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Chapter 4 sails into the specific oceanic literacy of ho‘okele to better articulate how distinct ways of knowing the world construct specific identities as related to our surroundings. How we read the seascape impresses how we move through it, constructing distinct ideologies that affect our realities and relationships with the surrounding world. Historical European ways of traveling on the seascape carried an ideology that distinguished land from sea so that entering the ocean was to enter a mysterious place “out there” that needed to be controlled in order to “get across.” In contrast, interviews with Hawaiian navigators Nainoa Thompson and...

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