembering South America
.”
Research in African Literatures
40
, no.
4
(Winter
2009
):
151
159
.

Figures & Tables

Contents

Advertisement

References

Bibliography

Bibliography
Primary Sources
Rhodes House Library, University of Oxford
Anderson
,
J. N. D.
,
School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London
. “
Introduction: Relationship between Islamic Law and Customary Law in Africa, Emphasis on Northern Nigeria
.”
Conference on the Future of Law in Africa
,
December 1959
.
Arnett
,
E. J.
,
Resident
. “
Intelligence Report
.”
Sokoto Province
,
June
8
,
1918
.

Assistant District Officer H. M. Brice-Smith to the Resident of Kano Province, C. L. Temple. Mss. Afr. March 1915.

Birks
,
D. T. M.
,
Assistant District Officer
.
Waja Native Authority
.
Gombe Division
,
1945
.
Carrow J. H.
,
Commander
. “
Interview by A. H. M. Kirk- Greene
.”
Typescript
,
1966
.
Carrow J. H.
,
Commander
.
Kano Province Annual Report, 1909
.
Carrow J. H.
,
Commander
.
Kano Province Annual Report, 1910
.
Carrow J. H.
,
Commander
.
Native Administration, Kano Province
.
Carrow J. H.
,
Commander
.
Native Administration, Sokoto Province
.
Carrow J. H.
,
Commander
.
Typescript
.
Carrow-Heussler Papers on Northern Nigeria
. “
Commander Carrow’s Letter, April 5, 1965: Dorset, England
.”
Colonial Records Project, Institute of Commonwealth Studies
,
Queen Elizabeth House
,
1965–1972
.
Mss. Afr. s. 1489
.
Clifford
,
Hugh
Governor
. “
Circular
.”
Native Administration
,
1923
.

Conference on the Future of Law in Africa, December 1959–January 1960. Mss. Afr. s. 1193.

Correspondence
.”
District Officer, G. J. Lethem to the Resident, Bornu, 15/3
,
September
25
,
1923
.

Customary Law and Its Application to English Law. CO/537 6/59.

De Foucauld of the Sahara, a Great Son of France and of View of French Muslim Policy and Problems
.
West Africa
,
January
19
,
1924
.
Mss. Afr. s. 783, 1/11, 1922. Published posthumously
.
Great Britain. Colonial Office
.
Nigeria: Report of the Commission Appointed to Enquire into the Fears of Minorities and Means of Allaying Them; Presented to Parliament by the Secretary of State for the Colonies by Command of Her Majesty July 1958
.
Norwich, UK
:
HM Stationery Office
,
1958
.

Guy, J. C., Assistant District Officer, Katagum Division. Touring Diary. Bauchi Province. Mss. Afr.

Hickey
,
Raymond
.
Typescript of Interview
,
Catholic Mission in Northern Nigeria
(
Gongola
).

Institute of Administration, Northern Nigeria, Local Government Wing. Lecture Note Series, November 1954. Mss. Afr. s. 1871.

Institute of Administration, Northern Nigeria, Local Government Wing. Lecture Note Series, November 1954. Mss. Afr. s. 1871 (2), 1954.

Jacob, S. M. Report on Taxation. Mss. Afr. T. 16.

Letchworth, Assistant District Officer. Nassarawa Division, 1926.

Letchworth
,
Resident
.
Typescript of interview, former Resident, Bornu Province
,
1969
.
Letchworth
,
Resident
.
Typescript of interview, Resident, Northern Provinces
,
1969
.
Lethem
,
G. J.
Confidential Document, Islamic Propaganda. Mss. British Empire
.
Maiduguri
,
November
15
,
1924
.

Lethem, G. J. Confidential File.

Lethem
,
G. J.
Intelligence Report, Islamic Propaganda, 11, 5. Mss. British Empire
.
Nazaru, Maiduguri
,
August
1924
.

Lethem, G. J. Intelligence Report, Islamic Propaganda in Northern Nigeria, LMSS. Mss. British Empire.

Lethem
,
G. J.
Islamic Propaganda. Mss. British Empire (Lethem)
13
,
1924
.
Lethem
,
G. J.
,
Acting Resident. 42/1923 of 9/6/1924, 231/123
.
Bornu Province
,
Maiduguri
,
October
15
,
1923
.
Lethem
,
G. J.
District Officer to the Resident. Confidential Correspondence (file 9/1923)
.
Bornu
,
September
22
,
1923
.

Lethem, G. J., Former Administrative Officer. 192 Ferry Road: Edinburgh, Scotland. “Circular, Number 49–203, Kaduna, June 29, 1920.” From the Secretary, Northern Provinces, G. R. Matthews to the Resident Bornu Province.

Lethem
,
G. J.
,
Resident. “Circular: Number 89/285/1920.” From the Secretary, Northern Provinces, to the Resident, Bornu Province, Kaduna, September 23, 1920, 15/3
(
Dikwa District
:
May
10
,
1990
).

Letters of the Reverend Canon R. A. Wright to His Mother.

Macpherson, Sir John Stuart, Former Governor of Nigeria. Typescript of interview, 1969.

Macpherson, Sir John Stuart, Former Governor of Nigeria. Typescript of interview, 1970.

Macpherson, Sir John Stuart, Former Governor of Nigeria. Typescript of interview, No. 10, 1969.

Maddocks
,
Sir Kenneth
. “
Secret and Personal Documents, 30 July 1953, signed by A. E. T. Benson Esq. cmg, Nigerian Secretariat
.”
Nigerian Constitution Conference. Mss. Afr. s. 11794
.
Lagos
,
1953
.

Maguire, Reverend. Typescript of interview conducted by Andrew Barnes.

Maguire
,
Reverend
.
Typescript of oral interview
,
April–June
1993
.
Marshall
,
Hedley H.
,
Former Attorney General of Northern Nigeria. Typescript of interview
,
1969
.
Marshall
,
Hedley H.
Typescript of interview
, No.
7
,
1969
.
Marshall
,
Hedley H.
Typescript of interview
, No.
8
,
1969
.
Marshall
,
Hedley H.
Typescript of interview
, No.
9
,
1969
.
Marshall
,
Hedley H.
Typescript of interview
, No.
10
,
1969
.

Marshall, Hedley H. Interview conducted and transcribed by A. H. M. Kirk- Greene in Oxford on May 15, 1970. Mss. Afr. s. 2339.

Matthews
,
H. F.
,
Assistant District Officer, Agaie-Lapai Division
.
Handing Over Notes
,
November
7
,
1919
.
Mss. Afr. s. 783, box 2/6
.

Morley, J. A. E., Assistant District Officer. Re-Organization of East Tangale District. Gombe, August 1945. Mss. British Empire.

Northern Nigerian Native Administration Law of 1954.

Papers of Assistant District Officer Letchworth.

Patterson
,
Bishop Cecil
. “
C.M.S. Missionary Account (CMS Mission 2)
.”
Interview
.
Mss. Afr
.

Patterson, Bishop Cecil. C.M.S. Missionary File. Mss. Afr. s. 2302, 1969.

Patterson, Bishop Cecil. Typescript of interview. Mss. Afr. s. 1680.

Resident
.
Confidential Memorandum
.
Bornu Province
,
Potiskum
,
August
31
,
1923
.

Richards, Arthur, former Governor of Nigeria. Typescript of interview, 1969.

Sharwood-Smith, Bryn. Mss. Afr. s. 2103, SG, 3228/1957, Governor’s Office, Northern Region, Kaduna. February 20, 1957.

Temple
,
C. L.
Kano Province Annual Report, 1909
.

Temple, C. L., Resident. Annual Report, 41, for the year ending December 31, 1909, Kano Province. Mss. Afr. s. 230.

Temple
,
C. L.
Kano Province Annual Report, 1909
.

Watt, J. W. Diaries of Administrative Officer. Mss. Afr. 117, 1960

Wright, Reverend Canon. Letter to His Mother, May 7, 1929.

Wright, Reverend Canon. Letter to His Mother, July 2, 1929.

Wright, Reverend Canon. Letter to His Mother, September 16, 1929.

Wright, Reverend Canon. Letter to His Mother, October 25, 1929.

Wright, Reverend Canon. Letter to His Mother, November 21, 1929.

Wright, Reverend Canon. Letter to His Mother, January 12, 1930.

Wright, Reverend Canon. Canon. Letter to His Mother, May 15, 1930

Documents from the Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

Catholic Bishops of Nigeria (pamphlet).

General Observations and Recommendation of the Donli Panel
.
Kaduna
,
1987
.
Herman
,
Jessi
. “
A Divided Nigeria
.”
Institute for Global Engagement
,
unpublished manuscript
,
November
30
,
2001
.

Kaduna State Shari’ah Penal Code.

Ngban
,
Moni Odo
.
Is Shari’ah the Law of God? Why Christians Reject It: The Implications on a Nation
.
Self published
,
2001
.
Press Conference Addressed by Citizen’s League for Peace and Democracy on the Kaduna Crisis
.” (
press release
)
March
30
,
2000
.
Reaction of the Christian Association of Nigeria to the Report and Recommendation Submitted by the Committee to Investigate Causes of Riots and Disturbances in Kaduna State
.
1987
.
Church Missionary Society Digital Archive

Church Missionary Gleaner. 1848, 1850, and 1851.

Niger Mission
.”
CMS Original Papers
,
1907
.
Niger Mission
.”
CMS Original Papers
,
1932
.
Yoruba Mission
.”
CMS Original Papers
,
1907
.
University of Ibadan Library, Africana Collection

Address Delivered at the Inaugural Meeting of the Committee on Nigeria’s Membership of the Organization of Islamic Conference by Major General Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida, CFR, President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, at Abuja, February 3, 1986.

Adegbite, Lateef, Secretary- General, Nigerian Supreme Council for Islamic Affairs. Keynote Address, delivered at the opening ceremony of the 16th Annual Conference of the Nigerian Association for the Study of Religions, October 8, 1991, Ilorin, Nigeria.

Broadcast to the Nation by His Excellency Major- General J. T. U. Aguiyi Ironsi, Head of the National Government and Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces, Tuesday, 24 May, 1966
.
Lagos
:
Government Printer
,
1966
.
Committee of Concerned Citizens (Nigeria)
.
The Sharia Issue: Working Papers for a Dialogue
.
Nigeria
:
Committee of Concerned Citizens
,
2002
.

Constitution of Nigeria, 1999.

Licensed to Harm: Framework of the Area Courts, pamphlet, undated.

Onaiyekan
,
John
, ed.
Religion: Peace and Justice in Nigeria. Breaking New Grounds, Communiqué of the Catholic Bishops’ Conference of Nigeria, February 1989 and related Documents
.
Lagos
:
Ilorin Diocese Catechetical Resource Centre
,
1989
.
Report of the Political Bureau
.
Lagos
:
Federal Government Printer
,
1986
.
Family Papers of Southern Baptist Convention Missionaries at the David M. Rubenstein Rare Books and Manuscript Library, Duke University

Logan Family Papers, 1952–1994

McGee Family Papers, 1957–2013

Pool Family Papers, 1928–1998

Roberson Family Papers, 1917–1977

Loy Connell Smith and Eunice Andrews Smith Bland Papers, 1958–1999

Taylor Family Papers, 1950–1975

Records of the Sudan Interior Mission International, Wheaton College, Illinios

BGG Reel number 99 and SIM Reel number SR-19, 1912–1971, (Nigeria) Kano-Karu

Publications of the Office of the National Security Adviser, Federal Republic of Nigeria

The National Counter-Terrorism Strategy

Nigeria’s CVE Program: Changing Minds and Influencing Communities

Presidential Initiatives for the North East. Published by the Office of the National Security Adviser, Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2014.

Publications of Pentecostal Churches
Adeboye
,
E. A.
Open Heavens: A Daily Guide to Close Fellowship with God
.
Redemption Camp, Ogun State
:
Open Heavens International
,
2013
.
Aransiola
,
Moses
.
Praying for National Transformation: Securing Divine Visitation for Nigeria
.
Ibadan
:
Gethsemane
,
2008
.
Aransiola
,
Moses
.
Prophetic Destiny of Africa
.
Ibadan
:
Gethsemane
,
2008
.
Fadele
,
James O.
Your 4 Fathers and Their Kingdom
.
Greenville, TX
:
Fadel
,
2014
.
Oyedepo
,
David O.
The Mandate: A Timeless Operational Manual
.
Canan Land, Ota
:
Dominion
,
2012
.
Oyedepo
,
David O.
On Eagle’s Wings: My First 30-Year Adventure in Ministry
.
Canan Land, Ota
:
Dominion
,
2013
.
Oyedepo
,
David O.
Ruling Your World: A Recipe for Impactful Living
.
Canan Land, Ota
:
Dominion
,
2005
.
Oyedepo
,
David O.
The Unlimited Power of Faith: Operating in a World of Unlimited Possibilities
.
Canan Land, Ota
:
Dominion
,
2011
.
Oyedepo
,
David O.
Winning Prayer
.
Canan Land, Ota
:
Dominion
,
2008
.
Oyedepo
,
Faith A.
Overcoming Anxiety
.
Canan Land, Ota
:
Dominion
,
2008
.

Pentecostal Doctrine, The Redeemed Christian Church of God, undated.

Redeemed Christian Church of God
.
Illustrating the Fundamental Beliefs in the Bible
.
Ibadan
:
Feyisetan Press
,
1998
.
.
The Redeemed Christian Church of God, The King’s Parish
,
Walthamstow, London E17 5QX
,
accessed April 12, 2008
.
Newspapers and Magazines

Africa Confidential New Nigerian

BBC News Africa New Nigerian Weekly

BBCNews, HARDtalk New York Times

Christian Science Monitor New York Times Magazine

Christianity Today Sunday Concord

Compass Direct News Weekend Concord

National Catholic Reporter World

National Concord World Press Review

SECONDARY SOURCES
Abdullah
,
Zain
. “
Towards an African Muslim Globality: The Parading of Transnational Identities in Black America
.” In
West African Migrations: Transnational and Global Pathways in a New Century
, edited by
Okome
Mojubaolu Olufunke
and
Vaughan
Olufemi
.
New York
:
Palgrave Macmillan
,
2011
.
Abdulraheem
,
Tajudeen
. “
Politics in Nigeria’s Second Republic
.”
DPhil thesis
,
University of Oxford
,
1990
.
Abimbola
,
Adesoji
. “
The Boko Haram Uprising and Islamic Revivalism in Nigeria
.”
Afrika Spectrum
45
, no.
2
(
2010
):
95
108
.
Abimbola
,
Wande
.
Ifa: An Exposition of the Literary Corpus
.
Ibadan
:
Oxford University Press
,
1976
.
Abubakar
,
Dauda
. “
Ethnic Identity, Democratization, and the Future of the African State: Lessons from Nigeria
.”
African Issues
29
, nos.
1 and 2
(
2001
):
31
36
.
Adamu
,
Fatima L.
Gender, Hisba and the Enforcement of Morality in Northern Nigeria
.”
Africa
78
, no.
1
(
2008
).
Adebanwi
,
Wale
.
Yoruba Elites and Ethnic Politics in Nigeria: Obafemi Awolowo and Corporate Agency
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
,
2014
.
Adebiyi
,
P. A.
Church and Anglican Education
.” In
The Anglican Church in Nigeria
, edited by
Omoyajowo
Akinyele
.
Ibadan
:
Macmillan Nigeria
,
1994
.
Adesoji
,
Abimbola
. “
The Boko Haram Uprising and Islamic Revivalism in Nigeria
.”
Africa Spectrum
,
45
, no.
2
(
2010
):
95
108
.
Adigwe
,
Hypolite A.
Nigeria Joins the Organization of Islamic Conference, O.I.C.: The Implications for Nigeria
.”
Paper presented at the Symposium on OIC, Bigard Memorial Seminary Enugu
,
March 15, 1986
.
Adogame
,
Afe
. “
Engaging the Rhetoric of Spiritual Warfare: The Public Face of Aladura in Diaspora
.”
Journal of Religion in Africa
34
, no.
4
(
1998
):
278
315
.
Adogame
,
Afe
. “
Online for God: Media and Negotiation and Africa New Religious Movement
.” In
Who Is Afraid of the Holy Ghost? Pentecostalism and Globalization in Africa and Beyond
.
Trenton, NJ
:
Africa World Press
,
2011
.
Ado-Kurawa
,
Ibrahim
. “
Nigeria: State of the Nation
.” In
Shari’ah and the Press in Nigeria: Islam versus Western Christian Civilization
.
Kano, Nigeria
:
Kurawa Holdings
,
2000
.
Ado-Kurawa
,
Ibrahim
.
Shari’ah and the Press in Nigeria: Islam versus Western Christian Civilization
.
Kano, Nigeria
:
Kurawa Holdings
,
2000
.
Afigbo
,
A. E.
The National Question in Nigerian History, Politics and Affairs
.” In
Nigerian History, Politics and Affairs: The Collected Essays of Adiele Afigbo
, edited by
Falola
Toyin
.
Trenton, NJ
:
Africa World Press
,
2005
.
Afolabi
,
Niyi
.
Afro-Brazilians: Cultural Production in a Racial Democracy
.
Rochester, NY
:
University of Rochester Press
,
2009
.
Afolayan
,
Funso
. “
The Church in Northern Nigeria, 1842–1992
.” In
The Anglican Church in Nigeria (1842–1992)
, edited by
Omoyajowo
Akinyele
.
Lagos
:
Macmillan Nigeria
,
1994
.
Ajasin
,
M. A.
Ajasin: Memoirs and Memories
.
Lagos
:
Ajasin Foundation
,
2003
.
Ajayi
,
J. F. Ade
. “
Bishop Crowther: A Patriot to the Core
.” In
Tradition and Change in Africa: The Essays of J. F. Ade Ajayi
, edited by
Falola
Toyin
.
Trenton
:
Africa World Press
,
2000
.
Ajayi
,
J. F. Ade
.
Christian Missions in Nigeria 1841–1891: The Making of a New Elite
.
Evanston, IL
:
Northwestern University Press
,
1965
.
Ajayi
,
J. F. Ade
. “
Henry Venn and the Policy of Development
.” In
Tradition and Change in Africa: The Essays of J. F. Ade Ajayi
, edited by
Falola
Toyin
.
Trenton
:
Africa World Press
,
2000
.
Ajayi
,
J. F. Ade
. “
Introduction
.” In
The Anglican Church in Nigeria (1842–1992)
, edited by
Omoyajowo
Akinyele
.
Ibadan
:
Macmillan Nigeria
,
1994
.
Akintoye
,
S. Adebanji
.
A History of the Yoruba People
.
Dakar, Senegal
:
Amalion
,
2010
.
Al-Hajj
,
M. A.
Hayatu Said: A Revolutionary Mahdist in the Western Sudan
.” In
Sudan in Africa
, edited by
Hasan
Y. F.
.
Khartoum
:
Khartoum University Press
,
1971
.
Al-Hajj
,
M. A.
The Writings of Shehu Uthman dan Fodio
.”
Kano Studies
1
, no.
2
(
1974
).
Aliyu
,
Abubakar Y.
, ed.
The Role of Local Government in the Social, Political, and Economic Development of Nigeria
.
Zaria
:
Ahmadu Bello University
,
1982
.
Alkali
,
Muhammad
,
Abubakar
Nur
,
Monguno
Kawu
, and
Mustafa
Ballama Shettima
. “
Overview of Islamic Actors in Northwestern Nigeria
.”
Working Paper No. 2, Nigeria Research Network, Oxford Department of International Development
,
Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford
,
January
2012
.
Amadi
,
E. Lawrence
. “
Church-State Involvement in Educational Development in Nigeria, 1842–1948
.”
Journal of Church and State
19
, no.
3
(
1977
):
481
496
.
Amnesty International
.
Nigeria: Time to End Contempt for Human Rights
.
November
6
,
1996
.
Anderson
,
Allan
. “
Globalization and Independent Pentecostals in Africa: A South African Perspective
.” In
Who Is Afraid of the Holy Ghost? Pentecostalism and Globalization in Africa and Beyond
, edited by
Adogame
Afe
.
Trenton, NJ
:
Africa World Press
,
2011
.
Anderson
,
J. N. D.
Conflict of Laws in Northern Nigeria: A New Start
.”
International and Comparative Law Quarterly
8
, no.
3
(
July
1959
):
442
456
.
Anderson
,
J. N. D.
Islamic Law in Africa
.
London
:
Frank Cass & Co.
,
1955
.
Anih
,
Stan
.
The Cathedral and the Mosque Can Co- exist in Nigeria
.
Enugu, Nigeria
:
Stan Anih
,
1984
.
Anih
,
Stan
.
An Introduction to the Fundamentals of Religious Ecumenism in Nigeria
.
Enugu, Nigeria
:
SNAAP
,
1990
.
Anih
,
Stan
.
Religious Ecumenism and Education for Tolerance
.
Enugu, Nigeria
:
SNAAP
,
1992
.
Arinze
,
Francis A. (Cardinal)
.
Progress in Christian- Muslim Relations Worldwide
.
Jos, Plateau State
:
Augustinian Publications Nigeria
,
1988
.
Asaju
,
Dapo
. “
Globalization, Politicization of Religion, and Religious Networking: The Case of the Pentecostal Fellowship in Nigeria
.” In
Who Is Afraid of the Holy Ghost? Pentecostalism and Globalization in Africa and Beyond
, edited by
Adogame
Afe
.
Trenton, NJ
:
Africa World Press
,
2011
.
Atanda
,
J. A.
, ed.
Baptist Churches in Nigeria: Accounts of Their Foundation and Growth, 1850–1950
.
Ibadan
:
University of Ibadan Press
,
1988
.
Atanda
,
J. A.
The New Oyo Empire: Indirect Rule and Change in Western Nigeria 1894–1934
.
London
:
Longman
,
1973
.
Awofeso
,
Niyi
,
Ritchie
Jan
, and
Degeling
Pieter
. “
The Almajiri Heritage and the Threat of Non- State Terrorism in Northern Nigeria: Lessons from Central Asia and Pakistan
.”
Studies in Conflict and Terrorism
26
, no.
4
(
2003
):
311
325
.
Awolowo
,
Obafemi
.
Path to Nigerian Freedom
.
London
:
Faber
,
1947
.
Ayandele
,
E. A.
Holy Johnson, Pioneer of African Nationalism, 1836–1917
.
Africana Modern Library 13
.
New York
:
Routledge
,
1970
.
Ayandele
,
E. A.
The Ijebu of Yorubaland, 1850–1950: Politics, Economy and Society
.
Ibadan
:
Heinemann Educational Books
,
1992
.
Ayandele
,
E. A.
The Missionary Factor in Northern Nigeria, 1870–1919
.” In
The History of Christianity in West Africa: The Nigerian Story
, edited by
Kalu
Ogbu Uke
,
Ibadan
:
Daystar
,
1978
.
Ayandele
,
E. A.
The Missionary Impact on Modern Nigeria, 1842–1914: A Political and Social Analysis
.
London
:
Longman
,
1966
.
Ayantuga
,
Obafemi
, “
Ijebu and Its Neighbours, 1851–1914
.”
PhD diss.
,
University of London
,
1965
.
Ayegboyin
,
Deji
. “
New Pentecostal Churches and Prosperity Theology in Nigeria
.” In
Who Is Afraid of the Holy Ghost? Pentecostalism and Globalization in Africa and Beyond
, edited by
Adogame
Afe
.
Trenton, NJ
:
Africa World Press
,
2011
.
Azikiwe
,
Nnamdi
.
Zik: A Se lection from the Speeches of Azikiwe
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
,
1961
.
Badren
,
Margot
. “
Sharia Activism and Zina in Nigeria in the Era of Hudud
.” In
Gender and Islam in Africa: Rights, Sexuality, and Law
, edited by
Badren
Margot
.
Bloomington
:
Indiana University Press
,
2012
.
Badru
,
Pade
. “
The Hausa Speaking People of West Africa
.” in
Encyclopaedia of Africa and the Middle East
,
127
129
.
Santa Barbara, CA
:
ABC-CLIO
,
2011
.
Badru
,
Pade
. “
Historical Foundations and Basic Philosophy of Islam
.” In
Islam in Sub- Saharan Africa: Changing Gender Relations and Political Reforms
, edited by
Badru
Pade
and
Sackey
Brigid
.
New York
:
Rowman & Littlefield
,
2012
.
Balewa
,
Abubakar Tafawa
Sir
,
Alhaji
.
Shaihu Umar: A Novel about Slavery in Africa
. Edited by
Mack
Beverly
. Translated by
Hiskett
Mervyn
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Markus Wiener Publishers
,
1989
.
Barnes
,
Andrew E.
Making Headway: The Introduction of Western Civilization in Colonial Nigeria
.
Rochester, NY
:
University of Rochester Press
,
2009
.
Barnes
,
Andrew E.
Religious Insults: Christian Critiques of Islam and Colonial Government in Northern Nigeria
.”
Journal of Religion in Africa
14
, no.
1 and 2
(
2004
):
62
81
.
Bassey
,
Magnus O.
Missionary Rivalry and Educational Expansion in Southern Nigeria, 1885–1932
.”
Journal of Negro Education
60
, no.
1
(
1991
).
Bassey
,
Magnus O.
Missionary Rivalry and Educational Expansion in Nigeria, 1885–1945
.
Lewiston, NY
:
Edwin Mellen
,
1999
.
Bateye
,
Bolaji
. “
Female Religious Leadership in Nigerian Pentecostalism: Embers or Gale?
” In
Who Is Afraid of the Holy Ghost? Pentecostalism and Globalization in Africa and Beyond
, edited by
Adogame
Afe
.
Trenton, NJ
:
Africa World Press
,
2011
.
BBC News
.
Interview with Sule Lamido
.
HardTalk
,
November
12
,
2000
.
Behrouz
,
Andra Nahal
. “
Transforming Islamic Family Law: State Responsibility and the Role of Internal Initiative
.”
Columbia Law Review
103
, no.
5
(
2003
):
1136
1162
.
Bello
,
Mohammed
,
former Chief Justice of Federal Republic of Nigeria
. “
Sharia and the Constitution
.” In
The Sharia Issue: Working Papers for a Dialogue
, edited by
Edu
S. L.
et al
.,
5
13
.
Lagos
:
Committee of Concerned Citizens
,
2000
.
Bello
,
Sir Ahmadu
.
My Life
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
,
1962
.
Berry
,
Sara S.
Cocoa, Custom, and Socioeconomic Change in Rural Western Nigeria
.
Oxford
:
Clarendon
,
1975
.
Bienen
,
Henry
. “
Religion, Legitimacy, and Conflict in Nigeria
.”
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
483
, no.
1
(
January
1986
):
50
60
.
Boer
,
Jan H.
Nigeria’s Decades of Blood, 1980–2002
. Vol.
1
of
Studies in Christian-Muslim Relations
.
Belle ville, ON
:
Essence
,
2003
.
Braudel
,
Fernand
. “
Histoire et sciences sociales: La longue durée
.”
Réseaux: Communication- Technologie- Société
5
, no.
27
(
1987
):
7
37
.
Byang
,
Danjuma
.
Shari’a in Nigeria: A Christian Perspective
.
Jos, Nigeria
:
Challenge
,
1988
.
Callaway
,
Barbara J.
Education and the Emancipation of Hausa Muslim Women in Nigeria
.
Working Paper for Women in International Development 129
.
East Lansing
:
Michigan State University Press
,
1986
.
Callaway
,
Barbara J.
Muslim Hausa Women in Nigeria: Tradition and Change
.
Syracuse, NY
:
Syracuse University Press
,
1987
.
Callaway
,
Barbara J.
, and
Creevey
Lucy
.
The Heritage of Islam: Women, Religion, and Politics in West Africa
.
Boulder, CO
:
Lynne Rienner
,
1993
.
Cameron
,
Donald C.
The Principle of Native Administration and Their Application
.
Lagos
:
Government Printers
,
1934
.
Campbell
,
John
.
Nigeria: Dancing on the Brink
.
Lanham, MD
:
Rowman & Littlefield
,
2013
.
Casey
,
C.
‘Policing’ through Violence: Fear, Vigilantism, and the Politics of Islam in Northern Nigeria
.” In
Global Vigilantes: Perspectives on Justice and Violence
, edited by
Pratten
David
and
Sen
A.
.
London
:
Hurst
; and
New York
:
Columbia University Press
,
2007
.
Catholic Bishops’ Stand on the O.I.C. Issue
.
Lagos
:
Catholic Secretariat Publications
,
September
1986
.
Chidester
,
David
. “
African Christian Communities
.” In
The Oxford Handbook of Global Religions
, edited by
Juergensmeyer
Mark
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
,
2006
.
Clarke
,
Kamari Maxine
.
Local Practices, Global Controversies: Islam in Sub- Saharan African Contexts
.
MacMillan Center Working Paper Series
.
New Haven, CT
:
MacMillan Center
,
2005
.
Coleman
,
James S.
Nigeria: Background to Nationalism
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
1958
.
Coles
,
Catherine
, and
Mack
Beverly
, eds.
Hausa Women in the Twentieth Century
.
Madison
:
University of Wisconsin Press
,
1991
.
Collett
,
Adrian
. “
Recent Legislation and Reform Proposals for Customary and Area Courts in Nigeria
.”
Journal of African Law
22
, no.
2
(Autumn
1978
):
161
187
.
Comaroff
,
Jean
, and
Comaroff
John
.
Of Revelation and Revolution
, volume
1
:
Christianity, Colonialism, and Consciousness of a South African People
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
,
1991
.
Cook
,
David
. “
Boko Haram: A Prognosis
.”
James A. Baker III Institute of Public Policy
,
Rice University
,
unpublished manuscript
,
December
16
,
2010
.
Crampton
,
E. P. T.
Christianity in Northern Nigeria
.
London
:
Geoffrey Chapman
,
1979
.
Crampton
,
E. P. T.
Christianity in Northern Nigeria
.” In
Christianity in West Africa: The Nigerian Story
, edited by
Kalu
Ogbu
.
Ibadan
:
Daystar
,
1978
.
Creech Jones
,
Arthur
.
Labour’s Colonial Policy
.
London
:
Fabian Colonial Bureau
,
1947
.
Crowder
,
Michael
.
The Story of Nigeria
.
London
:
Faber & Faber
,
1966
.
Danfulani
,
Umar Habila Dadem
. “
Globalization, Fundamentalism and the Pentecostal/ Charismatic Movement in Nigeria
.” In
Who Is Afraid of the Holy Ghost? Pentecostalism and Globalization in Africa and Beyond
, edited by
Adogame
Afe
.
Trenton, NJ
:
Africa World Press
,
2011
.
David
,
P.
Islamic Law May Spread in Nigeria
.”
Washington Report on Middle East Affairs
19
, no.
3
(
April
2000
).
Davidson
,
Basil
.
The African Genius
.
Athens
:
Ohio University Press
,
2004
.
Debki
,
Bee
.
The Tragedy of Sharia: Cry and Voice of Masses. Kaduna Crisis from an Eye Witness
.
Kaduna, Nigeria
:
Bee Debki
,
2000
.
Diamond
,
Larry
.
Class, Ethnicity, and Democracy in Nigeria: The Failure of the First Republic
.
London
:
Macmillan
,
1988
.
Diamond
,
Larry
. “
Nigeria: The Uncivic Society and the Descent into Praetorianism
.” In
Politics in Developing Countries: Comparing Experience with Democracy
, 2nd ed., edited by
Diamond
Larry
,
Linz
Juan J.
, and
Lipset
Seymour Martin
.
Boulder, CO
:
Lynne Rienner
,
1995
.
Dike
,
K. Onwuka
. “
Origins of the Niger Mission, 1841–1891
.”
A paper read at the Centenary of the Mission of Christ Church
,
Onisha
, on
November 13, 1957
.
Ibadan
:
Published for CMS Niger Mission by Ibadan University Press
,
1962
.
Doi
,
Abdur Rahman I.
The Impact of English Law and Concepts on the Administration of Islamic Law in Nigeria
.” In
African and Western Legal Systems in Contact
, translated by
Aguda
T. Akinola
et al
.,
25
56
.
Bayreuth African Studies Series
.
Bavaria, Germany
:
Bayreuth University
,
1989
.
Dudley
,
B. J.
Instability and Political Order: Politics and Crisis in Nigeria
.
Ibadan
:
Ibadan University Press
,
1970
.
Dudley
,
B. J.
Parties and Politics in Northern Nigeria
.
London
:
Frank Cass
,
1968
.
Durham
,
W. Cole
Jr
. “
Nigeria’s ‘State Religion’ Question in Comparative Perspective
.” In
Comparative Perspectives on Shari’ah in Nigeria
, edited by
Ostien
Philip
,
Nasir
Jamila M.
, and
Kogelman
Franz
,
144
177
.
Ibadan
:
Spectrum Books
,
2005
.
Edu
,
S. L.
et al
., eds.
The Sharia Issue: Working Papers for a Dialogue
.
Lagos
:
Committee of Concerned Citizens
,
2000
.
Emekwue
,
Henry
.
Democracy and Religion: Sharia in Nigeria
.
Enugu, Nigeria
:
SNAAP
,
2000
.
Enwerem
,
Iheanyi M.
A Dangerous Awakening: The Politicization of Religion in Nigeria
.
Ibadan
:
Institut Francais de Recherche en Afrique
,
1995
.
Esposito
,
John L.
, ed.
The Oxford History of Islam
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
,
1999
.
Essien
,
E.
The Jurisdiction of State High Courts in Nigeria
.”
Journal of African Law
44
, no.
2
(
2000
).
Falola
,
Toyin
.
Ibadan: Foundation, Growth and Change, 1830–1960
.
Ibadan
:
Bookcraft
,
2012
.
Falola
,
Toyin
.
Religious Militancy and Self Assertion: Islam and Politics in Nigeria
.
London
:
Avebury
,
1996
.
Falola
,
Toyin
.
Violence in Nigeria: The Crisis of Religious Politics and Secular Ideologies
.
Rochester, NY
:
University of Rochester Press
,
1998
.
Falola
,
Toyin
, and
Ihonvbere
Julius
.
The Rise and Fall of Nigeria’s Second Republic
.
London
:
Zed Press
,
1985
.
Falola
,
Toyin
, and
Oguntomisin
Dare
.
The Military in Nineteenth Century Yoruba Politics
.
Ile-Ife
:
University of Ife Press
,
1982
.
Federici
,
Sylvia
, and
Caffentzis
George
. “
Globalization and Professionalization in Africa
.”
Social Text
22
, no.
2
(Summer
2004
):
81
99
.
Flint
,
J. E.
The Growth of European Influence in West Africa in the Nineteenth Century
.” In
A Thousand Years of West African History
, edited by
Ajayi
A. Ade
and
Espie
Ian
.
London
:
Nelson
,
1969
.
Galadima
,
Justice Suleiman
. “
Marriage and Inheritance Laws in a Plural Society— Nigerian Experience
.”
Journal of Private and Public Law
1
, no.
1
(
2008
):
86
99
.
Gbadamosi
,
T. G. O.
The Growth of Islam among Yoruba Muslim
.
London
:
Longman
,
1978
.
Goody
,
Jack
.
The Logic of Writing and the Organization of Society
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
,
1986
.
Gumi
,
Sheikh Abubakar
, with
Tsiga
Ismaila Abubakar
.
Where I Stand
.
Ibadan
:
Spectrum Books
,
1992
.
Gurin
,
Aminu M.
The Concept of Honesty in Islam: Its Role in Fostering Discipline in Nigeria
.
Occasional Publication of the National Orientation Agency, no. 1
.
Zaria, Nigeria
:
Centre for Islamic Legal Studies, Institute of Administration, Ahmadu Bello University
.
Gusau
,
Nababa Sanda
.
A Case for Shari’ah in Nigeria
.
Kaduna
,
1994
.
Gwarzo
,
Tahir Haliru
. “
Activities of Islamic Civic Associations in the Northwest of Nigeria: With Particular Reference to Kano State
.”
Africa Spectrum
38
, no.
3
(
2003
):
289
318
.
Hackett
,
Rosalind I. J.
Is Satan Local or Global? Reflections on a Nigerian Deliverance Movement
.” In
Who Is Afraid of the Holy Ghost? Pentecostalism and Globalization in Africa and Beyond
, edited by
Adogame
Afe
.
Trenton, NJ
:
Africa World Press
,
2011
.
Hackett
,
Rosalind I. J.
Rethinking the Role of Religion in the Public Sphere: Local and Global Perspectives
.” In
Comparative Perspectives on Shari’ah in Nigeria
, edited by
Ostien
Philip
,
Nasir
Jamila M.
, and
Kogelman
Franz
.
Ibadan
:
Spectrum Books
,
2005
.
Harnischfeger
,
Johannes
.
Democratization and Islamic Law: The Sharia Conflict in Nigeria
.
New York
:
Campus Verlag
,
2008
.
Harnischfeger
,
Johannes
. “
Sharia and Control over Territory: Conflicts between ‘Settlers’ and ‘Indigenes’ in Nigeria
.”
African Affairs
103
, no.
412
(
2004
):
431
452
.
Harunah
,
Hakeem B.
Shari’ah under Western Democracy in Contemporary Nigeria: Contradictions, Crises, and the Way Forward
.
Ikeja, Nigeria
:
Perfect Printers
,
2002
.
Haynes
,
Jeffrey
. “
Popular Religion and Politics in Africa
.”
Third World Quarterly
16
, no.
1
(
1995
):
89
108
.
Haynes
,
Jeffrey
.
Religion and Politics in Africa
.
London
:
Zed Books
,
1996
.
Hefner
,
Robert W.
Introduction: World Building and the Rationality of Conversion
.” In
Conversion to Christianity: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives on a Great Transformation
, edited by
Hefner
Robert W.
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
1993
.
Hefner
,
Robert W.
September 11 and the Struggle for Islam
.”
New York
:
Social Science Research Council
,
2002
.
Held
,
David
, and
McGrew
Anthony
.
Globalization/Anti- Globalization: Beyond the Great Divide
. 2nd ed.
Cambridge
:
Polity
,
2007
.
Hendrixson
,
Joyce
. “
The Changing Significance of Ethnicity and Power Relations, Sokoto, Nigeria
.”
Studies in Third World Societies
11
(
1980
):
51
93
.
Hills
,
Alice
. “
Policing a Plurality of Worlds: The Nigeria Police in Metropolitan Kano
.”
African Affairs
111
, no.
442
(
January
2012
):
46
66
.
Hiskett
,
Mervyn
. “
Kitāb Al-Farq: A Work on the Habe Kingdoms Attributed to ‘Uthman Dan Fodio
.”
Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies
23
(
1960
):
570
571
.
Hiskett
,
Mervyn
.
The Sword of Truth: The Life and Times of the Shehu Usuman Dan Fodio
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
,
1973
.
Hodgkin
,
Thomas
. “
Madhism, Messianism, and Marxism in the African Setting
.” In
African Social Studies: A Radical Reader
, edited by
Hodgkin
Thomas
,
Monthly Review Press
,
New York
(
1977
):
306
323
.
Hodgkin
,
Thomas
.
Nigerian Perspectives: An Historical Anthology
.
London
:
Oxford University Press
,
1960
.
Horton
,
Robin
. “
African Conversion
.”
Africa
41
, no.
2
(
1971
):
85
108
.
Horton
,
Robin
. “
On the Rationality of Conversion: Part One
.”
Africa
,
45
, no.
3
(
1975
):
219
235
.
Horton
,
Robin
. “
On the Rationality of Conversion: Part Two
.”
Africa
,
45
, no.
4
(
1975
):
373
399
.
Human Rights Watch
.
“Political Sharia”? Human Rights and Islamic Law in Northern Nigeria
.
International Crisis Group
,
Northern Nigeria
:
Background to Conflict
,
December
20
,
2010
.
Human Rights Watch
.
Spiraling Violence: Boko Haram Attacks and Security Force Abuses in Nigeria
.
October
11
,
2012
.
Hunwick
,
John
. “
An African Case Study of Political Islam
.”
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences
525
(
November
1992
):
143
155
.
Hunwick
,
John
. “
The Nineteenth Century Jihad
.” In
On Thousand Years of West African History
, edited by
Ajayi
F. Ade
and
Espie
Ian
.
London
:
Nelson
,
1969
.
Ibrahim
,
Hassan Ahmed
.
Sayyid ‘Abd al- Rahman al- Mahdi: A Study of Neo- Mahdism in the Sudan, 1899–1956
.
Islam in Africa 4
.
Leiden, Netherlands
:
Brill Academic
,
2004
.
Ibrahim
,
Jibrin
. “
Religion and Political Turbulence in Nigeria
.”
Journal of Modern African Studies
29
, no.
1
(
March
1991
):
115
136
.
Ibrahim
,
Yakubu Yahaya
.
Shari’ah and Muslims in Nigeria
.
Kaduna, Nigeria
:
Fisbas Media Services
,
1991
.
Ihonvbere
,
Julius
.
Nigeria: The Politics of Adjustment and Democracy
.
New Brunswick, NJ
:
Transaction
,
1994
.
Ilesanmi
,
Simeon O.
From Periphery to Center: Pentecostalism Is Transforming the Secular State in Africa
.”
Harvard Divinity Bulletin
35
, no.
4
(Autumn
2007
).
Ilesanmi
,
Simeon O.
Religious Pluralism and the Nigerian State
.
Athens
:
Ohio University Press
,
1997
.
Imam
,
Ayesha M.
Ideology, the Mass Media, and Women: A Study of Radio Kaduna, Nigeria
.” In
Hausa Women in the Twentieth Century
, edited by
Coles
Catherine
and
Mack
Beverly
.
Madison
:
University of Wisconsin Press
,
1991
.
Isyaku
,
Bashir
.
The Kafanchan Carnage
.
Zaria, Nigeria
:
Bashir Isyaku
,
1991
.
Jinadu
,
L. Adele
. “
Federalism, the Consociational State, and Ethnic Conflict in Nigeria
.”
Publius
15
, no.
2
(
1985
):
71
100
.
Johnson
,
Samuel
.
The History of the Yorubas: From the Earliest Times to the Beginning of the British Protectorate
.
Lagos
:
CMS (Nigeria) Bookshops
,
1921
.
Joseph
,
Richard A.
Democracy and Pre- Bendel Politics in Nigeria: The Rise and Fall of the Second Republic
.
Ibadan
:
Spectrum Books
,
1987
.
Reprint
,
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
,
2013
.
July
,
Robert
.
The Origins of Modern African Thought: Its Development in West Africa during the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries
.
New York
:
Praeger
,
1967
.
Kalu
,
Ogbu Uke
. “
African Pentecostalism in Global Perspective
.” In
Kalu
,
Wariboko
, and
Falola
,
African Pentecostalism
.
Kalu
,
Ogbu Uke
. “
Black Joseph: Early African American Charismatic and Pentecostal Linkages and Their Impact on Africa
.” In
Kalu
,
Wariboko
, and
Falola
,
African Pentecostalism
.
Kalu
,
Ogbu Uke
. “
Christianity in Africa: A Synopsis
.” In
Kalu
,
Wariboko
, and
Falola
,
African Pentecostalism
.
Kalu
,
Ogbu Uke
. “
Constructing a Global Pentecostal Discourse: An African Example
.” In
African Pentecostalism: Global Discourses, Migrations, Exchanges and Connections
, edited by
Kalu
Wihelmina J.
,
Wariboko
Nimi
, and
Falola
Toyin
.
Trenton, NJ
:
Africa World Press
,
2010
.
Kalu
,
Ogbu Uke
. “
The Distorted Lens of Edinburgh 1910
.” In
African Pentecostalism: Global Discourses, Migrations, Exchanges and Connections
, edited by
Kalu
Wihelmina J.
,
Wariboko
Nimi
, and
Falola
Toyin
.
Trenton, NJ
:
Africa World Press
,
2010
.
Kalu
,
Ogbu Uke
. “
Holy Praiseco: Negotiating Sacred and Popular Music and Dance
.” In
African Pentecostalism: Global Discourses, Migrations, Exchanges and Connections
, edited by
Kalu
Wihelmina J.
,
Wariboko
Nimi
, and
Falola
Toyin
.
Trenton, NJ
:
Africa World Press
,
2010
.
Kalu
,
Ogbu Uke
. “
Pentecostalism and Mission in Africa, 1970–2000
.” In
Kalu
,
Wariboko
, and
Falola
,
African Pentecostalism
.
Kalu
,
Ogbu Uke
. “
Who Is Afraid of the Holy Ghost? Presbyterians and Early Charismatic Movement in Nigeria, 1966–1975
.” In
Who Is Afraid of the Holy Ghost? Pentecostalism and Globalization in Africa and Beyond
, edited by
Adogame
Afe
.
Trenton, NJ
:
Africa World Press
,
2011
.
Kalu
,
Wihelmina J.
,
Wariboko
Nimi
, and
Falola
Toyin
, eds.
African Pentecostalism: Global Discourses, Migrations, Exchanges and Connections
.
Trenton, NJ
:
Africa World Press
,
2010
.
Kane
,
Osuman
. “
Izala: The Rise of Muslim Reformism in Northern Nigeria
.” In
Accounting for Fundamentalism: The Dynamic Character of Movements
, edited by
Marty
Martin F.
and
Appleby
R. Scott
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
,
1994
.
Kane
,
Osuman
.
Muslim Modernity in Postcolonial Nigeria: A Study of the Society for the Removal of Innovation and Reinstatement of Tradition
.
Leiden
:
E. J. Brill
,
2003
.
Kastfelt
,
Niels
. “
African Resistance to Colonialism in Adamawa
.”
Journal of Religion in Africa
8
, no.
1
(
1976
):
1
12
.
Kastfelt
,
Niels
. “
Christianity, Colonial Legitimacy, and the Rise of Nationalist Politics in Northern Nigeria
.” In
Legitimacy and the State in Twentieth Century Africa: Essays in Honor of A. H. M. Kirk-Greene
, edited by
Ranger
Terence
and
Vaughan
Olufemi
.
London
:
Macmillan
,
1993
.
Kelly
,
Robin
,
G.
D.
Race Rebels
.
New York
:
Free Press
,
1994
.
Kendhammer
,
Brendan
. “
Muslims Talking Politics: Framing Islam and Democracy in Northern Nigeria
.”
PhD diss.
,
University of Wisconsin
,
Madison
,
2010
.
Kenny
,
Joseph
. “
Shari’a and Christianity in Nigeria: Islam and a ‘Secular’ State
.”
Journal of Religion in Africa
26
, no.
4
(
1996
):
338
364
.
Kirk-Greene
,
A. H. M.
, ed.
Crisis and Conflict in Nigeria: A Documentary Source Book, 1966–1969
.
London
:
Oxford University Press
,
1971
.
Kirk-Greene
,
A. H. M.
, ed.
The Principle of Native Administration in Nigeria: Selected Documents, 1900–1947
.
London
:
Oxford University Press
,
1965
.
Kolapo
,
Femi J.
CMS Missionaries of African Origin and Extra-Religious Encounters at the Niger- Benue Confluence, 1858–1880
.”
African Studies Review
43
, no.
2
(
2000
):
87
110
.
Kopytoff
,
Jean H.
A Preface to Modern Nigeria: The “Sierra Leonians” in Yorubaland, 1830–1890
.
Madison
:
University of Wisconsin Press
,
1965
.
Kukah
,
Matthew H.
Religion, Politics, and Power in Northern Nigeria
.
Ibadan
:
Spectrum Books
,
1993
.
Ladan
,
Muhammad Tawfiq
. “
Women’s Rights and Access to Justice under Sharia in Northern Nigeria
.”
Paper presented at a conference on Islamic Legal System and Women’s Rights in Northern Nigeria
,
Abuja, Nigeria
,
October 27–30, 2002
.
Laitin
,
David D.
Hegemony and Culture: Politics and Change among the Yoruba
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
,
1986
.
Laitin
,
David D.
The Sharia Debate and the Origins of Nigeria’s Second Republic
.”
Journal of Modern African Studies
20
, no.
3
(
September
1982
):
411
430
.
Larémont
,
Ricardo Rene
.
Islamic Law and Politics in Northern Nigeria
.
Trenton, NJ
:
Africa World Press
,
2011
.
Larkin
,
Brian
, and
Meyer
Brigit
. “
Pentecostalism, Islam and Culture: New Religious Movements in West Africa
.” In
Themes in West African History
, edited by
Akyeampong
Emmanuel Kwaku
.
Oxford
:
James Currey
,
2006
.
Last
,
Murray
. “
The Search for Security in Muslim Northern Nigeria
.”
Africa
78
, no.
1
(
2008
):
41
63
.
Last
,
Murray
.
The Sokoto Caliphate
.
London
:
Longman
,
1967
.
Law
,
Robin
.
The Oyo Empire, c.1600– c1836: A West African Imperialism in the Era of the Atlantic Slave Trade
.
Oxford
:
Clarendon
,
1974
.
Lewis
,
I. M.
Introduction to Islam in Tropical Africa
. Edited by
Lewis
I. M.
.
Bloomington
:
Indiana University Press
,
1980
.
Lloyd
,
P. C.
Africa in Social Change
.
London
:
Penguin
,
1972
.
Loimeier
,
Roman
. “
Boko Haram: The Development of a Militant Religious Movement in Nigeria
.”
Africa Spectrum
47
, nos.
2–3
(
2012
).
Loimeier
,
Roman
.
Islamic Reform and Political Change in Northern Nigeria
,
Evanston, IL
:
Northwestern University Press
,
2011
.
Lovejoy
,
Paul
, and
Hogendorn
J. S.
. “
Revolutionary Mahdism and Resistance to Colonial Rule in the Sokoto Caliphate, 1905–06
.”
Journal of African History
31
(
1991
):
217
244
.
Lovejoy
,
Paul
.
Slow Death for Slavery: The Course of Abolition in Northern Nigeria, 1897–1936
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
,
1993
.
Lubeck
,
Paul
. “
Islamic Protest under Semi- industrial Capitalism: ‘Yan Tastine Explained
.”
Africa
55
, no.
4
(
1985
):
369
389
.
Lubeck
,
Paul
. “
Nigeria: Mapping a Sharia Restorationist Movement
.” In
Sharia Politics: Islamic Law and Society in the Modern World
, edited by
Hefner
Robert W.
.
Bloomington
:
Indiana University Press
,
2011
.
Lubeck
,
Paul
,
Lipshutz
Ronnie
, and
Weeks
Erik
. “
The Globality of Islam: Sharia as a Nigerian ‘Self-Determination’ Movement
.”
Queen Elizabeth House Working Paper Series 106
.
Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford
,
2003
.
Ludwig
,
Frieder
. “
Christian- Muslim Relations in Northern Nigeria since the Introduction of Shari’ah in 1999
.”
Journal of the American Academy of Religion
76
, no.
3
(
September
2008
):
602
637
.
Lugard
,
Fredrick D.
The Dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa
.
Edinburgh
:
Blackwood
,
1929
.
Lynch
,
Hollis R.
Edward Wilmot Blyden: Pan-Negro Patriot, 1832–1912
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
,
1967
.
Mack
,
Beverly
. “
Muslim Women’s Knowledge Production in the Greater Maghreb: The Example of Nana Asm’u of Northern Nigeria
.” In
Gender and Islam in Africa: Rights, Sexuality, and Law
, edited by
Badren
Margot
.
Bloomington
:
Indiana University Press
,
2011
.
Mahmud
,
Alkali Alhaji Abubakar
.
Notes on Islamic Civil Law Procedure
.
Yola, Nigeria
:
Al Abumahdi
,
1997
.
Mann
,
Kristin
.
Marrying Well: Marriages, Status, and Social Change among the Educated Elite in Colonial Lagos
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
,
1985
.
Marshall
,
Ruth
.
Political Spiritualities: The Pentecostal Revolution in Nigeria
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
,
2009
.
Marshall
,
Ruth
. “
Power in the Name of Jesus: Social Transformation and Pentecostalism in Western Nigeria Revisited
.” In
Legitimacy and the State in Twentieth Century Africa: Essays in Honor of A. H. M. Kirk-Greene
, edited by
Ranger
Terence
and
Vaughan
Olufemi
.
London
:
Macmillan
,
1993
.
Marshall-Fratani
,
Ruth
. “
Mediating the Global and the Local in Nigerian Pentecostalism
.”
Journal of Religion in Africa
28
, no.
3
(
1998
):
278
315
.
McGarvey
,
Kathleen
.
Muslim and Christian Women in Dialogue: The Case of Northern Nigeria
. Vol.
42
,
Religions and Discourse
.
Oxford
:
Peter Lang
,
2009
.
A Memorandum on the 1999 Constitution to the Government and National Assembly
.
Abuja, Nigeria
,
2000
.
Miller
,
Lisa
. “
E. A. Adeboye: A Pentecostal Preacher from Nigeria Has Made Big Plans to Save Your Soul
.”
Newsweek’s 50 Most Influential People in 2008
,
December
19
,
2008
.
Mohammed
,
Abubakar Siddique
,
Adamu
Sa’idu Hassan
, and
Abba
Alkasum
.
Human Living Conditions and Reforms of Legal Systems: The Talakawa and the Issue of the Shari’ah in Con temporary Nigeria
.
Zaria, Nigeria
:
Centre for Democratic Development, Research and Training
,
2000
.
Mohammed
,
Bello
. “
Sharia and the Constitution
.” In
The Sharia Issue: Working Papers for a Dialogue
, edited by
Edu
S. L.
et al
.,
5
13
.
Lagos
:
Committee of Concerned Citizens
,
2000
.
Morgan
,
Kemi
.
Akinyele’s Outline of History of Ibadan
.
Part III
.
Ibadan
:
Caxton
,
1972
.
Muhibbu-Din
,
M. A.
, ed.
Shari’ah in a Multi- Faith Nigeria
.
Ibadan
:
Association of Teachers of Arabic and Islamic Studies (natais)
,
2005
.
Mukoro
,
Akpomuvire
. “
The Interface between Customary Law and Local Government Legislation in Nigeria: A Retrospect and Prospect
.”
Journal of Social Sciences
26
, no.
2
(
2011
):
139
145
.
Musa
,
Sulaiman
.
The Da’awah Approach of Shaikh Uthman Danfodiyo
.
Kaduna, Nigeria
:
Alkausar Printing and Publishing Co.
,
1994
.
Musa
,
Sulaiman
.
Shari’ah in a Multi- Faith Nigeria: The Effects of British Colonial Administration on the Shari’ah Legal System in Northern Nigeria
.
Mustapha
,
Abdul Raufu
. “
Structural Adjustment and Agrarian Change in Nigeria
.” In
The Politics of Structural Adjustment in Nigeria
, edited by
Olukoshi
Adebayo
.
London
:
James Currey
,
1993
.
Nasir
,
Jemila
. “
Women’s Human Rights in Secular and Religious Legal System
.”
Paper presented at a conference on Islamic Legal System and Women’s Rights in Northern Nigeria
,
Abuja, Nigeria
,
October 27–30, 2002
.
Nigeria: In God’s Name
.”
Africa Confidential
41
, no.
5
(
March
3
,
2000
).
Nigeria Miss World Strife Goes On
.”
CNN News
,
November
27
,
2002
, .
Nmehielle
,
Vincent O.
Sharia Law in the Northern States of Nigeria: To Implement or Not to Implement, the Constitutionality in the Question
.”
Human Rights Quarterly
26
, no.
3
(
2004
):
730
759
.
Nolte
,
Insa
.
Obafemi Awolowo and the Making of Remo: The Local Politics of a Nigerian Nationalist
.
Edinburgh, UK
:
Edinburgh University Press
,
2009
.
Nwobi
,
Simeon Okezuo
.
Sharia in Nigeria: What a Christian Must Know
.
Abuja, Nigeria
:
Totan
,
2000
.
Oba
,
Abdulmumini A.
Islamic Law as Customary Law: The Changing Perspective in Nigeria
.”
International and Comparative Law Quarterly
41
, no.
4
(
2002
):
817
850
.
Oba
,
Abdulmumini A.
The Sharia Court of Appeal in Northern Nigeria: The Continuing Crises of Jurisdiction
.”
American Journal of Comparative Law
52
, no.
4
(Autumn
2004
):
859
900
.
Obadare
,
Ebenezer
. “
In Search of a Public Sphere: The Fundamentalist Challenge to Civil Society in Nigeria
.”
Patterns of Prejudice
8
, no.
2
(
2004
):
177
198
.
Obadare
,
Ebenezer
. “
The Muslim Response to the Pentecostal Surge in Nigeria: The Rise of Charismatic Islam
.”
Journal of Religious and Political Practice
,
forthcoming
,
2016
.
Obadare
,
Ebenezer
. “
Pentecostal Presidency? The Lagos- Ibadan ‘Theocratic Class’ and the Muslim ‘Other’
.”
Review of African Political Economy
110
(
2006
):
665
678
.
Obadare
,
Ebenezer
. “
Religious NGOS, Civil Society and the Struggle for a Public Sphere in Nigeria
.”
African Identities
5
, no.
1
(
2007
):
135
153
.
Obilade
,
Akintunde
. “
Jurisdiction in Customary Law Matters in Nigeria: A Critical Examination
.”
Journal of African Law
17
, no.
2
(
1973
):
227
240
.
Ochonu
,
Moses
.
Colonialism by Proxy: Hausa Imperial Agents and Middle Belt Consciousness
.
Bloomington
:
Indiana University Press
,
2014
.
Ochonu
,
Moses
. “
Colonialism within Colonialism: The Hausa- Caliphate Imaginary and British Colonial Administration of the Nigerian Middle Belt
.”
African Studies Quarterly
10
, no.
2
(
2008
).
Odinkalu
,
Ansel Chidi
, and
Civil Liberties Organisation (Lagos)
.
Justice Denied: The Area Courts System in the Northern States of Nigeria
.
Ibadan
:
Kraft Books
,
1992
.
Oduyoye
,
Modupe
. “
The Church in Yorubaland, 1842–1892
.” In
The Anglican Church in Nigeria
, edited by
Omoyajowo
Akinyele
.
Ibadan
:
Macmillan Nigeria
,
1994
.
Ojo
,
Matthews A.
The Contextual Significance of Charismatic Movements in In dependent Nigeria
.”
Africa
58
, no.
2
(
1988
):
175
192
.
Ojo
,
Matthews A.
Deeper Christian Life Ministry: A Case Study of the Charismatic Movements in Western Nigeria
.”
Journal of Religion in Africa
17
, no.
2
(
1988
):
141
162
.
Ojo
,
Olatunji
. “
Afro- Brazilians in Lagos: Atlantic Commerce, Kinship, and Transnationalism
.” In
Back to Africa: Afro- Brazilian Returnees and Their Communities
, edited by
Prah
Kwesi Kwaa
.
Cape Town, South Africa
:
Centre for Advanced Studies of African Society
,
2009
.
Ojo-Ade
,
Femi
. “
Afro- Brazilians in Lagos: A Question of Home or Exile
.” In
Back to Africa: Afro- Brazilian Returnees and their Communities
, edited by
Prah
Kwesi Kwaa
.
Cape Town, South Africa
:
Centre for Advanced Studies of African Society
,
2009
.
Okereafoezeke
,
Nonso
.
Law and Justice in Post- British Nigeria: Conflicts and Interactions between Native and Foreign Systems of Social Control in Igbo
.
Westport, CT
:
Greenwood
,
2002
.
Oladimeji
,
Lateef
. “
An Appraisal of the Place of Shari’ah in the Nigerian Constitution
.”
Presented at the 21st National Conference of the Nigerian Association of Teachers of Arabic and Islamic Studies
.
Olupona
,
Jacob K.
The Changing Face of African Christianity: Reverse Mission in Transnational and Global Perspective
.” In
Transnational Africa and Globalization
, edited by
Okome
Mojubaolu Olufunke
and
Vaughan
Olufemi
.
New York
:
Palgrave Macmillan
,
2012
.
Olupona
,
Jacob K.
Globalization and African Immigrant Communities in America
.” In
Who Is Afraid of the Holy Ghost? Pentecostalism and Globalization in Africa and Beyond
, edited by
Adogame
Afe
.
Trenton, NJ
:
Africa World Press
,
2011
.
Olupona
,
Jacob K.
Kingship, Religion, and Rituals in a Nigerian Community: A Phenomenological Study of Ondo Yoruba Festivals
.
Stockholm
:
Almuiist and Wiksell
,
1991
.
Olupona
,
Jacob K.
, and
Gemignani
Regina
, eds.
African Immigrant Religions in America
.
New York
:
New York University Press
,
2005
.
Ostien
,
Philip
.
A Study of the Court Systems of Northern Nigeria with a Proposal for the Creation of Lower Sharia Courts in Some Northern States
.
Jos, Nigeria
:
Centre for Development Studies, University of Jos
,
1999
.
Oyediran
,
Oyeleye
. “
Transition without End: From Hope to Despair— Reflections of a Participant Observer
.” In
Dilemmas of Democracy in Nigeria
, edited by
Beckett
Paul A.
and
Young
Crawford
.
Rochester, NY
:
University of Rochester Press
,
1997
.
Ozigboh
,
Ikenga R. A.
An Introduction to the Religion and History of Islam
.
Enugu, Nigeria
:
Fourth Dimension
,
1988
.
Paden
,
John N.
Ahmadu Bello, Sarduna of Sokoto: Values and Leadership in Nigeria
.
Zaria
:
Hudahuda
,
1986
.
Paden
,
John N.
Faith and Politics in Nigeria: Nigeria as a Pivotal State in the Muslim World
.
Washington, DC
:
U.S. Institute of Peace Press
,
2008
.
Paden
,
John N.
Islam and Democratic Federalism in Nigeria
.”
Africa Notes, Center for Strategic and International Studies
, no.
8
(
March
2002
).
Paden
,
John N.
Religion and Political Culture in Kano
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
1973
.
Peel
,
J. D. Y.
Aladura: A Religious Movement among the Yoruba
.
London
:
Oxford University Press
,
1968
.
Peel
,
J. D. Y.
Conversion and Tradition in Two African Societies: Ijebu and Buganda
.”
Past and Present
77
, no.
1
(
1977
):
108
141
.
Peel
,
J. D. Y.
Ijeshas and Nigerians: The Incorporation of a Yoruba Kingdom, 1890s–1970s
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
,
1983
.
Peel
,
J. D. Y.
Inequality and Action: The Forms of Ijesha Social Conflict
.”
Canadian Journal of African Studies
14
, no.
3
(
1980
):
473
502
.
Peel
,
J. D. Y.
Change Religious in Yorubaland
.”
Africa
37
(
1967
):
292
306
.
Peel
,
J. D. Y.
Religious Encounter and the Making of the Yoruba
.
Bloomington
:
Indiana University Press
,
2003
.
Peters
,
Rudolf
.
Islam and Colonialism: The Doctrine of Jihad in Modern History
.
The Hague
:
Mouton
;
Berlin
:
De Gruyter
,
1979
.
Phillips
,
Barnaby
. “
Archbishop Visits Zamfara
.”
BBC News
,
February
3
,
2001
, .
Post
,
Kenneth
, and
Vickers
Michael
.
Structure and Conflict in Nigeria, 1960–1966
.
London
:
Heinemann
,
1973
.
Ranger
,
Terence
. “
The Local and the Global in Southern African Religious History
.” In
Conversion to Christianity: Historical and Anthropological Perspective on a Great Transformation
, edited by
Hefner
Robert W.
.
Berkeley
:
University of Calfornia Press
,
1993
.
Ranger
,
Terence
. “
Religious Movements and Politics in Sub-Saharan Africa
.”
African Studies Review
29
(
1986
).
Ranger
,
Terence
. “
The Invention of Tradition Revisited: The Case of Africa
.” In
Legitimacy and the State in Twentieth Century Africa: Essays in Honour of A. H. M. Kirk- Greene
, edited by
Ranger
Terence
and
Vaughan
Olufemi
.
London
:
Macmillan
,
1993
.
Rashid
,
Syed Khalid
, ed.
Islamic Law in Nigeria: Application and Teaching
.
Lagos
:
Islamic Publications Bureau
,
1986
.
Religion of Peace: Followers Torch Christian Churches: Hundreds Seek Refuge as Mobs Riot over Alleged ‘Insult’ to Muhammad
.”
World Net Daily
,
September
23
,
2006
.
“Reports on Ethnic Relations” (ten articles)
.
November
2002
, .
Revenge in the Name of Religion
.”
Human Rights Watch
,
May
26
,
2005
, .
Reynolds
,
Jonathan
. “
Good and Bad Muslims: Islam and Indirect Rule in Northern Nigeria
.”
International Journal of African Historical Studies
34
, no.
3
(
2001
):
601
618
.
Robertson
,
A. F.
Histories and Political Opposition, Ahafo, Ghana
.”
Africa
43
(
1973
).
Salamone
,
Frank A.
Ethnic Identities and Religion
.” In
Religion and Society in Nigeria: Historical and Sociological Perspectives
, edited by
Olupona
Jacob K.
and
Falola
Toyin
,
Ibadan
:
Spectrum Books
,
1991
.
Robertson
,
A. F.
Religion and Resistance in Pre- colonial and Colonial Nigeria
.” In
Religion and Society in Nigeria: Historical and Sociological Perspectives
, edited by
Olupona
Jacob K.
and
Falola
Toyin
.
Ibadan
:
Spectrum Books
,
1991
.
Sambo
,
Bashir
.
Shari’a and Justice: Lectures and Speeches
.
Zaria, Nigeria
:
Sankore Educational Publishers
,
2003
.
Sanneh
,
Lamin
. “
The CMS and African Transformation: Samuel Ajayi Crowther and the Opening of Nigeria
.” In
The Church Mission Society and World Christianity, 1799–1999
, edited by
Ward
Kevin
and
Stanley
Brian
.
Grand Rapids, MI
:
William B. Eerdmans
,
1999
.
Sanneh
,
Lamin
.
The Crown and the Turban: Muslim and West African Pluralism
.
Boulder, CO
:
Westview
,
1997
.
Sanusi
,
Sanusi Lamido
. “
The West and the Rest: Reflections on the Intercultural Dialogue about Shari’ah
.” In
Comparative Perspectives on Shari’ah in Nigeria
, edited by
Ostien
Philip
,
Nasir
Jamila M.
, and
Kogelman
Franz
,
251
302
.
Ibadan
:
Spectrum Books
,
2005
.
Schacht
,
Joseph F.
Islam in Northern Nigeria
.”
Studia Islamica
8
(
1957
):
123
146
.
Scholte
,
Jan Aart
. “
Defining Globalization
.”
World Economy
31
, no.
11
(
November
2008
):
1471
1502
.
Shankar
,
Shobana
.
Who Shall Enter Paradise: Christian Origins in Muslim Northern Nigeria, ca. 1890–1975
.
Athens
:
Ohio University Press
,
2014
.
Shariacracy on Trial
.”
Africa Confidential
42
, no.
17
(
August
31
,
2001
).
Shehu
,
Emman Usman
.
Sharia: The Fate of Northern Christians
(
Church and Society Margazine
),
2000
.
Sklar
,
Richard
.
Nigerian Political Parties: Power in an Emergent African Nation
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
,
1963
.
Smith
,
A. D.
The Nation, Invented, Imagined, and Reconstructed
.”
Millennium
26
(
1991
).
Smith
,
M. G.
Government in Zazzau, 1800–1950
.
London
:
Oxford University Press
,
1960
.
Sodiq
,
Yushau
. “
A History of Islamic Law in Nigeria
.”
Islamic Studies
31
(Spring
1992
):
85
108
.
State of the Nation
2
, no.
2
(
March
2000
).
Strayer
,
Robert
. “
Mission History in Africa: New Perspective on an Encounter
.”
African Studies Review
19
(
1976
):
1
15
.
Suberu
,
Rotimi T.
Religion and Institutions: Federalism and the Management of Conflicts over Sharia in Nigeria
.”
Journal of International Development
21
, no.
4
(
2009
):
547
560
.
Sulaiman
,
Ibraheem
.
The Islamic State and the Challenge of History: Ideals, Policies, and Operation of the Sokoto Caliphate
.
East-West University Islamic Studies
.
New York
:
Mansell
,
1987
.
Rashid
Syed Khalid
, ed.,
Islamic Law in Nigeria: Application and Teaching
,
Lagos
:
Islamic Publications Bureau
,
1986
.
Tabi’u
,
Mohammed
. “
Constraints in the Application of Islamic Law in Nigeria
.” In
Islamic Law in Nigeria: Application and Teaching
, edited by
Rashid
S. Khalid
.
Lagos
:
Islamic Publications Bureau
,
1986
.
Tayob
,
Abdulkader I.
The Demand for Shari’ah in African Democratisation Processes: Pitfalls or Opportunities?
” In
Comparative Perspectives on Shari’ah in Nigeria
, edited by
Ostien
Phillip
,
Nasir
Jamila M.
, and
Kogelmann
Franz
,
27
57
.
Ibadan
:
Spectrum Books Limited
,
2005
.
Tayob
,
Abdulkader I.
Sub- Saharan African Islam
.” In
The Oxford Handbook of Global Religions
, edited by
Jeurgensmeyer
Mark
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
,
2011
.
Time to Withdraw from O.I.C
.”
Challenge
, no.
4
(
1986
).
Umar
,
Muhammad S.
Hausa Traditional Political Culture, Islam, and Democracy: Historical Perspectives on Three Political Traditions
.” In
Democracy and Prebendalism in Nigeria: Critical Interpretations
, edited by
Adebanwi
Wale
and
Obadare
Ebenezer
.
New York
:
Palgrave Macmillan
,
2013
.
Vandu
,
Chippla
. “
The Talibanization of Northern Nigeria
.”
February
10
,
2006
,
http://chippla.blogspot.com, accessed March 2007
.
Vatican Council 11
.
Declaration on the Relations of the Church to Non- Christian Religions
, No.
3
.
Vaughan
,
Olufemi
. “
Africa, Transnationalism, and Globalization: An Overview
.” In
Transnational Africa and Globalization
, edited by
Okome
Mojubaolu Olufunke
and
Vaughan
Olufemi
.
New York
:
Palgrave Macmillan
,
2012
.
Vaughan
,
Olufemi
.
Nigerian Chiefs: Traditional Power in Modern Politics, 1890s–1990s
.
Rochester, NY
:
University of Rochester Press
,
2000
.
Vaughan
,
Olufemi
, and
Banu
Suraiya Zubair
. “
Muslim Women’s Rights in Northern Nigeria
.”
Africa Program Occasional Papers Series
.
Washington, DC
:
Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars
,
2014
.
Verini
,
James
. “
The War for Nigeria: A Bloody Insurgent Tears at the Fabric of Africa’s Most Populous Nation
.”
National Geographic
,
December
17
,
2013
.
Vickers
,
Michael
.
Ethnicity and Sub- Nationalism in Nigeria: Movement for a Mid- West State
.
African Studies Series 3
.
Oxford
:
Worldview
,
2000
.
Walker
,
Andrew
. “
What Is Boko Haram?
United Institute of Peace, Special Report
(
June
2012
):
1
16
.
Wallerstein
,
Immanuel
. “
Con temporary Capitalist Dilemma, the Social Sciences, and the Geopolitics of the Twenty- First Century
.”
Canadian Journal of Sociology
23
,
2/3
, (
1998
):
141
158
Wariboko
,
Nimi
.
Nigerian Pentecostalism
.
Rochester, NY
:
University of Rochester Press
,
2014
.
Warner
,
Zach
. “
The Sad Rise of Boko Haram
.”
New African
,
April
2012
,
Webster
,
J. B.
, and
Boahen
A. Adu
.
History of West Africa: The Revolutionary Years—1815 to Independence
.
New York
:
Praeger
,
1967
.
Whitaker
,
C. S.
Jr
.
The Politics of Tradition: Continuity and Change in Northern Nigeria, 1946–1966
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
,
1970
.
Williams
,
David
.
President and Power in Nigeria: The Life of Shehu Shagari
.
London
:
Frank Cass
,
1982
.
Williams
,
Patricia A.
The State, Religion, and Politics in Nigeria
.”
PhD diss.
,
University of Ibadan
,
1988
.
Yadudu
,
Auwalu H.
Colonialism and the Transformation of the Substance and Form of Islamic Law in the Northern States of Nigeria
.”
Journal of Law and Religion
9
, no.
1
(
1991
):
17
47
.
Yesufu
,
Tijani M.
, ed.
World Inter- Religious Crisis: An Islamic Initiative for Peace
.
Lagos
:
West Africa Book Publishers
,
2005
.
Yusuf
,
Ahmed Beita
.
Nigerian Legal System: Pluralism and Conflict of Laws in the Northern States
.
Delhi, India
:
National Publishing House
,
1982
.
Zeleza
,
Paul
. “
Africa and Its Diaspora: Remembering South America
.”
Research in African Literatures
40
, no.
4
(Winter
2009
):
151
159
.
Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal