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In 1930s Japan, the encounter between reality and its representation led to the critique of fascism by the leftist-liberal writer Hasegawa Nyozekan, who sought to link fascism to the medium-low level of capitalist development in societies like Italy and Japan. Hasegawa saw Japan as caught in the global context of international economic competition and the collision between the demands of international cooperation and the interests of national regionalism. In his critique, Hasegawa showed how the development of a fascist ideology in Japan and its support from a broadly diverse class base reflected the country's level of capitalism.

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