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Chapter 9 examines Ngaran responses to both refugees and expatriate aid workers. The violence that occurred in the district was simultaneously disruptive and productive. Ngarans experienced the material and psychological harms of dislocation and physical violence associated with the refugee camps. Many Ngarans also took advantage of novel economic opportunities created by the transnational refugee complex and the refugee population. The effects of the emergency included the destruction of ecological resources and the loss of physical and material security among the populations that came into contact with the refugees. These effects solidified Ngaran perceptions of self and community, perceptions that centered on an oppositional understanding of the national character of Tanzanians and Rwandans.

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