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The most successful and enduring example of ethnic policing was the NYPD Italian Squad, which existed in various forms between 1904 and 1910. Under the leadership of detective Joseph Petrosino, the “Sherlock Holmes of Italy,” the department made the squad responsible for solving crimes involving Italian New Yorkers and became a model for other cities across the country. Failure to sustain lasting results against Italian organized crime and increasing anti-Italian prejudice led to the NYPD to consider immigration restrictions and deportation, rather than immigrant detectives, as a solution to immigrant crime.

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