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This chapter examines increasing traffic between mining cooperatives in the towns of Llallagua and Uncía and the surrounding ayllus of Norte Potosí. It contends that the emergence of agro-mineros (agricultural miners) after 1985 was important not only because it marked a moment of regional economic diversification but also because it constituted a local indigenization of the subterranean. The chapter traces the historical separation of Indigenous campesinos from mestizo miners in Norte Potosí in relation to the two subterranean substances with which they were expected to labor: potatoes and tin ore. This history shows how livelihood practices were always already racialized, such that the recent movement of ayllu members into the mines could signify a racial transgression as much as an economic articulation. The chapter concludes by reflecting on the relationship between mining cooperatives and the Plurinational State, which has both shaped and been shaped by the rise of agro-minería.

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