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This chapter analyzes the events that took place following Perón’s overthrow and during his long exile, the resistance of the Peronist rank and file, the alternation between increasingly repressive military regimes and illegitimate civilian governments, the puebladas (popular uprisings), and the growth of a revolutionary leftist movement. The social unrest that this caused resulted in Peronism being once again allowed to compete in the elections, and Perón was able to return to the country in 1973. The brief government Perón headed before his death in 1974 then led to a growing political and economic crisis and a new military coup, which launched a plan of mass extermination of Peronist and leftist political dissidents and dragged the country into a war with Great Britain over the Malvinas Islands.

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