Anne L. Foster is Associate Professor of History at Indiana State University, author of
Identifying the Problem
A powerful anti-opium movement emerged, especially in Europe and Asia, during the late nineteenth century. Activists, many of them religiously motivated, criticized opium itself as well as the problems with opium sale and distribution to vulnerable populations. They often focused their efforts on colonized spaces, arguing that anti-opium policies were part of what they understood as the civilizing mission.