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The conclusion examines the business of humanitarian aid from the viewpoint of the history of Rwandan refugees in Ngara. It summarizes the book's argument that conflicts over refugee aid and protection reveal the competing and uneven sovereignties that shape the world of nation-states heralded by decolonization and creation of the United Nations. It also examines the fraught link between humanitarian aid and the protection of human rights, from the colonial era to the early 2000s. Finally, the conclusion examines ongoing problems of illegal immigration in Ngara district, including forced deportation and the difficulties of naturalizing Burundian refugees in Tanzania. Such issues are part of the ongoing struggle to define who belongs to the nation, and why.

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