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Consciousness and the formation of the subject-self, or subjectification, can work against the state’s intentions for schooling. (European) humanism’s positivist articulation of the self consorted with patriarchy and imperialism to justify and advance nationalism, racism, conquest, colonization, and the capitalist world-system. Marx, Freud, Lacan, Gramsci, Althusser, and Foucault challenged humanism’s sovereign subjects, and they suggested that subjects are constituted through discourse.

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