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He Who Controls the Sand: The Mining ‘Mafias’ Killing Each Other to Build Cities
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28
. Accessed February 19, 2022. .
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World Is Running Out of Sand and It’s Creating Deadly Sand Mafia: ‘Completely Depleted!’
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.
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Medium — Environment
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.
2020
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Grains of Despair: Sand Mining in India
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2019
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Sand Mining ‘Mafias’ Destroying Environment, Livelihoods: U.N
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Clarke
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John G. I.
2020
. “
Restoring and Renewing the Fourth Estate: Submission to SANEF Media Ethics and Credibility Inquiry on Measure to Support Journalists to Heal from and Transcend the Effects of State Capture
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Medium.com
,
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11
. Accessed February 18, 2022. .
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.
2018
. “
Sandeep Sharma: News World | Killed in Ghazipur District, India | March 26, 2018
,”
March
27
. .
Davis
,
Judi
.
2016
. “
Xolobeni Family Attacked
”.
South Coast Herald
,
March
7
. .
Davis
,
Matt
.
2019
. “
Illegal Sand Mining in India Is Fatefully Hurting Gharial Crocodiles, Ganges River Dolphins
”.
Big Think
,
April
26
. .
Delestrac
,
Denis
dir
,
2013
.
Sand Wars: An Investigative Documentary
.
Produced by Rappi Productions and La compagnie des Taxi-Brousse
.
Devasia
,
T. K.
2014
. “
Kerala Woman Calls Off Her Lonely Protest against Mighty Sand Mafia
”.
Khaleej Times
,
February
2
. .
Dlamini
,
Kwazi
.
2019
. “
Corruption Impeding on Human Rights in South Africa’s Mining Sector
.”
International Anti-Corruption Conference
,
February 1
. .
Dludla
,
Siphelele
.
2019
. “
South Africa Environmental Activists Prepare for Showdown with Aussie Mining Giant
”.
IOL, South Africa
,
May
21
. .
Dumas
,
Laurent Ribadeau
.
2019
.
“Les Plages du Maroc Vont-Elles Survivre aux ‘Mafias du Sable’?” [Will Morocco’s Beaches Survive the “Sand Mafias”?]
.
AfricaFrance Televisions
,
May
20
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ET Bureau
.
2018
. “
Do You Know the History behind the Infamous Word ‘Mafia’?
Economic Times
.
Last updated April 17, 2018
. Accessed August 23, 2019. .
Ghosh
,
Deepshikha
, ed.
2018
. “
Journalist Sandeep Sharma Crushed by Truck
.”
NDTV
,
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27
,
2018
.
1828777
.
Guégan
,
Marion
, and
Schilis-Gallego
Cécile
.
2019
. “
Forbidden Stories Part 3: Sand Mafias Silence Journalists in India
.”
News24
,
June
21
. .
Hawley
,
Samantha
.
2017a
.
India’s Sand Mafia: The Dark Secrets of India’s Booming Construction Industry
.
Journeyman Pictures (YouTube channel)
. .
Hawley
,
Samantha
.
2017b
. “
The ‘Sand Mafia’ Fuelling India’s $120 Billion Building Boom
”.
ABC News
,
March
27
. .
Hellwig
,
Christian
.
2015
. “
Illegal Sand Mining Is a Thing and It’s a Problem
”.
International Policy Digest
,
April
19
. .
History.com
.
2009
. “
Origins of the Mafia
”.
History.com
,
October
29
. .
Memorial
.
HRD
2022
. “
Salim Kancil
.”
HRD Memorial: Celebrating Those Who Were Killed Defending Human Rights
. Accessed February 19, 2022. .
Human Rights Watch
.
2018
. “
Diamond Trade Still Fuels Human Suffering
,”
May
10
. .
Human Rights Watch
.
2020
. “
World Report 2020: South Africa Events of 2019
.” Accessed July 7, 2020. .
India Today Web Desk
.
2018
. “
Madhya Pradesh Journalist Murder: Driver of the Truck Which Ran Over Sandeep Sharma Arrested
.”
March
26
. .
Kelsey-Sugg
,
Anna
, and
Priadko
Taryn
.
2020
. “
The World Is ‘Running Out of Sand,’ and It’s Fuelling Murders, Mafias and Ecological Devastation
”.
ABC Radio National
,
January
10
. .
Lasseter
,
Tom
, and
Katakey
.
Rakteem
2014
. “
When India Lost Its Student Engineers on Sand Mafia Path to Beas River
”.
Livemint
,
December
17
. www\.livemint.com/Home-Page/X8NaZmnppusJGEr6CgNk0K/When-India-lost-its-student-engineers-on-sand-mafia-path-to.html.
Mahadevan
,
Prem
.
2019
.
Sand Mafias in India: Disorganized Crime in a Growing Economy
.
July
. Geneva: Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime. .
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,
Hamza
.
2019
. “
‘Sand Mafias’ Threaten Morocco’s Coastline
.”
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,
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17
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Mexico News Daily
.
2019
. “
Environmental Activist Who Fought Illegal Mining Murdered in Chiapas
,”
June
11
. .
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,
Oren F.
[1920] 1973
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Simon
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Okoth
Pontian
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Were
Edmond
, and
Vundi
Silvia
.
2015
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An Assessment of the Contribution of Natural Resources Use Conflict to Poverty Alleviation with Special Reference to Sand Harvesting in Makueni County — Kenya
.”
August
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50
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Sandhya
.
2019
. “
Sand Mafia Try to Mow Down Cop during Night Raid in Virar
”.
Times of India
,
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20
. .
Neelanbaran
,
A
.
2019
. “
Anti-Sand Mining Activist Murdered by Sand Mafia in Tamil Nadu’s Ramanathapu-ram
”.
NewsClick
,
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21
. .
News Minute Staff
.
2018
. “
TN Policeman Investigating Illegal Sand Mining Killed, Hand of Sand Mafia Suspected
”.
News Minute
,
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7
. .
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,
R
.
2013
. “
My Sea, My Sand
”.
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,
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27
. .
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,
Sonia
.
2015
. “
How India’s ‘Sand Mafia’ Pillages Land, Terrorizes People, and Gets Away with It
”.
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,
October
7
. .
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,
Fred
.
2017
. “
Murder in Pondoland: How a Proposed Strip Mine Brought Conflict to South Africa’s Wild Coast
”.
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,
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13
. .
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,
Pascal
.
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. “
Sand, Rarer Than One Thinks
.”
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,
March
. .pdf.
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,
Kamleshan
.
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. “
The Xolobeni Heavy Minerals Sands Project on the Wild Coast, South Africa
.”
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. Accessed April 4, 2020. .
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,
Alexandra
.
2018
. “
Inside the Ecologically Damaging Practice of Illegal Sand Mining
”.
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,
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16
. .
PTI
.
2018
. “
Illegal Sand Mining: Tractor Driver Held for Killing Madhya Pradesh Forest Officer
.”
Indian Express
,
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8
. .
Raab
,
Selwyn
.
2016
.
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.
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Thomas Dunn Books.
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,
Ilangovan
.
2015
. “
Sand Mafia: Murders Most Foul
”.
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,
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24
. .
Rege
,
Aunshul
.
2015
. “
Not Biting the Dust: Using a Tri-Partite Model of Organized Crime to Examine India’s Sand Mafia
.”
International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice
40
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2
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21
.
Rege
,
Aunshul
, and
Lavorgna
Anita
.
2017
. “
Organization, Operations, and Success of Environmental Organized Crime in Italy and India: A Comparative Analysis
.”
European Journal of Criminology
14
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2
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160
82
. .
Reporters without Borders
.
2018
. “
Two Indian Journalists Rammed by SUV Killed Outright
,”
March
27
.
Last updated August 23, 2019
. .
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,
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.
2017
. “
How to Steal a River
.”
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,
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5
,
42
49
,
59
,
8
. .
Roos
,
David
.
2017
. “
Sand Is in Such High Demand People Are Stealing Tons of It
”.
How Stuff Works
,
March
6
. .
Roughneen
,
Simon
.
2017
. “
Race to the Bottom for Region’s Sand Miners: Asia’s Beaches and Riverbeds Suffer as Sand Demand Piles Up
”.
Nikkei Asia
,
July
19
. .
Salopek
,
Paul
.
2019
. “
Inside the Deadly World of India’s Sand Mining Mafia
”.
National Geographic
,
June
26
. .
Seshu
,
Geeta
, and
Sarkar
Urvashi
.
2019
.
Getting Away with Murder: A Study on the Killings of and Attacks on Journalists in India, 2014–2019, and Justice Delivery in These Cases
.
Thakur Foundation
. Accessed April 2, 2020. .
Sickels-Taves
,
Lauren
.
2016
. “
The Care and Preservation of Historic Tabby
.”
Benson Ford Research Center, The Henry Ford
. Accessed July 21, 2021. .
Singh
,
Akoijam Amitkumar
,
Mahongnao
Mirinchonme
,
Demaria
Federico
, and
Krishna
Venni V.
.
2015
. “
Illegal Sand Mining Conflicts in India
.”
Environmental Justice Organizations, Liabilities and Trade (EJOLT) Factsheet
no.
10
. Accessed August 12, 2019. .
Singh
,
Rajesh Kumar
.
2015
. “
Inside the World of Sand Mafia: Terror Casts Gloom as Cops Bury Heads
.”
Hindustan Times
.
Last updated April 25, 2015
. Accessed June 5, 2019. .
Singh
,
Shri Majoj Kumar
,
Sridharan
U.
,
Lal
R. B.
, and
Singh
Sonu
2016
.
Sustainable Sand Mining Management Guidelines 2016
.
March
15
. Accessed April 4, 2020.
New Delhi, India
:
Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change
. .
SANDRP
.
2017
.
(South Asia Network on Dames, Rivers and People)
. “
Illegal Sand Mining 2017: Rivers Continue to Lose Mindless Mining Battle
,”
December
19
. .
SANDRP
.
2019
.
(South Asia Network on Dams, Rivers and People). “Sand Mining Issues Proliferate Even in Monsoon.”
DRP News Bulletin
,
September
9
. .
Southern Africa Human Rights Defenders Network
.
2020
. “
The Southern Africa Human Rights Defenders Stands in Solidarity with Activists against slapp Suit Litigation
,”
June
16
. .
Srivastava
,
Roli
.
2018
. “
Indian Miners Drowning for Sand Despite Government Crackdown
”.
Reuters
,
August
12
. .
Srivastava
,
Roli
, and
Upright
Ed
.
2017
. “
Drowning for Sand: Miners Risk All for India’s Building Boom
.”
Thomas Reuters Foundation
,
July
18
. .
Suchitra
,
M
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2013
. “
Mother of Three Wages Lone Battle against Sand Mining Lobby
”.
Down To Earth
,
August
17
.
4
1867
.
Times of India
.
2018
. “
Shocking but Gangs, Mining Mafia Train Guns on Cops
.”
October
19
. .
Times of India
.
2019
. “
One Dead in Sand Mafia Gang War
,”
December
15
. .
Times of India
.
2020
. “
Pune: Crackdown on Sand Mafia: 23 Boats Set on Fire
,”
January
5
. .
Tomar
,
Shruti
.
2018
. “
Forest Ranger Mowed Down in MP Mining Mafia’s Latest Attack on Officials
”.
Hindustan Times
,
September
7
. .
Tweedie
,
Neil
.
2018
. “
Is the World Running Out of Sand? The Truth Behind Stolen Beaches and Dredged Islands
”.
Guardian
,
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1
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UNEP
.
2019
.
(UN Environment Programme)
. “
Sand and Sustainability: Finding New Solutions for Environmental Governance of Global Sand Resources
.” Accessed December 3, 2019.
Geneva
:
grid-Geneva, UNEP
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Venter
,
Zelda
.
2018
. “
Xolobeni Community Scores Huge Victory against Mining
”.
Pretoria News
,
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22
. .
VICE News
.
2021
.
Illegal Sand Mining Is Ruining These Countries’ Ecosystems
,
September
11
.
Produced by Joe Casey
. .
Washinyira
,
Tariro
.
2016a
. “
We Will Die for Our Land, Say Angry Xolobeni Villagers as Dune Mining Looms
”.
Mail and Guardian
,
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12
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Washinyira
,
Tariro
.
2016b
. “
Wild Coast Battle to Save Land from Mining
”.
Ground Up
,
February
12
. .
Watts
,
Jonathan
.
2019
. “
Jagendra Singh: The Indian Journalist Burned to Death
”.
Guardian
,
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17
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Yeshwantrao
,
Nitin
.
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. “
Sand Mafia Fill 600 Trucks a Day
”.
Times of India
,
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2
. .indiatimes.com/city/mumbai/Sand-mafia-fill-600-trucks-a-day/articleshow/7026398.cms.
Yogesh
,
S
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Sand Mafia: A Network of Politicians, Construction Companies and Criminals
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27
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CHAPTER FIVE. SAND RIVERS TO THE BEACH
Abam
,
Tamunoene Kingdom Simeon
, and
Oba
Tamunotonye
.
2018
. “
Recent Case Studies of Sand Mining, Utilization and Environmental Impacts in the Niger Delta
.”
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2
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67
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Australia Network News
.
2013
. “
Philip-pines Detains Chinese for Illegal Mining
.”
August
6
. .
Beiser
,
Vince
.
2017
. “
Sand Mining: The Global Environmental Crisis You’ve Probably Never Heard Of
”.
Guardian
,
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27
. .
Bendixen
,
Mette
,
Best
Jim
,
Hackney
Chris
, and
Iversen
L. L.
.
2019
. “
Time Is Running Out for Sand
.”
Nature
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31
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Binh
,
Doan Van
,
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, and
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.
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. “
Changes to Long-Term Discharge and Sediment Loads in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta Caused by Upstream Dams
.”
Geomorphology
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. .
Bravard
,
Jean-Paul
.
2019
.
Sedimentary Crisis at the Global Scale 2: Deltas, A Major Environmental Crisis
.
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.
2022
.
Sand Mining, India Environment Portal: Knowledge for Change
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.
2021
. “
Sand Mining
.” .
Datta
,
Damayanti
.
2018
. “
Uncontrolled Sand Mining Led to Kerala Floods. This Is Only Waiting to Happen Again
”.
DailyO
,
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27
. .
Gámez
,
Luna
.
2020
. “
La Muerte de un Río Amazónico Asfixiado por las Hidroeléctricas y la Minería
”.
El Pais
,
June
3
. .
Gardner
,
John R.
,
Yang
Xiao
,
Topp
Simon N.
,
Ross
Matthew R. V.
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Elizabeth H.
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2021
. “
The Color of Rivers
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2011
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Sand Mines Boom in Asia — at a Cost to Nature
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,
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22
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,
Gary
.
2014
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Dams — Cutting off Our Beach Sand
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,
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17
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Hossain
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.
2021
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In Pictures: Illegal Sand Mining Threatens Bangladesh Farmland
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Al Jazeera
,
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11
. .
Kindu
,
Mizan
,
Aklilu
,
Esayas
Balkew
Meshe-sha
, and
Gebre-Michael
Teshome
.
2018
. “
Study on the Species Composition and Ecology of Anophelines in Addis Zemen, South Gondar, Ethiopia
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,
Lois
, and
Rintoul
.
Max
2018
. “
Impacts of Sand Mining on Ecosystem Structure, Process and Biodiversity in Rivers
.”
Washington, DC
:
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Kondolf
,
G. M.
,
Gao
Y.
,
Annandale
G. W.
,
Morris
G. L.
,
Jiang
E.
,
Zhang
J.
,
Cao
Y.
,
Carling
P.
,
Fu
K.
,
Guo
Q.
,
Hotchkiss
R.
,
Peteuil
C.
,
Sumi
T.
,
Wang
H.-W.
,
Wang
Z.
,
Wei
Z.
,
Wu
B.
,
Wu
C.
, and
Yang
C. T.
.
2014
. “
Sustainable Sediment Management in Reservoirs and Regulated Rivers: Experiences from Five Continents
.”
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2
, no.
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80
. .
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,
Tom
, and
Katakey
.
Rakteem
2014
. “
When India Lost Its Student Engineers on Sand Mafia Path to Beas River
”.
Livemint
,
December
17
. .
McCully
,
Patrick
.
2001
. “
Dams and Geology: Morphological Effects
.” In
Silenced Rivers: The Ecology and Politics of Large Dams
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35
.
New York
:
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,
Nikhil
.
2018
. “
Illegal Sand Mining: India’s Biggest Environmental Challenge?
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,
October
26
. .
Milliman
,
John D.
, and
Syvitski
James P. M.
1992
. “
Geomorphic/Tectonic Control of Sediment Discharge to the Ocean: The Importance of Small Mountainous Rivers
.”
Journal of Geology
100
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5
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44
. .
Niranjan
,
Ajit
.
2021
. “
Sand Crisis: Mafias Thrive as Shortages Loom
”.
Deutsche Welle
,
March
15
. .
Padmalal
,
D.
, and
Maya
K.
.
2014
.
Sand Mining: Environmental Impacts and Selected Case Studies
.
Dordrecht
:
Springer
.
Rozsa
,
Matthew
.
2021
. “
One in Three US Rivers Have Changed Color since 1984. Here’s What This Means
”.
Salon
,
January
3
. .
Sherman
,
Douglas
,
Barron
Kamron M.
, and
Ellis
Jean T.
.
2002
. “
Retention of Beach Sands by Dams and Debris Basins in Southern California
.”
Journal of Coastal Research
36
, no.
1
:
662
74
. .
Soleimani-Ahmadi
,
Moussa
,
Vatandoost
Hassan
,
Hanafi-Bojd
Ahmad-Ali
,
Zare
Mehdi
,
Safari
Reza
,
Mojahedi
Abdolrasul
, and
Poorahmad-Garbandi
Fatemeh
2013
. “
Environmental Characteristics of Anopheline Mosquito Larval Habitats in a Malaria Endemic Area in Iran
.”
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
6
, no.
7
:
510
15
.
TeamLease RegTech Legal Research Team
.
2020
. “
Enforcement and Monitoring Guidelines for Sand Mining
.”
Supplement to Sustainable Sand Mining Management Guideline-2016 (ssmg-2016)
.
Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change. Government of India
,
January
30
. Accessed March 11, 2022. .
Torres
,
Aurora
,
Brandt
,
Jodi
Lear
, and
Kristen
Liu
Jianguo
.
2017
. “
A Looming Tragedy of the Sand Commons
.”
Science
357
, no.
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:
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71
. .
Trout Unlimited
.
2020
. “
Dam Removal
.” Accessed January 18, 2021. .
Vergil (Maro, Publius Vergilius)
.
The Aeneid
. Edited and translated by
Dryden
John
.
Book
6
,
295
.
New York
:
P. F. Collier
,
1697
. .
VICE News
.
2021
. “
Illegal Sand Mining Is Ruining These Countries’ Ecosystems
,”
September
11
. .
Williams
,
Garnett P.
, and
Guy
Harold P.
1973
. “
Erosional and Depositional Aspects of Hurricane Camille in Virginia, 1969
.”
Professional Paper 805
.
Washington, DC
:
US Geological Survey.
World Wildlife Fund
.
2018
. “
Uncovering Sand Mining’s Impacts on the World’s Rivers
,”
August
24
. .
Zielinski
,
Sarah
.
2013
. “
World’s Rivers and Streams Leak a Lot of Carbon Dioxide
.”
Smithsonian Magazine
,
November
20
. .com/science-nature/worlds-rivers-and-streams-leak-a-lot-of-carbon-dioxide-180947791/.
CHAPTER SIX. BARBUDA AND OTHER ISLANDS
Adams
,
Berta McKelly
.
2017
. “
Removal of Sand from the Beaches Is Illegal
.”
Government of the Virgin Islands, Press Release
,
November
8
. .
Antigua Observer
.
2017a
. “
Illegal Sand Mining on the Increase in Antigua
,”
June
13
. Accessed May 2, 2020. .
Antigua Observer
.
2017b
. “
Sand Mining Continues in Barbuda’s National Park
,”
April
21
. .
Barbudaful
.
2020
. “
The Barbuda Council
.” Accessed April 2, 2020. .
Barbudaful
.
2020
. “
Sand Mining
.” Accessed March 3, 2020. .
Beiser
,
Vince
.
2018
. “
How Sand Mining Helped Flood Houston
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APPENDIX B
Dean
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Figures & Tables

Contents

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Illegal Sand Mining: Tractor Driver Held for Killing Madhya Pradesh Forest Officer
.”
Indian Express
,
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8
. .
Raab
,
Selwyn
.
2016
.
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.
New York
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Thomas Dunn Books.
Rajasekaran
,
Ilangovan
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2015
. “
Sand Mafia: Murders Most Foul
”.
Frontline
,
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24
. .
Rege
,
Aunshul
.
2015
. “
Not Biting the Dust: Using a Tri-Partite Model of Organized Crime to Examine India’s Sand Mafia
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International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice
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21
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Rege
,
Aunshul
, and
Lavorgna
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.
2017
. “
Organization, Operations, and Success of Environmental Organized Crime in Italy and India: A Comparative Analysis
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82
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Reporters without Borders
.
2018
. “
Two Indian Journalists Rammed by SUV Killed Outright
,”
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27
.
Last updated August 23, 2019
. .
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,
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.
2017
. “
How to Steal a River
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5
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42
49
,
59
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8
. .
Roos
,
David
.
2017
. “
Sand Is in Such High Demand People Are Stealing Tons of It
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How Stuff Works
,
March
6
. .
Roughneen
,
Simon
.
2017
. “
Race to the Bottom for Region’s Sand Miners: Asia’s Beaches and Riverbeds Suffer as Sand Demand Piles Up
”.
Nikkei Asia
,
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19
. .
Salopek
,
Paul
.
2019
. “
Inside the Deadly World of India’s Sand Mining Mafia
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National Geographic
,
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26
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Seshu
,
Geeta
, and
Sarkar
Urvashi
.
2019
.
Getting Away with Murder: A Study on the Killings of and Attacks on Journalists in India, 2014–2019, and Justice Delivery in These Cases
.
Thakur Foundation
. Accessed April 2, 2020. .
Sickels-Taves
,
Lauren
.
2016
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The Care and Preservation of Historic Tabby
.”
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. Accessed July 21, 2021. .
Singh
,
Akoijam Amitkumar
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Mahongnao
Mirinchonme
,
Demaria
Federico
, and
Krishna
Venni V.
.
2015
. “
Illegal Sand Mining Conflicts in India
.”
Environmental Justice Organizations, Liabilities and Trade (EJOLT) Factsheet
no.
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. Accessed August 12, 2019. .
Singh
,
Rajesh Kumar
.
2015
. “
Inside the World of Sand Mafia: Terror Casts Gloom as Cops Bury Heads
.”
Hindustan Times
.
Last updated April 25, 2015
. Accessed June 5, 2019. .
Singh
,
Shri Majoj Kumar
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Sridharan
U.
,
Lal
R. B.
, and
Singh
Sonu
2016
.
Sustainable Sand Mining Management Guidelines 2016
.
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15
. Accessed April 4, 2020.
New Delhi, India
:
Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change
. .
SANDRP
.
2017
.
(South Asia Network on Dames, Rivers and People)
. “
Illegal Sand Mining 2017: Rivers Continue to Lose Mindless Mining Battle
,”
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19
. .
SANDRP
.
2019
.
(South Asia Network on Dams, Rivers and People). “Sand Mining Issues Proliferate Even in Monsoon.”
DRP News Bulletin
,
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9
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Southern Africa Human Rights Defenders Network
.
2020
. “
The Southern Africa Human Rights Defenders Stands in Solidarity with Activists against slapp Suit Litigation
,”
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16
. .
Srivastava
,
Roli
.
2018
. “
Indian Miners Drowning for Sand Despite Government Crackdown
”.
Reuters
,
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12
. .
Srivastava
,
Roli
, and
Upright
Ed
.
2017
. “
Drowning for Sand: Miners Risk All for India’s Building Boom
.”
Thomas Reuters Foundation
,
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18
. .
Suchitra
,
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.
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. “
Mother of Three Wages Lone Battle against Sand Mining Lobby
”.
Down To Earth
,
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17
.
4
1867
.
Times of India
.
2018
. “
Shocking but Gangs, Mining Mafia Train Guns on Cops
.”
October
19
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Times of India
.
2019
. “
One Dead in Sand Mafia Gang War
,”
December
15
. .
Times of India
.
2020
. “
Pune: Crackdown on Sand Mafia: 23 Boats Set on Fire
,”
January
5
. .
Tomar
,
Shruti
.
2018
. “
Forest Ranger Mowed Down in MP Mining Mafia’s Latest Attack on Officials
”.
Hindustan Times
,
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7
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Tweedie
,
Neil
.
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. “
Is the World Running Out of Sand? The Truth Behind Stolen Beaches and Dredged Islands
”.
Guardian
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1
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UNEP
.
2019
.
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. “
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Xolobeni Community Scores Huge Victory against Mining
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2021
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Illegal Sand Mining Is Ruining These Countries’ Ecosystems
,
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11
.
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Washinyira
,
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We Will Die for Our Land, Say Angry Xolobeni Villagers as Dune Mining Looms
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Washinyira
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Wild Coast Battle to Save Land from Mining
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Ground Up
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12
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Watts
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Jonathan
.
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. “
Jagendra Singh: The Indian Journalist Burned to Death
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Nitin
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Sand Mafia Fill 600 Trucks a Day
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Sand Mafia: A Network of Politicians, Construction Companies and Criminals
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CHAPTER FIVE. SAND RIVERS TO THE BEACH
Abam
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Oba
Tamunotonye
.
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. “
Recent Case Studies of Sand Mining, Utilization and Environmental Impacts in the Niger Delta
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6
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Beiser
,
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.
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. “
Sand Mining: The Global Environmental Crisis You’ve Probably Never Heard Of
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,
Best
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,
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, and
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.
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.
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.
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. “
Uncontrolled Sand Mining Led to Kerala Floods. This Is Only Waiting to Happen Again
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Luna
.
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. “
La Muerte de un Río Amazónico Asfixiado por las Hidroeléctricas y la Minería
”.
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Kindu
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. “
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,
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,
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, and
Yang
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.
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. “
Sustainable Sediment Management in Reservoirs and Regulated Rivers: Experiences from Five Continents
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80
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Tom
, and
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. “
When India Lost Its Student Engineers on Sand Mafia Path to Beas River
”.
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.
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. “
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,
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26
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.
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. “
Sand Crisis: Mafias Thrive as Shortages Loom
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.
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.
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.
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.
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,
Matthew
.
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. “
One in Three US Rivers Have Changed Color since 1984. Here’s What This Means
”.
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,
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3
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,
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, and
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.
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. “
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,
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,
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,
Hanafi-Bojd
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,
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,
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,
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, and
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2013
. “
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. “
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.”
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. Accessed March 11, 2022. .
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.
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. “
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.
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. “
Illegal Sand Mining Is Ruining These Countries’ Ecosystems
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11
. .
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, and
Guy
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. “
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. “
Uncovering Sand Mining’s Impacts on the World’s Rivers
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24
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Zielinski
,
Sarah
.
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World’s Rivers and Streams Leak a Lot of Carbon Dioxide
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20
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CHAPTER SIX. BARBUDA AND OTHER ISLANDS
Adams
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Berta McKelly
.
2017
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Removal of Sand from the Beaches Is Illegal
.”
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,
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8
. .
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.
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. “
Illegal Sand Mining on the Increase in Antigua
,”
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13
. Accessed May 2, 2020. .
Antigua Observer
.
2017b
. “
Sand Mining Continues in Barbuda’s National Park
,”
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21
. .
Barbudaful
.
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. “
The Barbuda Council
.” Accessed April 2, 2020. .
Barbudaful
.
2020
. “
Sand Mining
.” Accessed March 3, 2020. .
Beiser
,
Vince
.
2018
. “
How Sand Mining Helped Flood Houston
.”
Pulitzer Center
,
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12
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Bessell-Browne
,
Pia
,
Negri
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Fisher
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,
Code
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Duckworth
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Jones
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2017
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Impacts of Turbidity on Corals: The Relative Importance of Light Limitation and Suspended Sediments
.”
Marine Pollution Bulletin
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70
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Boger
,
Rebecca
, and
Perdikaris
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Sophia
2019
. “
After Irma, Disaster Capitalism Threatens Cultural Heritage in Barbuda
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NACLA
,
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11
. Accessed June 25, 2020. .
Brown
,
Desmond
.
2013
. “
Facing Tough Times, Barbuda Continues Sand Mining Despite Warnings
”.
Inter Press Service
,
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22
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Browne
,
Theodore
.
2017
. “
Sand Mining in Brighton: A Blot on Government’s Record
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Vincentian
,
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5
. Accessed June 25, 2020. .
Bush
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Jackson
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Pushing Grenada Backwards with Beach Sand Mining
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21
. Accessed May 2, 2020. .
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.
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. “
Beach Sand Mining in Grenada Triggers Loss of Trees and Beach Erosion
,”
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20
. .
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. n.d.
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WVU Prof. Wants to Help People of Barbuda
.”
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Erftemeijer
,
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, and
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.
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Environmental Impacts of Dredging and Other Sediment Disturbances on Corals: A Review
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On the Shoals of Giants: Natural Catastrophes and the Overall Destruction of the Caribbean’s Archaeological Record
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Puerto Rico’s Visitor Economy: Highlights
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15
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.”
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.
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.
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Gould
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.
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. “
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18
. .
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18
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.”
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.”
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.”
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Police Crack Down on Illegal Sand Mining
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