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This chapter argues that the convergence of two major world and regional religious movements—the Islamic reformist movement that established the Sokoto Caliphate in Northern Nigeria and the Christian evangelical movement in Atlantic Southern Nigeria—provided the social and political platform on which modern Nigeria was constructed after the imposition of colonial rule at the beginning of the twentieth century. Although shaped by global and regional forces, these religious movements had enduring consequences for Nigeria’s diverse peoples because they were products of the internal dynamics among the local communities in this vast and diverse region.

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