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This Introduction frames the broader project of investigating how successive groups in Mahajanga have transformed the material world to realize power over land, and over people, and to define conceptions of belonging, from the mid-seventeenth century to the mid-twentieth century. It introduces the relationships between key protagonists of this history—Sakalava royal monarchs, highland Merina officials, Indian traders, Comorian migrants, and French colonizers—and provides a broad historical context for Mahajanga's founding and expansion. This chapter posits buildings as oft-overlooked, but crucial sites of historical evidence that, taken together with written works, texts, images, oral histories, and ethnographic accounts, offer insights into the ways in which competing groups built their presence into the city, forged affective ties, and harnessed authority through particular material regimes. Critical attention is given to the shifting role of the more-than-human world, which profoundly influenced the architectural possibilities across the city's unfolding.

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Bibliography

Archives
Archives Commune de Mahajanga, Madagascar (ACM)
Bibliothèque de Musée d'Art et Archeologie, Antananarivo, Madagascar (BMA)
Bibliothèque et Archives Universitaires, Université d'Antananarivo, Madagascar (BUA)
Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris, France (BNF)
Bibliothèque nationale de Madagascar, Antananarivo, Madagascar (BNA)
British Library, London, United Kingdom (BL)
Centre des archives d'Outre-Mer, Aix-en-Provence, France (CAOM)
Cleveland Public Library, East India Collection, Cleveland, Ohio, United States (CPL/EIC)
Council for World Mission—Archives of the London Missionary Society, School of Oriental and African Studies, London, United Kingdom (CWM/LMS)
East India Company Records, British Library, London, United Kingdom (IOR)
Foiben-Taosarintanin'I Madagasikara (Geographical and Hydrographic Institute of Madagascar), Antananarivo, Madagascar (FTM)
Institut National de la Statistique, Antananarivo, Madagascar (INSTAT)
National Archives of the République Démocratique de Madagascar, Antananarivo, Madagascar (ANRDM)
Northwestern University Library, Evanston, Illinois, United States (NWL)
Interviews

Malagasy was the primary language of my field research, and all interviews were conducted in Malagasy. After studying standard Malagasy (as used in the highlands and commonly taught in schools across the island) with language instructor Vololona Rasolofoson in Ann Arbor, with Olga Ramilisonina in Antananarivo, and with Ben Taoaby in Mahajanga, I eventually became proficient in the northern dialect of Malagasy spoken in Mahajanga (what some linguists have called “Northern Sakalava”) during my fieldwork in the city (2011 – 14). Although early on in the fieldwork I worked closely with Ben Taoaby as a research assistant during interviews, as my proficiency increased I conducted interviews on my own. Throughout the interviews many residents selectively incorporated French words, and those with closer ties to the Comoros used some Shikomoro words; friends and kin who joined us helped to interpret and translate these latter terms. Many interviews emerged organically during long afternoon visits or over meals; these were informal and diverse in content, ranging from memories of times past to political debates to didactic lessons on cooking, moral comportment, and proper gender relations. After several attempts to record these conversations were met with reticence, I resolved to rely entirely on handwritten notes. In addition, my partner, David Epstein, and I photographed, with the permission of those present, gatherings of spirit mediums and spirit possession (tromba) and life-cycle events such as marriages, funerals, and circumcisions. I also worked with a group of high school and university students to document their experiences in the city through photography and journals, which we collectively compiled into a photo novella that we used to facilitate discussion about belonging and urban life.

Because many of the oral accounts wove references to the highly sensitive events of the 1976 – 77 expulsion into broader discussions of the city's past, and given the tensions around this history today, I have chosen to maintain most interviewees’ anonymity and to identify them only with initials, except in cases where people explicitly expressed a preference for recognition. Some residents asked to be identified by name, and others chose their own pseudonyms; I have honored these requests throughout. Interviews were all conducted in Mahajanga and its surrounding areas and are listed chronologically.

Hadj Soudjay Bachir Adehame, La Corniche, February 14, 2012.
Hadj Soudjay Bachir Adehame, La Corniche, February 16, 2012.
Hadj Soudjay Bachir Adehame, La Corniche, February 21, 2012.
Hadj Soudjay Bachir Adehame, La Corniche, February 27, 2012.
Hadj Soudjay Bachir Adehame, La Corniche, February 29, 2012.
Hadj Soudjay Bachir Adehame, La Corniche, March 12, 2012.
Hadj Soudjay Bachir Adehame, La Corniche, March 15, 2012.
G., Mahajanga, July 18, 2012.
M., Fiofio, October 28, 2012.
P. K., Ambalavola, October 29, 2012.
N., Ambondrona, October 31, 2012.
Papa Taoaby, Abattoir, November 6, 2012.
Dadilahy Kassim, Tsaramandroso, January 18, 2013.
Volasoa, Amborovy, January 21, 2013.
B. P., Amborovy, February 8, 2013.
Dadilahy Kassim, Tsaramandroso, February 9, 2013.
J., Manga, February 12, 2013.
J., Manga, February 13, 2013.
Mama and Papa Taoaby, Abattoir, February 14, 2013.
Mama N., Morafeno, February 18, 2013.
F. P., Mahajanga, February 19, 2013.
Albert Ranaivamanana, Antanimalandy, March 21, 2013.
Francoeur Razafiarison, Antanimalandy, March 28, 2013.
Pastor Toky, Mahabibo Kely, March 29, 2013.
S., Mahavoky Avaratra, April 2, 2013.
Papa Taoaby, Abattoir, April 12, 2013.
Papa Taoaby, Abattoir, April 16, 2013.
Attoumani Mohamed, Village Touristique, April 18, 2013.
I. A., Tsaramandroso, April 19, 2013.
P. M., Mahavoky, April 24, 2013.
D. H., Mahabibo, April 26, 2013.
Mama Taoaby, Abattoir, April 29, 2013.
Mama Taoaby, Abattoir, May 7, 2013.
Said Hassan, Majunga Be, May 7, 2013.
Sheik Mamodrazy and Sheik Moustapha Nasser, Mahabibo, May 7, 2013.
H. A., Abattoir, June 19, 2013.
M. K., Abattoir, June 28, 2013.
P. T., Majunga Be, July 3, 2013.
Tourabaly, Majunga Be. July 4, 2013.
H. A., Abattoir, July 9, 2013.
Yakoubaly Abdoulhoussen, Majunga Be, July 11, 2013.
D. H., Mahabibo, July 11, 2013.
R., Abattoir, July 13, 2013.
M. J., Majunga Be., July 15, 2013.
Maître Youssef, Mahajanga, July 16, 2013.
Ramilisonina, Antananarivo, July 27, 2013.
M. Theophile, Analakely, August 12, 2013.
M. Theophile, Analakely, August 14, 2013
M. G., Marolaka, August 16, 2013.
Mama Taoaby, Abattoir, September 16, 2013.
I. A., Tsaramandroso, September 21, 2013.
M. A.. Manga, September 26, 2013.
I. A., Tsaramandroso, September 28, 2013.
M. N., Manga, October 1, 2013.
J. C., Antanimalandy, October 2, 2013.
Dadilahy Kassim, Tsaramandroso, October 6, 2013.
M. S., Amborovy, October 6, 2013.
M. R., Manga, October 7, 2013.
Michel Ducaud, Majunga Be, October 8, 2013.
Dadilahy Kassim, Tsaramandroso, October 11, 2013.
R. D., Mangarivotra, October 11, 2013.
M. A., Manga, October 16, 2013.
M. S., Amborovy, October 16, 2013.
M. N., Manga, October 18, 2013.
D. S., Mahavoky Atsimo, October 19, 2013.
M. C., Amborovy, October 19, 2013.
J. R. S., Mangarivotra, October 22, 2013.
Allain, Ambondrona, October 23, 2013.
C., Manga, October 25, 2013.
Allain, Amborovy, October 25, 2013.
J. R. S., Mangarivotra, October 28, 2013.
M. B., Manga, October 30, 2013.
M. A., Manga, October 31, 2013.
M. Z., Manga, November 4, 2013.
Allain, Amborovy, November 5, 2013.
F. P., Ambovoalanana, November 7, 2013.
M. G., Abattoir, November 11, 2013.
P. R., Manga, November 12, 2013.
A. A., Ambovoalanana, November 13, 2013.
M. M., Morafeno, November 14, 2013.
F. P., Manga, November 21, 2013.
Tsiavono, Antanimisaja, December 2, 2013.
Papa Taoaby, Abattoir, December 9, 2013.
H., Manga, December 11, 2013.
I., Mahabibo, December 11, 2013.
P., Manga, December 13, 2013.
Tsiavono, Antanimisaja, December 14, 2013.
M. M., Morafeno, December 15, 2013.
M. C., Village Touristique, December 18, 2013.
Twawilo, Mangatokana, December 18, 2013.
J.-F. Rabedimby, Ambondrona, December 19, 2013.
C., Mahajanga, January 7, 2014.
J. R., Mahajanga, January 15, 2014.
L. H., Mahajanga, January 15, 2014.
E., Mahajanga, January 20, 2014.
G. J., Mahajanga, January 20, 2014.
Tsiavono, Antanimisaja, January 25, 2014.
S., Mahajanga, January 27, 2014.
P., Mahajanga, January 27, 2014.
F., Mahajanga, January 29, 2014.
C., Mahajanga, January 31, 2014.
E. Mahajanga, January 31, 2014.
T., Mahajanga, January 31, 2014.
Hasandrama, Tsaramandroso, February 2, 2014.
T., Mahajanga, February 3, 2014.
P., Mahajanga, February 3, 2014.
F., Mahajanga, February 3, 2014.
Hasandrama, Tsaramandroso, February 5, 2014.
Valentin Razafindrakoto, SOTEMA, February 7, 2014.
M. S., Ambohidamina, February 8, 2014.
M. R., Ambohidamina, February 14, 2014.
D. P., Abattoir, February 16, 2014.
R., Manga, February 17, 2014.
W. H., Abattoir, February 22, 2014.
D., Amborovy, March 21, 2014.
El Had, Ambalavola, March 26, 2014.
M. F., Manga, March 28, 2014.
D. L. Tsararano Anosykely, April 4, 2014.
M. Z., Manga, April 7, 2014.
Hasandrama, Tsaramandroso, April 10, 2014.
M. N., Manga, April 11, 2014.
Bachir, La Corniche, April 14, 2014.
D. L. Tsararano Anosykely, April 18, 2014.
El Had, Ambalavola, April 18, 2014.
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Antananarivo Annual and Madagascar Magazine
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Inona no Vaovao
Journal Officiel de Madagascar et Dépendances
Notes, Reconnaissances et Explorations
Le Phare de Majunga
Le Réveil de la Côte Ouest
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