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This essay examines how the abstract form of Barbara Chase-Riboud's (b. 1935) Malcolm X, No. 3 might serve as a monument to an iconic historical figure, one whose likeness has been ingrained in popular memory through the mass reproduction and distribution of powerful photographic imagery. The phenomenological aspects of Chase-Riboud's visual art have long resisted the formula that scholars often rely on to discuss the work of similar artists (e.g., African American, or female, or both), giving the artist an exceptional place among modern abstract sculptors of the past half century.

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