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The chapter explores the contradictory impact of mission Christianity on colonial Northern and Southern Nigeria. It contends that in the Northern Nigerian Protectorate mission Christianity provided a formidable framework in which non-Muslim minority communities articulated strategies to resist the hegemony of Hausa-Fulani Muslim rulers. Conversely, in the Southern Nigerian Protectorate, mission Christianity succeeded in transforming local communities not only because of the prevailing colonial context of the early twentieth century, but also because Christian doctrines and observances creatively adapted to local cosmologies and worldviews and customary ways. Finally, the chapter argues that the imbrication of mission Christianity to local social, religious, economic, and political conditions provided the essential structural and ideological framework for the modernization of Southern Nigeria.

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