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Chapter 4 explores local, governmental, and transnational responses to the first Rwandan refugees in Ngara during the 1960s. Although the refugees were not a homogeneous group, they were treated as such by those involved in their aid. For the British government, Rwandan refugees represented a security threat to the stability of the region during the Cold War. To the Tanzanian state, refugees were a developmental opportunity that would bring much-needed international money and manpower to an underfunded district. In contrast, local officials viewed the refugees as a privileged group that received funding from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and amenities far above what locals could claim. Rwandans were viewed locally as an increasingly stubborn group that refused to accede to officials' demands. The chapter details the reasons for Rwandan flight, the motivations of the UNHCR and the Tanzanian government, and the creation of the Muyenzi refugee camp.

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