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Beginning with a discussion of the 1662 Virginia law concerning the heritability of enslavement, this introduction, “Refusing Demography,” considers the connections among slavery, race, gender, and commodification in the early modern Atlantic world. Despite the ways in which women are frequently omitted from histories of hereditary racial slavery, they were uniquely situated to understand its logics. As the marketplace of slavery was rooted in their symbolic and material capacity to produce children, these women accounted for the connection between slavery and their own alleged kinlessness. They had a particular relationship to the rhythms of slavery and its ideology—capture, transport, sale, labor, and refusal—that was rooted in their reproductive potential. This introduction argues that a history of women and the transatlantic slave trade reveals the contours of early modern notions of trade, race, and commodification.

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