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This chapter tracks the development and workplace praxis of three independent news organizations, with a primary focus on the establishment and dissolution of the Free Press Association of Japan. Each of these organizations sought to create a space where participatory interaction between audiences and news content was possible and challenge what they felt was a dangerously conservative Japanese mass media infrastructure. However, all but the Independent Web Journal, which was able to manage its complex network of reporters, suffered from a lack of funding and a tendency for their openness to invite the attacks of right-wing internet trolls. Despite the passion with which they challenged the reporter’s club system and advocated for newsmaking as a transparent process, these organizations were largely unable to negotiate their way into mainstream spaces of news production.

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