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Numerous impacts of climate change are associated with water. One of the most prominent is sea level rise, expected to be at least 3 to 5 feet by the end of the century. CO2 in air absorbed by the ocean forms carbonic acid, causing ocean acidification. This and marine heat waves damage marine ecosystems and fisheries and may cause the demise of coral reefs by century's end. Melting soil permafrost destabilizes slopes adjacent to a water body, leading to possible landslides and tsunamis. Such tsunamis threaten small coastal villages in the Arctic. Warmer temperatures result in larger amounts of water in the atmosphere that can produce record-breaking floods. Lack of rain in some areas (e.g., US Southwest) causes droughts which are becoming larger and longer lived, damaging agriculture and drinking water supplies. Currently, river water supplies for drinking and farming are dwindling (e.g., Colorado River), requiring increasingly strict water use conservation measures.

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