Matthew Guariglia is Affiliated Scholar at the University of California College of the Law, San Francisco, Senior Policy Analyst at the Electronic Frontier Foundation, and coeditor of
The Rise of Ethnic Policing: Warren Charles, Cornelius Willemse, and the German Squad
2023. "The Rise of Ethnic Policing: Warren Charles, Cornelius Willemse, and the German Squad", Police and the Empire City: Race and the Origins of Modern Policing in New York, Matthew Guariglia
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In the years following 1900, the NYPD administrators increasingly relied on immigrant officers within their ranks to be translators between the department and the public. This including hiring officers like Cornelius Willemse and New York's first Chinese-American officer, Warren Charles. After the 1904 General Slocum disaster, the department organized the German Squad of German-speaking officers to speak with and organize the devastated community.