Skip to Main Content
Skip Nav Destination
This content is made freely available by the publisher. It may not be redistributed or altered. All rights reserved.
This content is only available as PDF.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Aching
,
Gerard
.
Masking and Power: Carnival and Popular Culture in the Caribbean
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
,
2002
.
Adkins
,
Terry
. “
The Vigilant Torch of an Olympian Painter
.”
American Studies
49
, no.
1–2
(Spring/Summer
2008
):
37
43
.
Alexandre
,
Sandy
.
The Properties of Violence: Claims to Ownership in Representations of Lynching
.
Jackson
:
University Press of Mississippi
,
2012
.
Anatol
,
Giselle
. “
Transforming the Skin-Shedding Soucouyant: Using Folklore to Reclaim Female Agency in Caribbean Literature
.”
Small Axe
7
(
March
2000
):
44
59
.
Andrade
,
Oswald de
. “
Cannibalist Manifesto
.” Translated by
Bary
Leslie
.
Latin American Literary Review
19
, no.
38
(
July–December
1991
):
38
47
.
Andrews
,
Kehinde
. “
Beyond Pan-Africanism: Garveyism, Malcolm X, and the End of the Colonial Nation State
.”
Third World Quarterly
38
, no.
11
(
November
2017
):
2501
16
.
Angelou
,
Maya
.
The Heart of a Woman
.
New York
:
Random House
,
1981
.
Angelou
,
Maya
.
I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings
.
New York
:
Random House
,
1969
.
Angelou
,
Maya
.
Singin’ and Swingin’ and Gettin’ Merry Like Christmas
.
New York
:
Bantam Books
,
1976
.
Anthony
,
Michael
.
Parade of the Carnivals of Trinidad, 1839–1989
.
London
:
Circle Press
,
1989
.
Archer-Straw
,
Petrine
.
Negrophilia: Avant-Garde Paris and Black Culture in the 1920s
.
New York
:
Thames and Hudson
,
2000
.
Arnold
,
A. James
.
Modernism and Negritude: The Poetry and Poetics of Aimé Césaire
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
,
1981
.
Arnold
,
David
. “
India’s Place in the Tropical World, 1770–1930
.”
Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History
26
, no.
1
(
January
1998
):
1
21
.
Arnold
,
David
.
The Problem of Nature: Environment, Culture and European Expansion
.
Oxford
:
Blackwell
,
1996
.
Baker
,
Houston A.
Jr.
Modernism and the Harlem Renaissance
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
,
1987
.
Baker
,
Josephine
, and
Bouillon
Jo
.
Josephine
. Translated by
Fitzpatrick
Mariana
.
New York
:
Paragon House
,
1977
.
Bakhtin
,
Mikhail
.
Rabelais and His World
. Translated by
Iswolsky
Helene
.
Bloomington
:
Indiana University Press
,
1984
.
Baron Alexander von Humboldt
.
Staten Island
:
Great Neck Publishing
,
2007
.
Barringer
,
Tim
,
Forrester
Gillian
, and
Martinez-Ruiz
Barbaro
.
Art and Emancipation in Jamaica: Isaac Mendes Belisario and His Worlds
.
New Haven, CT
:
Yale Center for British Art in association with Yale University Press
,
2008
.
Barrow
,
Christine
, ed.
Caribbean Portraits: Essays on Gender Ideologies and Identities
.
Kingston
:
Randle
,
1998
.
Bary
,
Leslie
. “
Oswald de Andrade’s ‘Cannibalist Manifesto’
.”
Latin American Literary Review
19
, no.
38
(
July–December
1991
):
35
37
.
Basualdo
,
Carlos
. “
Tropicália: Avant-Garde, Popular Culture, and the Culture Industry in Brazil
.” In
Tropicália: A Revolution in Brazilian Culture, 1967–1972
, edited by
Basualdo
Carlos
.
São Paulo
:
Cosac Naify
,
2005
.
Batiste
,
Stephanie Leigh
.
Darkening Mirrors: Imperial Representation in Depression-Era African American Performance
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2011
.
Bearden
,
Romare
, and
Henderson
Harry
.
A History of African-American Artists: From 1792 to the Present
.
New York
:
Pantheon Books
,
1993
.
Beauvoir
,
Simone de
.
The Second Sex
. Translated by
Parshley
H. M.
.
New York
:
Vintage Books
,
1989
.
Benítez-Rojo
,
Antonio
.
The Repeating Island: The Caribbean and the Postmodern Perspective
. Translated by
Maraniss
James
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
1996
.
Berger
,
Martin A.
Sight Unseen: Whiteness and American Visual Culture
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
2005
.
Besson
,
Gérard
.
Folklore and Legends of Trinidad and Tobago
.
Port of Spain, Trinidad
:
Paria
,
2001
.
Bettelheim
,
Judith
. “
Palo Monte Mayombe and Its Influence on Cuban Contemporary Art
.”
African Arts
34
, no.
2
(Summer
2001
):
36
49
.
Blanc
,
Giulio V.
Cuban Modernism: The Search for a National Ethos
.” In
Wifredo Lam and His Contemporaries, 1938–1952
, edited by
Balderrama
Maria R.
.
New York
:
Studio Museum in Harlem
,
1992
.
Bogues
,
Anthony
. “
Art, History, and the Politics of Imagination: An Interview with ED-C
.” In
From Revolution in the Tropics to Imagined Landscapes: The Art of Edouard Duval-Carrié
, edited by
Bogues
Anthony
.
Miami
:
Pérez Art Museum
,
2014
.
Bogues
,
Anthony
. “
Reinventing the Caribbean: Edouard Duval-Carrié, History, Politics, and the Making of a Caribbean Aesthetic
.” In
From Revolution in the Tropics to Imagined Landscapes: The Art of Edouard Duval-Carrié
, edited by
Bogues
Anthony
.
Miami
:
Pérez Art Museum
,
2014
.
Bolland
,
O. Nigel
.
The Politics of Labour in the British Caribbean: The Social Origins of Authoritarianism and Democracy in the Labour Movement
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Markus Weiner
,
2001
.
Bordo
,
Susan R.
The Body and the Reproduction of Femininity: A Feminist Appropriation of Foucault
.” In
Gender/Body/Knowledge: Feminist Reconstructions of Being and Knowing
, edited by
Jaggar
Allison
and
Bordo
Susan R.
.
New York
:
Rutgers University Press
,
1989
.
Borshuk
,
Michael
. “
An Intelligence of the Body: Disruptive Parody through Dance in the Early Performances of Josephine Baker
.” In
Embodying Liberation: The Black Body in American Dance
, edited by
Fischer-Hornung
Dorothea
and
Goeller
Allison
.
Piscataway, NJ
:
Transaction
,
2001
.
Bowd
,
Gavin
, and
Clayton
Daniel
. “
Tropicality, Orientalism, and French Colonialism in Indochina: The Work of Pierre Gourou, 1927–1982
.”
French Historical Studies
28
, no.
2
(Spring
2005
):
297
327
.
Brathwaite
,
Kamau
.
Contradictory Omens: Cultural Diversity and Integration in the Caribbean
.
Mona, Jamaica
:
Savacou
,
1974
.
Brereton
,
Bridget
. “
Family Strategies, Gender and the Shift to Wage Labour in the British Caribbean
.” In
The Colonial Caribbean in Transition: Essays on Post-emancipation Social and Cultural History
, edited by
Brereton
Bridget
and
Yelvington
Kevin A.
.
Gainesville
:
University Press of Florida
,
1999
.
Brereton
,
Bridget
.
A History of Modern Trinidad, 1783–1962
.
Kingston, Jamaica
:
Heinemann
,
1981
.
Brereton
,
Bridget
.
Race Relations in Colonial Trinidad 1870–1900
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
,
2002
.
Brereton
,
Bridget
. “
The Trinidad Carnival: 1870–1900
.”
Savacou
, nos.
11/12
(
September
1975
):
46
57
.
Brereton
,
Bridget
, and
Yelvington
Kevin A.
, eds.
The Colonial Caribbean in Transition: Essays on Post-emancipation Social and Cultural History
.
Gainesville
:
University Press of Florida
,
1999
.
Brown
,
Jayna
.
Babylon Girls: Black Women Performers and the Shaping of the Modern
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2008
.
Brown
,
Judith
.
Glamour in Six Dimensions: Modernism and the Radiance of Form
.
Ithaca, NY
:
Cornell University Press
,
2009
.
Butler
,
Judith
.
Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity
.
New York
:
Routledge
,
1990
.
Byrd
,
Rudolph P.
, and
Gates
Henry Louis
Jr.
Afterword—‘Song of the Son’: The Emergence and Passing of Jean Toomer
.” In
Cane, by Jean Toomer
.
New York
:
Liveright
,
2011
.
Cabrera
,
Lydia
.
El Monte: Igbo, finda, ewe orisha, vititi nfinda; Notas sobre las religiones, la magia, las supersticiones y el folklore de los negros criollos y el pueblo de Cuba
.
Miami
:
Ediciones Universal
,
1975
.
Canejo
,
Cynthia
. “
The Resurgence of Anthropophagy: Tropicália, Tropicalismo and Hélio Oiticica
.”
Third Text
18
, no.
1
(
2004
):
61
68
.
Carpentier
,
Alejo
. “
On the Marvelous Real in America
.” In
Magical Realism: Theory, History, Community
, edited by
Zamora
Lois Parkinson
and
Faris
Wendy B.
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
1995
.
Cassidy
,
Donna M.
Jazz and African American Identity: Aaron Douglas’s Song of the Towers (1934)
.” In
Painting the Musical City: Jazz and Cultural Identity in American Art, 1910–1940
.
Washington, DC
:
Smithsonian Institution Press
,
1997
.
Césaire
,
Aimé
. “
Notebook of a Return to the Native Land
.” In
The Collected Poetry of Aimé Césaire
, edited and translated by
Eshleman
Clayton
and
Smith
Annette
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
1983
.
Césaire
,
Aimé
. “
Wifredo Lam
.”
Cahiers d’art
, nos.
20–21
(
1947
):
86
.
Césaire
,
Suzanne
. “
A Civilization’s Discourse
.” In
Refusal of the Shadow: Surrealism and the Caribbean
, edited by
Richardson
Michael
and
Fijalkowski
Krzysztof
.
New York
:
Verso
,
1996
.
Césaire
,
Suzanne
. “
The Great Camouflage
.”
Tropiques
, nos.
13–14
(
1945
).
Césaire
,
Suzanne
.
The Great Camouflage: Writings of Dissent, 1941–1945
. Edited by
Maximin
Daniel
. Translated by
Walker
Keith L.
.
Middletown, CT
:
Wesleyan University Press
,
2012
.
Césaire
,
Suzanne
. “
1943: Surrealism and Us
.” In
Refusal of the Shadow: Surrealism and the Caribbean
, edited by
Richardson
Michael
and
Fijalkowski
Krzysztof
.
New York
:
Verso
,
1996
.
Cheng
,
Anne Anlin
.
Second Skin: Josephine Baker and the Modern Surface
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
,
2010
.
Clifford
,
James
. “
Negrophilia
.” In
New Histories of French Literature
, edited by
Hollier
Denis
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
,
1989
.
Commander
,
Michelle D.
Afro-Atlantic Flight: Speculative Returns and the Black Fantastic
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2017
.
Cooper
,
Carolyn
.
Noises in the Blood: Orality, Gender, and the “Vulgar” Body of Jamaican Popular Culture
.
Oxford
:
Macmillan Caribbean
,
1993
.
Coronil
,
Fernando
. “
Introduction
.” In
Cuban Counterpoint: Tobacco and Sugar, by Fernando Ortiz
, translated by
Onis
Harriet de
. 2nd ed.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
1995
.
Cowley
,
John
.
Carnival, Canboulay and Calypso: Traditions in the Making
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
,
1996
.
Cross
,
Malcolm
. “
East Indian-Creole Relations in Trinidad and Guiana in the Late Nineteenth Century
.” In
Across the Dark Waters: Ethnicity and Indian Identity in the Caribbean
, edited by
Dabydeen
David
and
Samaroo
Brinsley
.
London
:
Macmillan Caribbean
,
1996
.
Crowley
,
Daniel J.
The Traditional Masques of Carnival
.”
Caribbean Quarterly
4
, no.
3/4
(
1956
):
215
16
.
Cullen
,
Countee
. “
The Dark Tower
.”
Opportunity
5
(
February
1927
):
53
.
Cullen
,
Deborah
, and
Fuentes
Elvis
.
Caribbean: Art at the Crossroads of the World
.
New Haven, CT
:
Yale University Press
,
2012
.
Cummings
,
E. E.
E. E. Cummings: A Miscellany Revised
.
New York
:
October House
,
1965
.
Dabydeen
,
David
, and
Samaroo
Brinsley
, eds.
Across the Dark Waters: Ethnicity and Indian Identity in the Caribbean
.
London
:
Macmillan Caribbean
,
1996
.
Daniel
,
Suzanne Garrigues
. “
The Early Works of Wifredo Lam, 1941–1945
.”
PhD diss.
,
University of Maryland
,
1983
.
Dash
,
J. Michael
.
Haiti and the United States: National Stereotypes and the Literary Imagination
.
New York
:
Macmillan
,
1997
.
Dash
,
J. Michael
.
The Other America: Caribbean Literature in a New World Context
.
Charlottesville
:
University of Virginia Press
,
1998
.
Day
,
Charles
.
Five Years’ Residence in the West Indies
.
London
:
Colburn
,
1852
.
Day
,
Holliday T.
, and
Sturges
Hollister
, eds.
Art of the Fantastic: Latin America, 1920–1987
.
Indianapolis
:
Indianapolis Museum of Art
,
1987
.
Delany
,
Martin Robison
.
The Condition, Elevation, Emigration, and Destiny of the Colored People of the United States
.
1852
.
Reprint
,
New York
:
Humanity Books
,
2004
.
Dewiel
,
Lydia L.
Jugendstil
.
Koln
:
Dumont
,
2002
.
Drewal
,
Margaret Thompson
.
Yoruba Ritual: Performers, Play, Agency
.
Bloomington
:
Indiana University Press
,
1992
.
Du Bois
,
W. E. B.
The Souls of Black Folk
. Edited by
Gates
Henry Louis
Jr.
and
Oliver
Terri Hume
.
New York
:
Norton
,
1999
.
Dunham
,
Katherine
. “
Form and Function in Primitive Dance
.” In
Kaiso! Writings by and about Katherine Dunham
, edited by
Clark
Vèvè A.
and
Johnson
Sara E.
.
Madison
:
University of Wisconsin Press
,
2005
.
Duval-Carrié
,
Edouard
. “
Conversation: Imagined Landscapes with Edouard Duval-Carrié and Tobias Ostrander
.”
Pérez Art Museum Miami, Florida
,
March
13
,
2014
. .
Earle
,
Susan
. “
Harlem, Modernism, and Beyond: Aaron Douglas and His Role in Art/History
.” In
Aaron Douglas: African American Modernist
, edited by
Earle
Susan
.
New Haven, CT
:
Yale University Press
;
Lawrence
:
Spencer Museum of Art, University of Kansas
,
2007
.
Eco
,
Umberto
. “
The Frames of Comic ‘Freedom’
.” In
Carnival!
, edited by
Eco
Umberto
,
Ivanov
V. V.
, and
Rector
Monica
.
New York
:
Mouton
,
1983
.
Edmondson
,
Belinda
. “
Public Spectacles: Caribbean Women and the Politics of Public Performance
.”
Small Axe
13
(
March
2003
):
1
16
.
Edwards
,
Brent Hayes
.
The Practice of Diaspora: Literature, Translation, and the Rise of Black Internationalism
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
,
2003
.
Eldridge
,
Michael S.
Bop Girl Goes Calypso: Containing Race and Youth Culture in Cold War America
.”
Anthurium: A Caribbean Studies Journal
3
, no.
2
(
December
2005
):
1
28
.
Enright
,
Kelly
.
The Maximum of Wilderness: The Jungle in the American Imagination
.
Charlottesville
:
University of Virginia Press
,
2012
.
Eppse
,
Merl R.
The Negro, Too, in American History
.
Nashville
:
National Educational Publication
,
1943
.
Farrington
,
Lisa
.
African-American Art: A Visual and Cultural History
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
,
2017
.
Fauset
,
Arthur Huff
.
For Freedom: A Biographical Story of the American Negro
.
Philadelphia
:
Franklin
,
1927
.
Favis
,
Roberta Smith
.
Martin Johnson Heade in Florida
.
Gainesville
:
University Press of Florida
,
2003
.
Ferber
,
Linda S.
The Hudson River School: Nature and the American Vision
.
New York
:
Skira Rizzoli
,
2009
.
Foster
,
Hal
. “
The Primitive Unconscious of Modern Art, or White Skin, Black Masks
.” In
Recodings: Art, Spectacle, Cultural Politics
.
Port Townsend, WA
:
Bay Press
,
1985
.
Fouchet
,
Max-Pol
.
Wifredo Lam
.
Barcelona, Spain
:
Ediciones Poligrafa
,
1976
.
Franco
,
Pamela
. “
The ‘Unruly Woman’ in Nineteenth-Century Trinidad Carnival
.”
Small Axe
7
(
March
2000
):
60
76
.
Franklin
,
John Hope
, and
Moss
Alfred A.
Jr.
From Slavery to Freedom: A History of African Americans
. 8th ed.
New York
:
Alfred A. Knopf
,
2000
.
Gikandi
,
Simon
. “
Picasso, Africa, and the Schemata of Difference
.”
Modernism/Modernity
10
, no.
3
(
September
2003
):
455
80
.
Gikandi
,
Simon
.
Writing in Limbo: Modernism and Caribbean Literature
.
Ithaca, NY
:
Cornell University Press
,
1992
.
Gillespie
,
Marcia Ann
,
Johnson Butler
Rosa
, and
Long
Richard A.
.
Maya Angelou: A Glorious Celebration
.
New York
:
Doubleday
,
2008
.
Gillespie
,
Sarah Kate
.
Vernacular Modernism: The Photography of Doris Ulmann
.
Athens
:
Georgia Museum of Art
,
2018
.
Gilman
,
Sander L.
‘Black Bodies, White Bodies: Toward an Iconography of Female Sexuality in Late Nineteenth-Century Art, Medicine, and Literature
.” In
“Race”, Writing, and Difference
, edited by
Gates
Henry Louis
Jr.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
,
1985
.
Gilroy
,
Paul
.
The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
,
1993
.
Glazier
,
Michael
, and
Hellwig
Monika K.
, eds.
The Modern Catholic Encyclopaedia
.
Collegeville, MN
:
Liturgical Press
,
2004
.
Glissant
,
Édouard
.
Caribbean Discourse: Selected Essays
. Translated by
Dash
J. Michael
.
Charlottesville
:
University Press of Virginia
,
1989
.
Glissant
,
Édouard
.
Poetics of Relation
. Translated by
Wing
Betsy
.
Ann Arbor
:
University of Michigan Press
,
1997
.
Goldberg
,
RoseLee
.
Performance Art: From Futurism to the Present
.
1979
.
Reprint
,
New York
:
Thames and Hudson
,
2001
.
Hall
,
Catherine
. “
Gender Politics and Imperial Politics: Rethinking the Histories of Empire
.” In
Engendering History: Caribbean Women in Historical Perspective
, edited by
Shepherd
Verene
,
Brereton
Bridget
, and
Bailey
Barbara
.
Kingston, Jamaica
:
Randle
,
1995
.
Hall
,
Tony
.
Jean and Dinah … Who Have Been Locked Away in a World Famous Calypso since 1956 Speak Their Minds Publicly
.
Port of Spain, Trinidad
:
Tony Hall and the Lordstreet Theatre Company
,
2001
.
Haney
,
Lynn
.
Naked at the Feast: A Biography of Josephine Baker
.
New York
:
Dodd, Mead
,
1981
.
Hartman
,
Della Brown
. “
William Edouard Scott Remembered: Lessons from a Remarkable Life
.”
PhD diss.
,
Kent State University
,
1994
.
Haskins
,
Jim
.
The Cotton Club
.
New York
:
Random House
,
1977
.
Herzberg
,
Julia P.
Wifredo Lam
.”
Latin American Art
2
, no.
3
(Summer
1990
):
18
24
.
Herzberg
,
Julia P.
Wifredo Lam: The Development of a Style and World View, the Havana Years, 1941–1952
.” In
Wifredo Lam and His Contemporaries, 1938–1952
, edited by
Balderrama
Maria R.
.
New York
:
Studio Museum in Harlem
,
1992
.
Herzberg
,
Julia P.
Wifredo Lam: The Return to Havana and the Afro-Cuban Heritage
.”
Review
37
(
January–June
1987
):
22
30
.
Hewitt
,
Julia Cuervo
.
Voices out of Africa in Twentieth-Century Spanish Caribbean Literature
.
Lewisburg, PA
:
Bucknell University Press
,
2009
.
Heyward
,
DuBose
, and
Heyward
Dorothy
.
The Complete Text of Porgy
.
New York
:
Theatre Arts
,
1955
.
Hill
,
Donald
. “
‘I Am Happy Just to Be in This Sweet Land of Liberty’: The New York City Calypso Craze of the 1930s and 1940s
.” In
Island Sounds in the Global City: Caribbean Popular Music and Identity in New York
, by
Allen
Ray
and
Wilcken
Lois
.
New York
:
New York Folklore Society and the Institute for Studies in American Music, Brooklyn College
,
1998
.
Hill
,
Errol
.
The Trinidad Carnival: Mandate for a National Theatre
.
Austin
:
University of Texas Press
,
1972
.
Hillier
,
Belvis
, and
Escritt
Stephen
.
Art Deco Style
.
London
:
Phaidon
,
1997
.
Humboldt
,
Baron Alexander von
.
Cosmos: A Sketch of a Physical Description of the Universe
. Vol.
1
.
New York
:
Harper
,
1849
.
Humboldt
,
Baron Alexander von
.
Cosmos: A Sketch of a Physical Description of the Universe
. Vol.
2
.
New York
:
Harper
,
1858
.
Iheka
,
Cajetan Nwabueze
.
Naturalizing Africa: Ecological Violence, Agency, and Postcolonial Resistance in African Literature
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
,
2018
.
Johnson
,
James Weldon
, ed.
The Book of American Negro Poetry
. Rev. ed.
New York
:
Harcourt
,
Brace
,
1931
.
Johnson
,
James Weldon
. “
The Truth about Haiti: An N.A.A.C.P. Investigation
.”
Crisis
20
, no.
5
(
September
1920
):
217
24
.
Johnson
,
Kim Nicholas
. “
Saga of a Flagwoman
.” In
Gendered Realities: Essays in Caribbean Feminist Thought
, edited by
Mohammed
Patricia
.
Kingston, Jamaica
:
University of the West Indies Press
;
Mona, Jamaica
:
Centre for Gender and Development Studies
,
2002
.
Jules-Rosette
,
Bennetta
.
Josephine Baker in Art and Life: The Icon and the Image
.
Urbana
:
University of Illinois Press
,
2007
.
Kelley
,
Robin D. G.
Introduction: A Poetics of Anticolonialism
.” In
Discourse on Colonialism, by Aimé Césaire
, translated by
Pinkham
Joan
.
New York
:
Monthly Review Press
,
2000
.
Ketner
,
Joseph D.
The Emergence of the African American Artist: Robert S. Duncanson, 1821–1872
.
Columbia
:
University of Missouri Press
,
1993
.
Kirschke
,
Amy Helene
.
Aaron Douglas: Art, Race, and the Harlem Renaissance
.
Jackson
:
University Press of Mississippi
,
1995
.
Kornhauser
,
Elizabeth Mankin
, and
Manthorne
Katherine E.
.
Fern Hunting among the Picturesque Mountains: Frederic Edwin Church in Jamaica
.
Olana Collection
.
Ithaca, NY
:
Cornell University Press
,
2010
.
Krauss
,
Rosalind
. “
Giacometti
.” In
“Primitivism” in Twentieth Century Art: Affinity of the Tribal and the Modern
, edited by
Rubin
William
.
New York
:
Museum of Modern Art
,
1984
.
Kummels
,
Ingrid
. “
Staging the Caribbean: Dialogues on Diasporic Antillean Music and Dance in Paris during the Jazz Age
.” In
Transatlantic Caribbean: Dialogues of People, Practice, Ideas
, edited by
Kummels
Ingrid
.
Bielefeld, Germany
:
Transcript
,
2014
.
Kutzinski
,
Vera
.
Sugar’s Secrets: Race and the Erotics of Cuban Nationalism
.
Charlottesville
:
University Press of Virginia
,
1993
.
Lahs-Gonzales
,
Olivia
. “
Josephine Baker: Modern Woman
.” In
Josephine Baker: Image and Icon
, edited by
Lahs-Gonzales
Olivia
.
St. Louis, MO
:
Sheldon Art Galleries
,
2006
.
Lam
,
Wifredo
. “
Oeuvres recentes de Wifredo Lam
.”
Cahiers d’Art
26
(
1951
):
181
89
.
Laurence
,
K. O.
Immigration into the West Indies in the Nineteenth Century
.
Barbados
:
Caribbean Universities Press
,
1971
.
Leighten
,
Patricia
. “
The White Peril and L’Arte negre: Picasso, Primitivism, and Anticolonialism
.”
Art Bulletin
72
, no.
4
(
December
1990
):
609
30
.
Leiris
,
Michel
.
L’afrique fantôme
.
Paris
:
Gallimard
,
1951
.
Leja
,
Michael
.
Reframing Abstract Expressionism: Subjectivity and Painting in the 1940s
.
New Haven, CT
:
Yale University Press
,
1993
.
Lemke
,
Sieglinde
. “
Diaspora Aesthetics: Exploring the African Diaspora in the Works of Aaron Douglas, Jacob Lawrence, and Jean-Michel Basquiat
.” In
Exiles, Diasporas and Strangers
, edited by
Mercer
Kobena
.
London
:
Institute of International Visual Arts
;
Cambridge, MA
:
MIT Press
,
2008
.
Lewis
,
Linden
, ed.
The Culture of Gender and Sexuality in the Caribbean
.
Gainesville
:
University Press of Florida
,
2003
.
Lhamon
,
W. T.
Raising Cain: Blackface Performance from Jim Crow to Hip Hop
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
,
1998
.
Linsley
,
Robert
. “
Wifredo Lam: Painter of Negritude
.”
Art History
11
, no.
4
(
December
1988
):
527
44
.
Little
,
Lawrence
.
Disciples of Liberty: The African Methodist Episcopal Church in the Age of Imperialism, 1884–1916
.
Knoxville
:
University of Tennessee Press
,
2000
.
Liverpool
,
Hollis
.
Rituals of Power and Rebellion: The Carnival Tradition in Trinidad and Tobago, 1763–1962
.
Chicago
:
Research Associates School Times
,
2001
.
Locke
,
Alain
, ed.
The New Negro: Voices of the Harlem Renaissance
.
New York
:
Boni
,
1925
.
Loichot
,
Valérie
.
The Tropics Bite Back: Culinary Coups in Caribbean Literature
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
,
2013
.
Lucie-Smith
,
Edward
. “
Wifredo Lam and the Caribbean
.” In
Wifredo Lam in North America
, edited by
Carter
Curtis L.
.
Milwaukee, WI
:
Patrick and Beatrice Haggerty Museum of Art, Marquette University
,
2007
.
MacFarlane
,
S. Neill
. “
Taking Stock: The Third World and the End of the Cold War
.” In
Third World beyond the Cold War: Continuity and Change
, edited by
Fawcett
Louise
and
Sayigh
Yezid
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
,
1999
.
Maguire
,
Emily A.
Two Returns to the Native Land: Lydia Cabrera Translates Aimé Césaire
.”
Small Axe
17
, no.
3
(
November
2013
):
125
37
.
Malley
,
Robert
.
The Call from Algeria: Third Worldism, Revolution, and the Turn to Islam
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
1996
.
Martin
,
Gerald
. “
Literature, Music and the Visual Arts, 1870–1930
.” In
A Cultural History of Latin America: Literature, Music and the Visual Arts in the 19th and 20th Centuries
, edited by
Bethell
L.
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
,
1998
.
Martin
,
Tony
.
Caribbean History: From Pre-Colonial Origins to the Present
.
Boston
:
Pearson
,
2012
.
Martin
,
Wendy
. “
‘Remembering the Jungle’: Josephine Baker and Modernist Parody
.” In
Prehistories of the Future: The Primitivist Project and the Culture of Modernism
, edited by
Barkan
Elazar
and
Bush
Ronald
.
Stanford, CA
:
Stanford University Press
,
1995
.
Martínez
,
Juan A.
Cuban Art and National Identity: The Vanguardia Painters, 1927–1950
.
Gainesville
:
University Press of Florida
,
1994
.
Massey
,
Anne
.
Interior Design since 1900
. 3rd ed.
London
:
Thames and Hudson
,
2008
.
McKay
,
Claude
,
Banana Bottom
.
New York
:
Harper
,
1933
.
McKittrick
,
Katherine
.
Demonic Grounds: Black Women and the Cartographies of Struggle
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
,
2006
.
McMains
,
Juliet
.
Spinning Mambo into Salsa: Caribbean Dance in Global Commerce
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
,
2015
.
Ménil
,
René
. “
Concerning Colonial Exoticism
.” In
Refusal of the Shadow: Surrealism and the Caribbean
, edited by
Richardson
Michael
and
Fijalkowski
Krzysztof
.
London
:
Verso
,
1996
.
Ménil
,
René
. “
For a Critical Reading of Tropiques
.” In
Refusal of the Shadow: Surrealism and the Caribbean
, edited by
Richardson
Michael
and
Fijalkowski
Krzysztof
.
New York
:
Verso
,
1996
.
Ménil
,
René
. “
Introduction to the Marvellous
.” In
Refusal of the Shadow: Surrealism and the Caribbean
, edited by
Richardson
Michael
and
Fijalkowski
Krzysztof
.
New York
:
Verso
,
1996
.
Mercer
,
Kobena
. “
Introduction
.” In
Cosmopolitan Modernisms
, edited by
Mercer
Kobena
.
London
:
Institute of International Visual Arts
;
Cambridge, MA
:
MIT Press
,
2005
.
Mercer
,
Kobena
.
Travel and See: Black Diaspora Art Practices since the 1980s
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2016
.
Milkman
,
Ruth
.
Gender at Work: The Dynamics of Job Segregation by Sex during World War II
.
Urbana
:
University of Illinois Press
,
1987
.
Miller
,
David C.
Dark Eden: The Swamp in Nineteenth-Century American Culture
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
,
1989
.
Miller
,
Perry
. “
Nature and the National Ego
.” In
Errand into the Wilderness
.
New York
:
Harper and Row
,
1964
.
Millette
,
James
. “
The Wage Problem in Trinidad and Tobago, 1838–1938
.” In
The Colonial Caribbean in Transition: Essays on Post-emancipation Social and Cultural History
, edited by
Brereton
Bridget
and
Yelvington
Kevin A.
.
Gainesville
:
University Press of Florida
,
1999
.
Mohammed
,
Patricia
. “
A Blueprint for Gender in Creole Trinidad: Exploring Gender Mythology through Calypsoes of the 1920s and 1930s
.” In
The Culture of Gender and Sexuality in the Caribbean
, edited by
Lewis
Linden
.
Gainesville
:
University Press of Florida
,
2003
.
Momsen
,
Janet
. “
The Double Paradox
.” In
Gendered Realities: Essays in Caribbean Feminist Thought
, edited by
Mohammed
Patricia
.
Kingston, Jamaica
:
University of the West Indies Press
;
Mona, Jamaica
:
Centre for Gender and Development Studies
,
2002
.
Morris
,
Mervyn
.
Miss Lou: Louise Bennett and Jamaican Culture
.
Oxford
:
Signal Books
,
2014
.
Morton
,
Patricia A.
Hybrid Modernities: Architecture and Representation at the 1931 Colonial Exposition, Paris
.
Cambridge, MA
:
MIT Press
,
2000
.
Mosquera
,
Gerardo
.
Beyond the Fantastic: Contemporary Art Criticism from Latin America
.
Cambridge, MA
:
MIT Press
,
1996
.
Mosquera
,
Gerardo
. “
Mi pintura es un acto de descolonización: Entrevista con Wifredo Lam
.”
Bohemia
92
, no.
25
(
1980
):
10
13
.
Murray
,
John A.
The Islands and the Sea: Five Centuries of Nature Writing from the Caribbean
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
,
1991
.
Nardal
,
Jane
. “
Pantins exotiques
[Exotic Puppets]
.
La Dépêche Africaine
8
(
October
1928
):
2
.
Nenno
,
Nancy
. “
Femininity, the Primitive, and Modern Urban Space: Josephine Baker in Berlin
.” In
Women in the Metropolis: Gender and Modernity in Weimar Culture
, edited by
Ankum
Katharina von
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
1997
.
Neptune
,
Harvey R.
Caliban and the Yankees: Trinidad and the United States Occupation
.
Chapel Hill
:
University of North Carolina Press
,
2007
.
Ngô
,
Fiona I. B.
Imperial Blues: Geographies of Race and Sex in Jazz Age New York
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2014
.
Niblett
,
Michael
. “
The Arc of the ‘Other America’: Landscape, Nature, and Region in Eric Walrond’s Tropic Death
.” In
Perspectives on the “Other America”: Comparative Approaches to Caribbean and Latin American Culture
, edited by
Oloff
Kerstin
and
Niblett
Michael
.
Amsterdam
:
Rodopi
,
2009
.
Nicholls
,
David G.
Jean Toomer’s Cane, Modernization, and the Spectral Folk
.” In
Modernism, Inc.: Body, Memory, Capital
, edited by
Scandura
Jani
and
Thurston
Michael
.
New York
:
New York University Press
,
2001
.
Noel
,
Samantha A.
De Jamette in We: Redefining Performance in Contemporary Trinidad Carnival
.”
Small Axe
, no.
31
(
March
2010
):
60
78
.
Noel
,
Samantha A.
Envisioning New Worlds: The ‘Tropical Aesthetics’ in the Art of Wifredo Lam and Aaron Douglas
.”
Art Journal
77
, no.
3
(
2018
):
76
91
.
Novak
,
Barbara
.
Nature and Culture: American Landscape and Painting, 1825–1875
. 3rd ed.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
,
2007
.
Nunley
,
John W.
, and
Bettelheim
Judith
, eds.
Caribbean Festival Arts: Each and Every Bit of Difference
.
Seattle
:
University of Washington Press
,
1988
.
Nurse
,
Keith
. “
Globalization and Trinidad Carnival: Diaspora, Hybridity and Identity in Global Culture
.”
Cultural Studies
13
, no.
4
(
1999
):
661
90
.
Oiticica
,
Hélio
. “
General Scheme of New Objectivity
.” In
Tropicália: A Revolution in Brazilian Culture, 1967–1972
, edited by
Basualdo
Carlos
.
São Paulo
:
Cosac Naify
,
2005
.
Oiticica
,
Hélio
. “
Tropicália
.” In
Tropicália: A Revolution in Brazilian Culture, 1967–1972
, edited by
Basualdo
Carlos
.
São Paulo
:
Cosac Naify
,
2005
.
Oiticica
,
Hélio
. “
Tropicália: The Image Problem Surpassed by That of a Synthesis
.” In
Tropicália: A Revolution in Brazilian Culture, 1967–1972
, edited by
Basualdo
Carlos
.
São Paulo
:
Cosac Naify
,
2005
.
Ortiz
,
Fernando
.
Cuban Counterpoint: Tobacco and Sugar
. 2nd ed. Translated by
de Onís
Harriet
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
1995
.
Ostrander
,
Tobias
. “
Tropical Values: The Imagined Landscapes of Edouard Duval-Carrié
.” In
From Revolution in the Tropics to Imagined Landscapes: The Art of Edouard Duval-Carrié
, edited by
Bogues
Anthony
.
Miami
:
Pérez Art Museum
,
2014
.
Pacteau
,
Francette
.
The Symptom of Beauty
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
,
1994
.
Pappademos
,
Melina
.
Black Political Activism and the Cuban Republic
.
Chapel Hill
:
University of North Carolina Press
,
2011
.
Patton
,
Sharon
.
African American Art
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
,
1998
.
Pearse
,
Andrew
. “
Carnival in Nineteenth Century Trinidad
.”
Caribbean Quarterly
4
, no.
3/4
(
March–June
1956
):
175
93
.
Pearse
,
Andrew
. “
Mitto Sampson on Calypso Legends of the Nineteenth Century
.”
Caribbean Quarterly
4
, no.
3/4
(
March–June
1956
):
250
62
.
Pérez
,
Louis A.
Jr.
On Becoming Cuban: Identity, Nationality, and Culture
.
Chapel Hill
:
University of North Carolina Press
,
1999
.
Phelan
,
Peggy
.
Unmarked: The Politics of Performance
.
New York
:
Routledge
,
1993
.
Philip
,
M. NourbeSe
. “
Race, Space, and the Poetics of Moving
.” In
Caribbean Creolization: Reflections on the Cultural Dynamics of Language, Literature, and Identity
, edited by
Balutansky
Kathleen M.
and
Sourieau
Marie-Agnes
.
Gainesville
:
University Press of Florida
,
1998
.
Poole
,
Deborah
. “
An Excess of Description: Ethnography, Race, and Visual Technologies
.”
Annual Review of Anthropology
34
(
2005
):
159
79
.
Poupeye
,
Veerle
.
Caribbean Art
.
New York
:
Thames and Hudson
,
1998
.
Powell
,
Richard J.
The Aaron Douglas Effect
.” In
Aaron Douglas: African American Modernist
, edited by
Earle
Susan
.
New Haven, CT
:
Yale University Press
;
Lawrence
:
Spencer Museum of Art, University of Kansas
,
2007
.
Powell
,
Richard J.
Black Art: A Cultural History
.
London
:
Thames and Hudson
,
2002
.
Powell
,
Richard J.
Paint That Thing! Aaron Douglas’s Call to Modernism
.”
American Studies
49
, no.
1/2
(Spring/Summer
2008
):
107
19
.
Powell
,
Richard J.
Re/birth of a Nation
.” In
Rhapsodies in Black: Art of the Harlem Renaissance
, edited by
Powell
Richard J.
and
Bailey
David A.
.
London
:
Hayward Gallery and Institute of International Visual Arts
;
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
1997
.
Powrie
,
Barbara E.
The Changing Attitude of the Coloured Middle Class Towards Carnival
.”
Carnival Quarterly
14
, no.
3/4
(
1956
):
224
32
.
Pratt
,
Mary Louise
.
Imperial Eyes: Travel Writing and Transculturation
.
London
:
Routledge
,
1992
.
Raymond
,
Judy
.
Beryl McBurnie
.
Kingston, Jamaica
:
University of the West Indies Press
,
2018
.
Reddock
,
Rhoda
.
Women, Labour and Politics in Trinidad and Tobago: A History
.
Atlantic Highlands, NJ
:
Zed Books
,
1994
.
Reddock
,
Rhoda
. “
Women Workers’ Struggles in the British Colonial Caribbean: the 1930s
.” In
Revisiting Caribbean Labour: Essays in Honour of O. Nigel Bolland
, edited by
Sutton
Constance R.
.
New York
:
Research Institute for the Study of Man
,
2005
.
Richardson
,
Michael
. “
Introduction
.” In
Refusal of the Shadow: Surrealism and the Caribbean
, edited by
Richardson
Michael
and
Fijalkowski
Krzysztof
.
New York
:
Verso
,
1996
.
Roberts
,
Neil
.
Freedom as Marronage
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
,
2015
.
Rodriguez-Plate
,
Edna M.
Lydia Cabrera and the Construction of an Afro-Cuban Cultural Identity
.
Chapel Hill
:
University of North Carolina Press
,
2004
.
Rogers
,
Charlotte
.
Jungle Fever: Exploring Madness and Medicine in Twentieth-Century Tropical Narratives
.
Nashville, TN
:
Vanderbilt University Press
,
2012
.
Rohlehr
,
Gordon
.
Calypso and Society in Pre-independence Trinidad
.
Port of Spain, Trinidad
:
G. Rohlehr
,
1990
.
Rose
,
Phyllis
.
Jazz Cleopatra: Josephine Baker in Her Time
.
New York
:
Doubleday
,
1989
.
Rosemont
,
Penelope
, ed.
Surrealist Women: An International Anthology
.
Austin
:
University of Texas Press
,
1998
.
Rubin
,
James Henry
.
How to Read Impressionism: Ways of Looking
.
New York
:
Abrams
,
2013
.
Ryan
,
Selwyn
.
Race and Nationalism in Trinidad and Tobago: A Study of Decolonization in a Multicultural Society
.
Toronto
:
University of Toronto Press
,
1972
.
Said
,
Edward
.
Orientalism
.
London
:
Penguin
,
2003
.
Sartre
,
Jean-Paul
.
Black Orpheus
. Translated by
Allen
S. W.
.
Paris
,
1951
.
Sasso
,
Arthur J.
They’re Going Crazy for Calypso!
Real: The Exciting Magazine for Men
10
, no.
2
(
June
1957
):
76
89
.
Schechner
,
Richard
, and
Riggio
Milla Cozart
. “
Peter Minshall: A Voice to Add to the Song of the Universe
.” In
Carnival: Culture in Action; The Trinidad Experience
, edited by
Riggio
Milla Cozart
.
New York
:
Routledge
,
2004
.
Scher
,
Philip
.
Carnival and the Formation of a Caribbean Transnation
.
Gainesville
:
University Press of Florida
,
2003
.
Schneider
,
Rebecca
.
The Explicit Body in Performance
.
London
:
Routledge
,
1997
.
Schoonmaker
,
Trevor
. “
A Fantastic Journey
.” In
Wangechi Mutu: A Fantastic Journey
, edited by
Schoonmaker
Trevor
.
Durham, NC
:
Nasher Museum of Art, Duke University
,
2013
.
Schwartz
,
Roberto
. “
Culture and Politics in Brazil, 1964–1969
.” In
Tropicália: A Revolution in Brazilian Culture, 1967–1972
, edited by
Basualdo
Carlos
.
São Paulo
:
Cosac Naify
,
2005
.
Shack
,
William A.
Harlem in Montmartre: A Paris Jazz Story between the Great Wars
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
2001
.
Sharpley-Whiting
,
T. Denean
. “
Femme Negritude: Jane Nardal, Le Dépêche Africaine, and the Francophone New Negros
.”
Souls: A Critical Journal of Black Politics, Culture, and Society
2
, no.
4
(
2000
):
8
17
.
Sharpley-Whiting
,
T. Denean
.
Negritude Women
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
,
2002
.
Shohat
,
Ella
, and
Stam
Robert
.
Unthinking Eurocentrism: Multiculturalism and the Media
.
London
:
Routledge
,
1994
.
Sims
,
Lowery Stokes
. “
The Post-modern Modernism of Wifredo Lam
.” In
Cosmopolitan Modernisms
, edited by
Mercer
Kobena
.
Cambridge, MA
:
MIT Press
,
2005
.
Sims
,
Lowery Stokes
.
Wifredo Lam and the International Avant-Garde, 1923–1982
.
Austin
:
University of Texas Press
,
2002
.
Small
,
Irene V.
Hélio Oiticica: Folding the Frame
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
,
2016
.
Smith
,
Hope Munro
. “
Performing Gender in the Trinidad Calypso
.”
Latin American Music Review
25
, no.
1
(Spring/Summer
2004
):
32
56
.
Snaith
,
Anna
. “
C. L. R. James, Claude McKay, Nella Larsen, Jean Toomer: The ‘Black Atlantic’ and the Modernist Novel
.” In
The Cambridge Companion to the Modernist Novel
, edited by
Shiach
Morag
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
,
2007
.
Sörgel
,
Sabine
.
Dancing Postcolonialism: The National Dance Theatre Company of Jamaica
.
Bielefeld, Germany
:
Transcript
,
2007
.
Stallybrass
,
Peter
. “
Against Thinking
.”
PMLA
122
, no.
5
(
2007
):
1580
87
.
Stallybrass
,
Peter
, and
White
Allon
.
The Politics and Poetics of Transgression
.
Ithaca, NY
:
Cornell University Press
,
1986
.
Stebbins
,
Theodore E.
The Life and Work of Martin Johnson Heade: A Critical Analysis and Catalogue Raisonné
.
New Haven, CT
:
Yale University Press
,
1975
.
Steele
,
Valerie
.
Paris Fashion: A Cultural History
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
,
1988
.
Stepan
,
Nancy Leys
.
Picturing Tropical Nature
.
Ithaca, NY
:
Cornell University Press
,
2001
.
Stewart
,
Jeffrey
, ed.
The Critical Temper of Alain Locke: A Selection of His Essays on Art and Culture
.
New York
:
Garland
,
1983
.
Stiles
,
Kristine
. “
Shaved Heads and Marked Bodies: Representations from Cultures of Trauma
.”
Strategie II: Peuples Mediterraneens
, nos.
64–65
(
July–December
1993
):
95
117
.
Stuempfle
,
Stephen
.
The Steelband Movement: The Forging of a National Art in Trinidad and Tobago
.
Philadelphia
:
University of Pennsylvania Press
,
1995
.
Thomas
,
Deborah
.
Modern Blackness: Nationalism, Globalization, and the Politics of Culture in Jamaica
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2005
.
Thompson
,
Krista
.
An Eye for the Tropics: Tourism, Photography, and Framing the Caribbean Picturesque
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2006
.
Thompson
,
Krista
. “
Preoccupied with Haiti: The Dream of Diaspora in African American Art, 1915–1942
.”
American Art
21
, no.
3
(Fall
2007
):
74
97
.
Thompson
,
Robert Farris
.
Flash of the Spirit: African and Afro-American Art and Philosophy
.
New York
:
Vintage Books
,
1984
.
Timpano
,
Nathan
. “
Translating Vanguardia: Wifredo Lam, Transculturation, and the Crux of Avant-Gardism
.”
Rutgers Art Review
23
(
2007
):
48
67
.
Toomer
,
Jean
.
Cane
.
New York
:
Liveright
,
2011
.
Trotman
,
David
.
Crime in Trinidad: Conflict and Control in a Plantation Society, 1838–1900
.
Knoxville
:
University of Tennessee Press
,
1986
.
Turner
,
Victor
.
The Anthropology of Performance
.
New York
:
PAJ
,
1986
.
Tythacott
,
Louise
.
Surrealism and the Exotic
.
London
:
Routledge
,
2003
.
Vendryes
,
Margaret Rose
.
Barthé: A Life in Sculpture
.
Jackson
:
University Press of Mississippi
,
2008
.
Vos
,
Jelmer
,
Eltis
David
, and
Richardson
David
. “
The Dutch in the Atlantic World: New Perspectives from the Slave Trade with Particular Reference to the African Origins of the Traffic
.” In
Extending the Frontiers: Essays on the New Transatlantic Slave Trade Database
, edited by
Eltis
David
and
Richardson
David
.
New Haven, CT
:
Yale University Press
,
2008
.
Walrond
,
Eric
.
Tropic Death
.
New York
:
Liveright
,
1926
.
Warner-Lewis
,
Maureen
.
Guinea’s Other Suns: The African Dynamic in Trinidad Culture
.
Dover, MA
:
Majority Press
,
1991
.
Wilkins
,
Charles
. “
Glossary
.” In
The Fifth Report from the Select Committee of the House of Commons on the Affairs of the East India Company
, vol.
3
, edited by
Firminger
Walter Kelly
.
Calcutta
,
1918
.
Wilks
,
Jennifer M.
Race, Gender, and Comparative Black Modernism: Suzanne Lacascade, Marita Bonner, Suzanne Césaire, Dorothy West
.
Baton Rouge
:
Louisiana State University Press
,
2008
.
Wilson
,
Anthony
.
Shadow and Shelter: The Swamp in Southern Culture
.
Jackson
:
University Press of Mississippi
,
2006
.
Wirt
,
William
.
The Letters of the British Spy
. 10th ed.
New York
:
Harper
,
1832
.
Wolf
,
Norbert
.
Art Deco
. Translated by
Hall
Cynthia
.
New York
:
Preston
,
2016
.
Wood
,
Donald
.
Trinidad in Transition
.
London
:
Oxford University Press
,
1968
.
Woodruff
,
Nan Elizabeth
.
American Congo: The African American Freedom Struggle in the Delta
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
,
2003
.
Wynter
,
Sylvia
. “
Novel and History, Plot and Plantation
.”
Savacou
5
(
1971
):
95
102
.
Yelvington
,
Kevin A.
The War in Ethiopia and Trinidad, 1935–1936
.” In
The Colonial Caribbean in Transition: Essays on Postemancipation Social and Cultural History
, edited by
Brereton
Bridget
and
Yelvington
Kevin A.
.
Gainesville
:
University Press of Florida
,
1999
.

Figures & Tables

Contents

Advertisement

References

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Aching
,
Gerard
.
Masking and Power: Carnival and Popular Culture in the Caribbean
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
,
2002
.
Adkins
,
Terry
. “
The Vigilant Torch of an Olympian Painter
.”
American Studies
49
, no.
1–2
(Spring/Summer
2008
):
37
43
.
Alexandre
,
Sandy
.
The Properties of Violence: Claims to Ownership in Representations of Lynching
.
Jackson
:
University Press of Mississippi
,
2012
.
Anatol
,
Giselle
. “
Transforming the Skin-Shedding Soucouyant: Using Folklore to Reclaim Female Agency in Caribbean Literature
.”
Small Axe
7
(
March
2000
):
44
59
.
Andrade
,
Oswald de
. “
Cannibalist Manifesto
.” Translated by
Bary
Leslie
.
Latin American Literary Review
19
, no.
38
(
July–December
1991
):
38
47
.
Andrews
,
Kehinde
. “
Beyond Pan-Africanism: Garveyism, Malcolm X, and the End of the Colonial Nation State
.”
Third World Quarterly
38
, no.
11
(
November
2017
):
2501
16
.
Angelou
,
Maya
.
The Heart of a Woman
.
New York
:
Random House
,
1981
.
Angelou
,
Maya
.
I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings
.
New York
:
Random House
,
1969
.
Angelou
,
Maya
.
Singin’ and Swingin’ and Gettin’ Merry Like Christmas
.
New York
:
Bantam Books
,
1976
.
Anthony
,
Michael
.
Parade of the Carnivals of Trinidad, 1839–1989
.
London
:
Circle Press
,
1989
.
Archer-Straw
,
Petrine
.
Negrophilia: Avant-Garde Paris and Black Culture in the 1920s
.
New York
:
Thames and Hudson
,
2000
.
Arnold
,
A. James
.
Modernism and Negritude: The Poetry and Poetics of Aimé Césaire
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
,
1981
.
Arnold
,
David
. “
India’s Place in the Tropical World, 1770–1930
.”
Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History
26
, no.
1
(
January
1998
):
1
21
.
Arnold
,
David
.
The Problem of Nature: Environment, Culture and European Expansion
.
Oxford
:
Blackwell
,
1996
.
Baker
,
Houston A.
Jr.
Modernism and the Harlem Renaissance
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
,
1987
.
Baker
,
Josephine
, and
Bouillon
Jo
.
Josephine
. Translated by
Fitzpatrick
Mariana
.
New York
:
Paragon House
,
1977
.
Bakhtin
,
Mikhail
.
Rabelais and His World
. Translated by
Iswolsky
Helene
.
Bloomington
:
Indiana University Press
,
1984
.
Baron Alexander von Humboldt
.
Staten Island
:
Great Neck Publishing
,
2007
.
Barringer
,
Tim
,
Forrester
Gillian
, and
Martinez-Ruiz
Barbaro
.
Art and Emancipation in Jamaica: Isaac Mendes Belisario and His Worlds
.
New Haven, CT
:
Yale Center for British Art in association with Yale University Press
,
2008
.
Barrow
,
Christine
, ed.
Caribbean Portraits: Essays on Gender Ideologies and Identities
.
Kingston
:
Randle
,
1998
.
Bary
,
Leslie
. “
Oswald de Andrade’s ‘Cannibalist Manifesto’
.”
Latin American Literary Review
19
, no.
38
(
July–December
1991
):
35
37
.
Basualdo
,
Carlos
. “
Tropicália: Avant-Garde, Popular Culture, and the Culture Industry in Brazil
.” In
Tropicália: A Revolution in Brazilian Culture, 1967–1972
, edited by
Basualdo
Carlos
.
São Paulo
:
Cosac Naify
,
2005
.
Batiste
,
Stephanie Leigh
.
Darkening Mirrors: Imperial Representation in Depression-Era African American Performance
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2011
.
Bearden
,
Romare
, and
Henderson
Harry
.
A History of African-American Artists: From 1792 to the Present
.
New York
:
Pantheon Books
,
1993
.
Beauvoir
,
Simone de
.
The Second Sex
. Translated by
Parshley
H. M.
.
New York
:
Vintage Books
,
1989
.
Benítez-Rojo
,
Antonio
.
The Repeating Island: The Caribbean and the Postmodern Perspective
. Translated by
Maraniss
James
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
1996
.
Berger
,
Martin A.
Sight Unseen: Whiteness and American Visual Culture
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
2005
.
Besson
,
Gérard
.
Folklore and Legends of Trinidad and Tobago
.
Port of Spain, Trinidad
:
Paria
,
2001
.
Bettelheim
,
Judith
. “
Palo Monte Mayombe and Its Influence on Cuban Contemporary Art
.”
African Arts
34
, no.
2
(Summer
2001
):
36
49
.
Blanc
,
Giulio V.
Cuban Modernism: The Search for a National Ethos
.” In
Wifredo Lam and His Contemporaries, 1938–1952
, edited by
Balderrama
Maria R.
.
New York
:
Studio Museum in Harlem
,
1992
.
Bogues
,
Anthony
. “
Art, History, and the Politics of Imagination: An Interview with ED-C
.” In
From Revolution in the Tropics to Imagined Landscapes: The Art of Edouard Duval-Carrié
, edited by
Bogues
Anthony
.
Miami
:
Pérez Art Museum
,
2014
.
Bogues
,
Anthony
. “
Reinventing the Caribbean: Edouard Duval-Carrié, History, Politics, and the Making of a Caribbean Aesthetic
.” In
From Revolution in the Tropics to Imagined Landscapes: The Art of Edouard Duval-Carrié
, edited by
Bogues
Anthony
.
Miami
:
Pérez Art Museum
,
2014
.
Bolland
,
O. Nigel
.
The Politics of Labour in the British Caribbean: The Social Origins of Authoritarianism and Democracy in the Labour Movement
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Markus Weiner
,
2001
.
Bordo
,
Susan R.
The Body and the Reproduction of Femininity: A Feminist Appropriation of Foucault
.” In
Gender/Body/Knowledge: Feminist Reconstructions of Being and Knowing
, edited by
Jaggar
Allison
and
Bordo
Susan R.
.
New York
:
Rutgers University Press
,
1989
.
Borshuk
,
Michael
. “
An Intelligence of the Body: Disruptive Parody through Dance in the Early Performances of Josephine Baker
.” In
Embodying Liberation: The Black Body in American Dance
, edited by
Fischer-Hornung
Dorothea
and
Goeller
Allison
.
Piscataway, NJ
:
Transaction
,
2001
.
Bowd
,
Gavin
, and
Clayton
Daniel
. “
Tropicality, Orientalism, and French Colonialism in Indochina: The Work of Pierre Gourou, 1927–1982
.”
French Historical Studies
28
, no.
2
(Spring
2005
):
297
327
.
Brathwaite
,
Kamau
.
Contradictory Omens: Cultural Diversity and Integration in the Caribbean
.
Mona, Jamaica
:
Savacou
,
1974
.
Brereton
,
Bridget
. “
Family Strategies, Gender and the Shift to Wage Labour in the British Caribbean
.” In
The Colonial Caribbean in Transition: Essays on Post-emancipation Social and Cultural History
, edited by
Brereton
Bridget
and
Yelvington
Kevin A.
.
Gainesville
:
University Press of Florida
,
1999
.
Brereton
,
Bridget
.
A History of Modern Trinidad, 1783–1962
.
Kingston, Jamaica
:
Heinemann
,
1981
.
Brereton
,
Bridget
.
Race Relations in Colonial Trinidad 1870–1900
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
,
2002
.
Brereton
,
Bridget
. “
The Trinidad Carnival: 1870–1900
.”
Savacou
, nos.
11/12
(
September
1975
):
46
57
.
Brereton
,
Bridget
, and
Yelvington
Kevin A.
, eds.
The Colonial Caribbean in Transition: Essays on Post-emancipation Social and Cultural History
.
Gainesville
:
University Press of Florida
,
1999
.
Brown
,
Jayna
.
Babylon Girls: Black Women Performers and the Shaping of the Modern
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2008
.
Brown
,
Judith
.
Glamour in Six Dimensions: Modernism and the Radiance of Form
.
Ithaca, NY
:
Cornell University Press
,
2009
.
Butler
,
Judith
.
Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity
.
New York
:
Routledge
,
1990
.
Byrd
,
Rudolph P.
, and
Gates
Henry Louis
Jr.
Afterword—‘Song of the Son’: The Emergence and Passing of Jean Toomer
.” In
Cane, by Jean Toomer
.
New York
:
Liveright
,
2011
.
Cabrera
,
Lydia
.
El Monte: Igbo, finda, ewe orisha, vititi nfinda; Notas sobre las religiones, la magia, las supersticiones y el folklore de los negros criollos y el pueblo de Cuba
.
Miami
:
Ediciones Universal
,
1975
.
Canejo
,
Cynthia
. “
The Resurgence of Anthropophagy: Tropicália, Tropicalismo and Hélio Oiticica
.”
Third Text
18
, no.
1
(
2004
):
61
68
.
Carpentier
,
Alejo
. “
On the Marvelous Real in America
.” In
Magical Realism: Theory, History, Community
, edited by
Zamora
Lois Parkinson
and
Faris
Wendy B.
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
1995
.
Cassidy
,
Donna M.
Jazz and African American Identity: Aaron Douglas’s Song of the Towers (1934)
.” In
Painting the Musical City: Jazz and Cultural Identity in American Art, 1910–1940
.
Washington, DC
:
Smithsonian Institution Press
,
1997
.
Césaire
,
Aimé
. “
Notebook of a Return to the Native Land
.” In
The Collected Poetry of Aimé Césaire
, edited and translated by
Eshleman
Clayton
and
Smith
Annette
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
1983
.
Césaire
,
Aimé
. “
Wifredo Lam
.”
Cahiers d’art
, nos.
20–21
(
1947
):
86
.
Césaire
,
Suzanne
. “
A Civilization’s Discourse
.” In
Refusal of the Shadow: Surrealism and the Caribbean
, edited by
Richardson
Michael
and
Fijalkowski
Krzysztof
.
New York
:
Verso
,
1996
.
Césaire
,
Suzanne
. “
The Great Camouflage
.”
Tropiques
, nos.
13–14
(
1945
).
Césaire
,
Suzanne
.
The Great Camouflage: Writings of Dissent, 1941–1945
. Edited by
Maximin
Daniel
. Translated by
Walker
Keith L.
.
Middletown, CT
:
Wesleyan University Press
,
2012
.
Césaire
,
Suzanne
. “
1943: Surrealism and Us
.” In
Refusal of the Shadow: Surrealism and the Caribbean
, edited by
Richardson
Michael
and
Fijalkowski
Krzysztof
.
New York
:
Verso
,
1996
.
Cheng
,
Anne Anlin
.
Second Skin: Josephine Baker and the Modern Surface
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
,
2010
.
Clifford
,
James
. “
Negrophilia
.” In
New Histories of French Literature
, edited by
Hollier
Denis
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
,
1989
.
Commander
,
Michelle D.
Afro-Atlantic Flight: Speculative Returns and the Black Fantastic
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2017
.
Cooper
,
Carolyn
.
Noises in the Blood: Orality, Gender, and the “Vulgar” Body of Jamaican Popular Culture
.
Oxford
:
Macmillan Caribbean
,
1993
.
Coronil
,
Fernando
. “
Introduction
.” In
Cuban Counterpoint: Tobacco and Sugar, by Fernando Ortiz
, translated by
Onis
Harriet de
. 2nd ed.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
1995
.
Cowley
,
John
.
Carnival, Canboulay and Calypso: Traditions in the Making
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
,
1996
.
Cross
,
Malcolm
. “
East Indian-Creole Relations in Trinidad and Guiana in the Late Nineteenth Century
.” In
Across the Dark Waters: Ethnicity and Indian Identity in the Caribbean
, edited by
Dabydeen
David
and
Samaroo
Brinsley
.
London
:
Macmillan Caribbean
,
1996
.
Crowley
,
Daniel J.
The Traditional Masques of Carnival
.”
Caribbean Quarterly
4
, no.
3/4
(
1956
):
215
16
.
Cullen
,
Countee
. “
The Dark Tower
.”
Opportunity
5
(
February
1927
):
53
.
Cullen
,
Deborah
, and
Fuentes
Elvis
.
Caribbean: Art at the Crossroads of the World
.
New Haven, CT
:
Yale University Press
,
2012
.
Cummings
,
E. E.
E. E. Cummings: A Miscellany Revised
.
New York
:
October House
,
1965
.
Dabydeen
,
David
, and
Samaroo
Brinsley
, eds.
Across the Dark Waters: Ethnicity and Indian Identity in the Caribbean
.
London
:
Macmillan Caribbean
,
1996
.
Daniel
,
Suzanne Garrigues
. “
The Early Works of Wifredo Lam, 1941–1945
.”
PhD diss.
,
University of Maryland
,
1983
.
Dash
,
J. Michael
.
Haiti and the United States: National Stereotypes and the Literary Imagination
.
New York
:
Macmillan
,
1997
.
Dash
,
J. Michael
.
The Other America: Caribbean Literature in a New World Context
.
Charlottesville
:
University of Virginia Press
,
1998
.
Day
,
Charles
.
Five Years’ Residence in the West Indies
.
London
:
Colburn
,
1852
.
Day
,
Holliday T.
, and
Sturges
Hollister
, eds.
Art of the Fantastic: Latin America, 1920–1987
.
Indianapolis
:
Indianapolis Museum of Art
,
1987
.
Delany
,
Martin Robison
.
The Condition, Elevation, Emigration, and Destiny of the Colored People of the United States
.
1852
.
Reprint
,
New York
:
Humanity Books
,
2004
.
Dewiel
,
Lydia L.
Jugendstil
.
Koln
:
Dumont
,
2002
.
Drewal
,
Margaret Thompson
.
Yoruba Ritual: Performers, Play, Agency
.
Bloomington
:
Indiana University Press
,
1992
.
Du Bois
,
W. E. B.
The Souls of Black Folk
. Edited by
Gates
Henry Louis
Jr.
and
Oliver
Terri Hume
.
New York
:
Norton
,
1999
.
Dunham
,
Katherine
. “
Form and Function in Primitive Dance
.” In
Kaiso! Writings by and about Katherine Dunham
, edited by
Clark
Vèvè A.
and
Johnson
Sara E.
.
Madison
:
University of Wisconsin Press
,
2005
.
Duval-Carrié
,
Edouard
. “
Conversation: Imagined Landscapes with Edouard Duval-Carrié and Tobias Ostrander
.”
Pérez Art Museum Miami, Florida
,
March
13
,
2014
. .
Earle
,
Susan
. “
Harlem, Modernism, and Beyond: Aaron Douglas and His Role in Art/History
.” In
Aaron Douglas: African American Modernist
, edited by
Earle
Susan
.
New Haven, CT
:
Yale University Press
;
Lawrence
:
Spencer Museum of Art, University of Kansas
,
2007
.
Eco
,
Umberto
. “
The Frames of Comic ‘Freedom’
.” In
Carnival!
, edited by
Eco
Umberto
,
Ivanov
V. V.
, and
Rector
Monica
.
New York
:
Mouton
,
1983
.
Edmondson
,
Belinda
. “
Public Spectacles: Caribbean Women and the Politics of Public Performance
.”
Small Axe
13
(
March
2003
):
1
16
.
Edwards
,
Brent Hayes
.
The Practice of Diaspora: Literature, Translation, and the Rise of Black Internationalism
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
,
2003
.
Eldridge
,
Michael S.
Bop Girl Goes Calypso: Containing Race and Youth Culture in Cold War America
.”
Anthurium: A Caribbean Studies Journal
3
, no.
2
(
December
2005
):
1
28
.
Enright
,
Kelly
.
The Maximum of Wilderness: The Jungle in the American Imagination
.
Charlottesville
:
University of Virginia Press
,
2012
.
Eppse
,
Merl R.
The Negro, Too, in American History
.
Nashville
:
National Educational Publication
,
1943
.
Farrington
,
Lisa
.
African-American Art: A Visual and Cultural History
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
,
2017
.
Fauset
,
Arthur Huff
.
For Freedom: A Biographical Story of the American Negro
.
Philadelphia
:
Franklin
,
1927
.
Favis
,
Roberta Smith
.
Martin Johnson Heade in Florida
.
Gainesville
:
University Press of Florida
,
2003
.
Ferber
,
Linda S.
The Hudson River School: Nature and the American Vision
.
New York
:
Skira Rizzoli
,
2009
.
Foster
,
Hal
. “
The Primitive Unconscious of Modern Art, or White Skin, Black Masks
.” In
Recodings: Art, Spectacle, Cultural Politics
.
Port Townsend, WA
:
Bay Press
,
1985
.
Fouchet
,
Max-Pol
.
Wifredo Lam
.
Barcelona, Spain
:
Ediciones Poligrafa
,
1976
.
Franco
,
Pamela
. “
The ‘Unruly Woman’ in Nineteenth-Century Trinidad Carnival
.”
Small Axe
7
(
March
2000
):
60
76
.
Franklin
,
John Hope
, and
Moss
Alfred A.
Jr.
From Slavery to Freedom: A History of African Americans
. 8th ed.
New York
:
Alfred A. Knopf
,
2000
.
Gikandi
,
Simon
. “
Picasso, Africa, and the Schemata of Difference
.”
Modernism/Modernity
10
, no.
3
(
September
2003
):
455
80
.
Gikandi
,
Simon
.
Writing in Limbo: Modernism and Caribbean Literature
.
Ithaca, NY
:
Cornell University Press
,
1992
.
Gillespie
,
Marcia Ann
,
Johnson Butler
Rosa
, and
Long
Richard A.
.
Maya Angelou: A Glorious Celebration
.
New York
:
Doubleday
,
2008
.
Gillespie
,
Sarah Kate
.
Vernacular Modernism: The Photography of Doris Ulmann
.
Athens
:
Georgia Museum of Art
,
2018
.
Gilman
,
Sander L.
‘Black Bodies, White Bodies: Toward an Iconography of Female Sexuality in Late Nineteenth-Century Art, Medicine, and Literature
.” In
“Race”, Writing, and Difference
, edited by
Gates
Henry Louis
Jr.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
,
1985
.
Gilroy
,
Paul
.
The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
,
1993
.
Glazier
,
Michael
, and
Hellwig
Monika K.
, eds.
The Modern Catholic Encyclopaedia
.
Collegeville, MN
:
Liturgical Press
,
2004
.
Glissant
,
Édouard
.
Caribbean Discourse: Selected Essays
. Translated by
Dash
J. Michael
.
Charlottesville
:
University Press of Virginia
,
1989
.
Glissant
,
Édouard
.
Poetics of Relation
. Translated by
Wing
Betsy
.
Ann Arbor
:
University of Michigan Press
,
1997
.
Goldberg
,
RoseLee
.
Performance Art: From Futurism to the Present
.
1979
.
Reprint
,
New York
:
Thames and Hudson
,
2001
.
Hall
,
Catherine
. “
Gender Politics and Imperial Politics: Rethinking the Histories of Empire
.” In
Engendering History: Caribbean Women in Historical Perspective
, edited by
Shepherd
Verene
,
Brereton
Bridget
, and
Bailey
Barbara
.
Kingston, Jamaica
:
Randle
,
1995
.
Hall
,
Tony
.
Jean and Dinah … Who Have Been Locked Away in a World Famous Calypso since 1956 Speak Their Minds Publicly
.
Port of Spain, Trinidad
:
Tony Hall and the Lordstreet Theatre Company
,
2001
.
Haney
,
Lynn
.
Naked at the Feast: A Biography of Josephine Baker
.
New York
:
Dodd, Mead
,
1981
.
Hartman
,
Della Brown
. “
William Edouard Scott Remembered: Lessons from a Remarkable Life
.”
PhD diss.
,
Kent State University
,
1994
.
Haskins
,
Jim
.
The Cotton Club
.
New York
:
Random House
,
1977
.
Herzberg
,
Julia P.
Wifredo Lam
.”
Latin American Art
2
, no.
3
(Summer
1990
):
18
24
.
Herzberg
,
Julia P.
Wifredo Lam: The Development of a Style and World View, the Havana Years, 1941–1952
.” In
Wifredo Lam and His Contemporaries, 1938–1952
, edited by
Balderrama
Maria R.
.
New York
:
Studio Museum in Harlem
,
1992
.
Herzberg
,
Julia P.
Wifredo Lam: The Return to Havana and the Afro-Cuban Heritage
.”
Review
37
(
January–June
1987
):
22
30
.
Hewitt
,
Julia Cuervo
.
Voices out of Africa in Twentieth-Century Spanish Caribbean Literature
.
Lewisburg, PA
:
Bucknell University Press
,
2009
.
Heyward
,
DuBose
, and
Heyward
Dorothy
.
The Complete Text of Porgy
.
New York
:
Theatre Arts
,
1955
.
Hill
,
Donald
. “
‘I Am Happy Just to Be in This Sweet Land of Liberty’: The New York City Calypso Craze of the 1930s and 1940s
.” In
Island Sounds in the Global City: Caribbean Popular Music and Identity in New York
, by
Allen
Ray
and
Wilcken
Lois
.
New York
:
New York Folklore Society and the Institute for Studies in American Music, Brooklyn College
,
1998
.
Hill
,
Errol
.
The Trinidad Carnival: Mandate for a National Theatre
.
Austin
:
University of Texas Press
,
1972
.
Hillier
,
Belvis
, and
Escritt
Stephen
.
Art Deco Style
.
London
:
Phaidon
,
1997
.
Humboldt
,
Baron Alexander von
.
Cosmos: A Sketch of a Physical Description of the Universe
. Vol.
1
.
New York
:
Harper
,
1849
.
Humboldt
,
Baron Alexander von
.
Cosmos: A Sketch of a Physical Description of the Universe
. Vol.
2
.
New York
:
Harper
,
1858
.
Iheka
,
Cajetan Nwabueze
.
Naturalizing Africa: Ecological Violence, Agency, and Postcolonial Resistance in African Literature
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
,
2018
.
Johnson
,
James Weldon
, ed.
The Book of American Negro Poetry
. Rev. ed.
New York
:
Harcourt
,
Brace
,
1931
.
Johnson
,
James Weldon
. “
The Truth about Haiti: An N.A.A.C.P. Investigation
.”
Crisis
20
, no.
5
(
September
1920
):
217
24
.
Johnson
,
Kim Nicholas
. “
Saga of a Flagwoman
.” In
Gendered Realities: Essays in Caribbean Feminist Thought
, edited by
Mohammed
Patricia
.
Kingston, Jamaica
:
University of the West Indies Press
;
Mona, Jamaica
:
Centre for Gender and Development Studies
,
2002
.
Jules-Rosette
,
Bennetta
.
Josephine Baker in Art and Life: The Icon and the Image
.
Urbana
:
University of Illinois Press
,
2007
.
Kelley
,
Robin D. G.
Introduction: A Poetics of Anticolonialism
.” In
Discourse on Colonialism, by Aimé Césaire
, translated by
Pinkham
Joan
.
New York
:
Monthly Review Press
,
2000
.
Ketner
,
Joseph D.
The Emergence of the African American Artist: Robert S. Duncanson, 1821–1872
.
Columbia
:
University of Missouri Press
,
1993
.
Kirschke
,
Amy Helene
.
Aaron Douglas: Art, Race, and the Harlem Renaissance
.
Jackson
:
University Press of Mississippi
,
1995
.
Kornhauser
,
Elizabeth Mankin
, and
Manthorne
Katherine E.
.
Fern Hunting among the Picturesque Mountains: Frederic Edwin Church in Jamaica
.
Olana Collection
.
Ithaca, NY
:
Cornell University Press
,
2010
.
Krauss
,
Rosalind
. “
Giacometti
.” In
“Primitivism” in Twentieth Century Art: Affinity of the Tribal and the Modern
, edited by
Rubin
William
.
New York
:
Museum of Modern Art
,
1984
.
Kummels
,
Ingrid
. “
Staging the Caribbean: Dialogues on Diasporic Antillean Music and Dance in Paris during the Jazz Age
.” In
Transatlantic Caribbean: Dialogues of People, Practice, Ideas
, edited by
Kummels
Ingrid
.
Bielefeld, Germany
:
Transcript
,
2014
.
Kutzinski
,
Vera
.
Sugar’s Secrets: Race and the Erotics of Cuban Nationalism
.
Charlottesville
:
University Press of Virginia
,
1993
.
Lahs-Gonzales
,
Olivia
. “
Josephine Baker: Modern Woman
.” In
Josephine Baker: Image and Icon
, edited by
Lahs-Gonzales
Olivia
.
St. Louis, MO
:
Sheldon Art Galleries
,
2006
.
Lam
,
Wifredo
. “
Oeuvres recentes de Wifredo Lam
.”
Cahiers d’Art
26
(
1951
):
181
89
.
Laurence
,
K. O.
Immigration into the West Indies in the Nineteenth Century
.
Barbados
:
Caribbean Universities Press
,
1971
.
Leighten
,
Patricia
. “
The White Peril and L’Arte negre: Picasso, Primitivism, and Anticolonialism
.”
Art Bulletin
72
, no.
4
(
December
1990
):
609
30
.
Leiris
,
Michel
.
L’afrique fantôme
.
Paris
:
Gallimard
,
1951
.
Leja
,
Michael
.
Reframing Abstract Expressionism: Subjectivity and Painting in the 1940s
.
New Haven, CT
:
Yale University Press
,
1993
.
Lemke
,
Sieglinde
. “
Diaspora Aesthetics: Exploring the African Diaspora in the Works of Aaron Douglas, Jacob Lawrence, and Jean-Michel Basquiat
.” In
Exiles, Diasporas and Strangers
, edited by
Mercer
Kobena
.
London
:
Institute of International Visual Arts
;
Cambridge, MA
:
MIT Press
,
2008
.
Lewis
,
Linden
, ed.
The Culture of Gender and Sexuality in the Caribbean
.
Gainesville
:
University Press of Florida
,
2003
.
Lhamon
,
W. T.
Raising Cain: Blackface Performance from Jim Crow to Hip Hop
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
,
1998
.
Linsley
,
Robert
. “
Wifredo Lam: Painter of Negritude
.”
Art History
11
, no.
4
(
December
1988
):
527
44
.
Little
,
Lawrence
.
Disciples of Liberty: The African Methodist Episcopal Church in the Age of Imperialism, 1884–1916
.
Knoxville
:
University of Tennessee Press
,
2000
.
Liverpool
,
Hollis
.
Rituals of Power and Rebellion: The Carnival Tradition in Trinidad and Tobago, 1763–1962
.
Chicago
:
Research Associates School Times
,
2001
.
Locke
,
Alain
, ed.
The New Negro: Voices of the Harlem Renaissance
.
New York
:
Boni
,
1925
.
Loichot
,
Valérie
.
The Tropics Bite Back: Culinary Coups in Caribbean Literature
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
,
2013
.
Lucie-Smith
,
Edward
. “
Wifredo Lam and the Caribbean
.” In
Wifredo Lam in North America
, edited by
Carter
Curtis L.
.
Milwaukee, WI
:
Patrick and Beatrice Haggerty Museum of Art, Marquette University
,
2007
.
MacFarlane
,
S. Neill
. “
Taking Stock: The Third World and the End of the Cold War
.” In
Third World beyond the Cold War: Continuity and Change
, edited by
Fawcett
Louise
and
Sayigh
Yezid
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
,
1999
.
Maguire
,
Emily A.
Two Returns to the Native Land: Lydia Cabrera Translates Aimé Césaire
.”
Small Axe
17
, no.
3
(
November
2013
):
125
37
.
Malley
,
Robert
.
The Call from Algeria: Third Worldism, Revolution, and the Turn to Islam
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
1996
.
Martin
,
Gerald
. “
Literature, Music and the Visual Arts, 1870–1930
.” In
A Cultural History of Latin America: Literature, Music and the Visual Arts in the 19th and 20th Centuries
, edited by
Bethell
L.
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
,
1998
.
Martin
,
Tony
.
Caribbean History: From Pre-Colonial Origins to the Present
.
Boston
:
Pearson
,
2012
.
Martin
,
Wendy
. “
‘Remembering the Jungle’: Josephine Baker and Modernist Parody
.” In
Prehistories of the Future: The Primitivist Project and the Culture of Modernism
, edited by
Barkan
Elazar
and
Bush
Ronald
.
Stanford, CA
:
Stanford University Press
,
1995
.
Martínez
,
Juan A.
Cuban Art and National Identity: The Vanguardia Painters, 1927–1950
.
Gainesville
:
University Press of Florida
,
1994
.
Massey
,
Anne
.
Interior Design since 1900
. 3rd ed.
London
:
Thames and Hudson
,
2008
.
McKay
,
Claude
,
Banana Bottom
.
New York
:
Harper
,
1933
.
McKittrick
,
Katherine
.
Demonic Grounds: Black Women and the Cartographies of Struggle
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
,
2006
.
McMains
,
Juliet
.
Spinning Mambo into Salsa: Caribbean Dance in Global Commerce
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
,
2015
.
Ménil
,
René
. “
Concerning Colonial Exoticism
.” In
Refusal of the Shadow: Surrealism and the Caribbean
, edited by
Richardson
Michael
and
Fijalkowski
Krzysztof
.
London
:
Verso
,
1996
.
Ménil
,
René
. “
For a Critical Reading of Tropiques
.” In
Refusal of the Shadow: Surrealism and the Caribbean
, edited by
Richardson
Michael
and
Fijalkowski
Krzysztof
.
New York
:
Verso
,
1996
.
Ménil
,
René
. “
Introduction to the Marvellous
.” In
Refusal of the Shadow: Surrealism and the Caribbean
, edited by
Richardson
Michael
and
Fijalkowski
Krzysztof
.
New York
:
Verso
,
1996
.
Mercer
,
Kobena
. “
Introduction
.” In
Cosmopolitan Modernisms
, edited by
Mercer
Kobena
.
London
:
Institute of International Visual Arts
;
Cambridge, MA
:
MIT Press
,
2005
.
Mercer
,
Kobena
.
Travel and See: Black Diaspora Art Practices since the 1980s
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2016
.
Milkman
,
Ruth
.
Gender at Work: The Dynamics of Job Segregation by Sex during World War II
.
Urbana
:
University of Illinois Press
,
1987
.
Miller
,
David C.
Dark Eden: The Swamp in Nineteenth-Century American Culture
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
,
1989
.
Miller
,
Perry
. “
Nature and the National Ego
.” In
Errand into the Wilderness
.
New York
:
Harper and Row
,
1964
.
Millette
,
James
. “
The Wage Problem in Trinidad and Tobago, 1838–1938
.” In
The Colonial Caribbean in Transition: Essays on Post-emancipation Social and Cultural History
, edited by
Brereton
Bridget
and
Yelvington
Kevin A.
.
Gainesville
:
University Press of Florida
,
1999
.
Mohammed
,
Patricia
. “
A Blueprint for Gender in Creole Trinidad: Exploring Gender Mythology through Calypsoes of the 1920s and 1930s
.” In
The Culture of Gender and Sexuality in the Caribbean
, edited by
Lewis
Linden
.
Gainesville
:
University Press of Florida
,
2003
.
Momsen
,
Janet
. “
The Double Paradox
.” In
Gendered Realities: Essays in Caribbean Feminist Thought
, edited by
Mohammed
Patricia
.
Kingston, Jamaica
:
University of the West Indies Press
;
Mona, Jamaica
:
Centre for Gender and Development Studies
,
2002
.
Morris
,
Mervyn
.
Miss Lou: Louise Bennett and Jamaican Culture
.
Oxford
:
Signal Books
,
2014
.
Morton
,
Patricia A.
Hybrid Modernities: Architecture and Representation at the 1931 Colonial Exposition, Paris
.
Cambridge, MA
:
MIT Press
,
2000
.
Mosquera
,
Gerardo
.
Beyond the Fantastic: Contemporary Art Criticism from Latin America
.
Cambridge, MA
:
MIT Press
,
1996
.
Mosquera
,
Gerardo
. “
Mi pintura es un acto de descolonización: Entrevista con Wifredo Lam
.”
Bohemia
92
, no.
25
(
1980
):
10
13
.
Murray
,
John A.
The Islands and the Sea: Five Centuries of Nature Writing from the Caribbean
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
,
1991
.
Nardal
,
Jane
. “
Pantins exotiques
[Exotic Puppets]
.
La Dépêche Africaine
8
(
October
1928
):
2
.
Nenno
,
Nancy
. “
Femininity, the Primitive, and Modern Urban Space: Josephine Baker in Berlin
.” In
Women in the Metropolis: Gender and Modernity in Weimar Culture
, edited by
Ankum
Katharina von
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
1997
.
Neptune
,
Harvey R.
Caliban and the Yankees: Trinidad and the United States Occupation
.
Chapel Hill
:
University of North Carolina Press
,
2007
.
Ngô
,
Fiona I. B.
Imperial Blues: Geographies of Race and Sex in Jazz Age New York
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2014
.
Niblett
,
Michael
. “
The Arc of the ‘Other America’: Landscape, Nature, and Region in Eric Walrond’s Tropic Death
.” In
Perspectives on the “Other America”: Comparative Approaches to Caribbean and Latin American Culture
, edited by
Oloff
Kerstin
and
Niblett
Michael
.
Amsterdam
:
Rodopi
,
2009
.
Nicholls
,
David G.
Jean Toomer’s Cane, Modernization, and the Spectral Folk
.” In
Modernism, Inc.: Body, Memory, Capital
, edited by
Scandura
Jani
and
Thurston
Michael
.
New York
:
New York University Press
,
2001
.
Noel
,
Samantha A.
De Jamette in We: Redefining Performance in Contemporary Trinidad Carnival
.”
Small Axe
, no.
31
(
March
2010
):
60
78
.
Noel
,
Samantha A.
Envisioning New Worlds: The ‘Tropical Aesthetics’ in the Art of Wifredo Lam and Aaron Douglas
.”
Art Journal
77
, no.
3
(
2018
):
76
91
.
Novak
,
Barbara
.
Nature and Culture: American Landscape and Painting, 1825–1875
. 3rd ed.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
,
2007
.
Nunley
,
John W.
, and
Bettelheim
Judith
, eds.
Caribbean Festival Arts: Each and Every Bit of Difference
.
Seattle
:
University of Washington Press
,
1988
.
Nurse
,
Keith
. “
Globalization and Trinidad Carnival: Diaspora, Hybridity and Identity in Global Culture
.”
Cultural Studies
13
, no.
4
(
1999
):
661
90
.
Oiticica
,
Hélio
. “
General Scheme of New Objectivity
.” In
Tropicália: A Revolution in Brazilian Culture, 1967–1972
, edited by
Basualdo
Carlos
.
São Paulo
:
Cosac Naify
,
2005
.
Oiticica
,
Hélio
. “
Tropicália
.” In
Tropicália: A Revolution in Brazilian Culture, 1967–1972
, edited by
Basualdo
Carlos
.
São Paulo
:
Cosac Naify
,
2005
.
Oiticica
,
Hélio
. “
Tropicália: The Image Problem Surpassed by That of a Synthesis
.” In
Tropicália: A Revolution in Brazilian Culture, 1967–1972
, edited by
Basualdo
Carlos
.
São Paulo
:
Cosac Naify
,
2005
.
Ortiz
,
Fernando
.
Cuban Counterpoint: Tobacco and Sugar
. 2nd ed. Translated by
de Onís
Harriet
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
1995
.
Ostrander
,
Tobias
. “
Tropical Values: The Imagined Landscapes of Edouard Duval-Carrié
.” In
From Revolution in the Tropics to Imagined Landscapes: The Art of Edouard Duval-Carrié
, edited by
Bogues
Anthony
.
Miami
:
Pérez Art Museum
,
2014
.
Pacteau
,
Francette
.
The Symptom of Beauty
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
,
1994
.
Pappademos
,
Melina
.
Black Political Activism and the Cuban Republic
.
Chapel Hill
:
University of North Carolina Press
,
2011
.
Patton
,
Sharon
.
African American Art
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
,
1998
.
Pearse
,
Andrew
. “
Carnival in Nineteenth Century Trinidad
.”
Caribbean Quarterly
4
, no.
3/4
(
March–June
1956
):
175
93
.
Pearse
,
Andrew
. “
Mitto Sampson on Calypso Legends of the Nineteenth Century
.”
Caribbean Quarterly
4
, no.
3/4
(
March–June
1956
):
250
62
.
Pérez
,
Louis A.
Jr.
On Becoming Cuban: Identity, Nationality, and Culture
.
Chapel Hill
:
University of North Carolina Press
,
1999
.
Phelan
,
Peggy
.
Unmarked: The Politics of Performance
.
New York
:
Routledge
,
1993
.
Philip
,
M. NourbeSe
. “
Race, Space, and the Poetics of Moving
.” In
Caribbean Creolization: Reflections on the Cultural Dynamics of Language, Literature, and Identity
, edited by
Balutansky
Kathleen M.
and
Sourieau
Marie-Agnes
.
Gainesville
:
University Press of Florida
,
1998
.
Poole
,
Deborah
. “
An Excess of Description: Ethnography, Race, and Visual Technologies
.”
Annual Review of Anthropology
34
(
2005
):
159
79
.
Poupeye
,
Veerle
.
Caribbean Art
.
New York
:
Thames and Hudson
,
1998
.
Powell
,
Richard J.
The Aaron Douglas Effect
.” In
Aaron Douglas: African American Modernist
, edited by
Earle
Susan
.
New Haven, CT
:
Yale University Press
;
Lawrence
:
Spencer Museum of Art, University of Kansas
,
2007
.
Powell
,
Richard J.
Black Art: A Cultural History
.
London
:
Thames and Hudson
,
2002
.
Powell
,
Richard J.
Paint That Thing! Aaron Douglas’s Call to Modernism
.”
American Studies
49
, no.
1/2
(Spring/Summer
2008
):
107
19
.
Powell
,
Richard J.
Re/birth of a Nation
.” In
Rhapsodies in Black: Art of the Harlem Renaissance
, edited by
Powell
Richard J.
and
Bailey
David A.
.
London
:
Hayward Gallery and Institute of International Visual Arts
;
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
1997
.
Powrie
,
Barbara E.
The Changing Attitude of the Coloured Middle Class Towards Carnival
.”
Carnival Quarterly
14
, no.
3/4
(
1956
):
224
32
.
Pratt
,
Mary Louise
.
Imperial Eyes: Travel Writing and Transculturation
.
London
:
Routledge
,
1992
.
Raymond
,
Judy
.
Beryl McBurnie
.
Kingston, Jamaica
:
University of the West Indies Press
,
2018
.
Reddock
,
Rhoda
.
Women, Labour and Politics in Trinidad and Tobago: A History
.
Atlantic Highlands, NJ
:
Zed Books
,
1994
.
Reddock
,
Rhoda
. “
Women Workers’ Struggles in the British Colonial Caribbean: the 1930s
.” In
Revisiting Caribbean Labour: Essays in Honour of O. Nigel Bolland
, edited by
Sutton
Constance R.
.
New York
:
Research Institute for the Study of Man
,
2005
.
Richardson
,
Michael
. “
Introduction
.” In
Refusal of the Shadow: Surrealism and the Caribbean
, edited by
Richardson
Michael
and
Fijalkowski
Krzysztof
.
New York
:
Verso
,
1996
.
Roberts
,
Neil
.
Freedom as Marronage
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
,
2015
.
Rodriguez-Plate
,
Edna M.
Lydia Cabrera and the Construction of an Afro-Cuban Cultural Identity
.
Chapel Hill
:
University of North Carolina Press
,
2004
.
Rogers
,
Charlotte
.
Jungle Fever: Exploring Madness and Medicine in Twentieth-Century Tropical Narratives
.
Nashville, TN
:
Vanderbilt University Press
,
2012
.
Rohlehr
,
Gordon
.
Calypso and Society in Pre-independence Trinidad
.
Port of Spain, Trinidad
:
G. Rohlehr
,
1990
.
Rose
,
Phyllis
.
Jazz Cleopatra: Josephine Baker in Her Time
.
New York
:
Doubleday
,
1989
.
Rosemont
,
Penelope
, ed.
Surrealist Women: An International Anthology
.
Austin
:
University of Texas Press
,
1998
.
Rubin
,
James Henry
.
How to Read Impressionism: Ways of Looking
.
New York
:
Abrams
,
2013
.
Ryan
,
Selwyn
.
Race and Nationalism in Trinidad and Tobago: A Study of Decolonization in a Multicultural Society
.
Toronto
:
University of Toronto Press
,
1972
.
Said
,
Edward
.
Orientalism
.
London
:
Penguin
,
2003
.
Sartre
,
Jean-Paul
.
Black Orpheus
. Translated by
Allen
S. W.
.
Paris
,
1951
.
Sasso
,
Arthur J.
They’re Going Crazy for Calypso!
Real: The Exciting Magazine for Men
10
, no.
2
(
June
1957
):
76
89
.
Schechner
,
Richard
, and
Riggio
Milla Cozart
. “
Peter Minshall: A Voice to Add to the Song of the Universe
.” In
Carnival: Culture in Action; The Trinidad Experience
, edited by
Riggio
Milla Cozart
.
New York
:
Routledge
,
2004
.
Scher
,
Philip
.
Carnival and the Formation of a Caribbean Transnation
.
Gainesville
:
University Press of Florida
,
2003
.
Schneider
,
Rebecca
.
The Explicit Body in Performance
.
London
:
Routledge
,
1997
.
Schoonmaker
,
Trevor
. “
A Fantastic Journey
.” In
Wangechi Mutu: A Fantastic Journey
, edited by
Schoonmaker
Trevor
.
Durham, NC
:
Nasher Museum of Art, Duke University
,
2013
.
Schwartz
,
Roberto
. “
Culture and Politics in Brazil, 1964–1969
.” In
Tropicália: A Revolution in Brazilian Culture, 1967–1972
, edited by
Basualdo
Carlos
.
São Paulo
:
Cosac Naify
,
2005
.
Shack
,
William A.
Harlem in Montmartre: A Paris Jazz Story between the Great Wars
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
2001
.
Sharpley-Whiting
,
T. Denean
. “
Femme Negritude: Jane Nardal, Le Dépêche Africaine, and the Francophone New Negros
.”
Souls: A Critical Journal of Black Politics, Culture, and Society
2
, no.
4
(
2000
):
8
17
.
Sharpley-Whiting
,
T. Denean
.
Negritude Women
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
,
2002
.
Shohat
,
Ella
, and
Stam
Robert
.
Unthinking Eurocentrism: Multiculturalism and the Media
.
London
:
Routledge
,
1994
.
Sims
,
Lowery Stokes
. “
The Post-modern Modernism of Wifredo Lam
.” In
Cosmopolitan Modernisms
, edited by
Mercer
Kobena
.
Cambridge, MA
:
MIT Press
,
2005
.
Sims
,
Lowery Stokes
.
Wifredo Lam and the International Avant-Garde, 1923–1982
.
Austin
:
University of Texas Press
,
2002
.
Small
,
Irene V.
Hélio Oiticica: Folding the Frame
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
,
2016
.
Smith
,
Hope Munro
. “
Performing Gender in the Trinidad Calypso
.”
Latin American Music Review
25
, no.
1
(Spring/Summer
2004
):
32
56
.
Snaith
,
Anna
. “
C. L. R. James, Claude McKay, Nella Larsen, Jean Toomer: The ‘Black Atlantic’ and the Modernist Novel
.” In
The Cambridge Companion to the Modernist Novel
, edited by
Shiach
Morag
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
,
2007
.
Sörgel
,
Sabine
.
Dancing Postcolonialism: The National Dance Theatre Company of Jamaica
.
Bielefeld, Germany
:
Transcript
,
2007
.
Stallybrass
,
Peter
. “
Against Thinking
.”
PMLA
122
, no.
5
(
2007
):
1580
87
.
Stallybrass
,
Peter
, and
White
Allon
.
The Politics and Poetics of Transgression
.
Ithaca, NY
:
Cornell University Press
,
1986
.
Stebbins
,
Theodore E.
The Life and Work of Martin Johnson Heade: A Critical Analysis and Catalogue Raisonné
.
New Haven, CT
:
Yale University Press
,
1975
.
Steele
,
Valerie
.
Paris Fashion: A Cultural History
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
,
1988
.
Stepan
,
Nancy Leys
.
Picturing Tropical Nature
.
Ithaca, NY
:
Cornell University Press
,
2001
.
Stewart
,
Jeffrey
, ed.
The Critical Temper of Alain Locke: A Selection of His Essays on Art and Culture
.
New York
:
Garland
,
1983
.
Stiles
,
Kristine
. “
Shaved Heads and Marked Bodies: Representations from Cultures of Trauma
.”
Strategie II: Peuples Mediterraneens
, nos.
64–65
(
July–December
1993
):
95
117
.
Stuempfle
,
Stephen
.
The Steelband Movement: The Forging of a National Art in Trinidad and Tobago
.
Philadelphia
:
University of Pennsylvania Press
,
1995
.
Thomas
,
Deborah
.
Modern Blackness: Nationalism, Globalization, and the Politics of Culture in Jamaica
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2005
.
Thompson
,
Krista
.
An Eye for the Tropics: Tourism, Photography, and Framing the Caribbean Picturesque
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2006
.
Thompson
,
Krista
. “
Preoccupied with Haiti: The Dream of Diaspora in African American Art, 1915–1942
.”
American Art
21
, no.
3
(Fall
2007
):
74
97
.
Thompson
,
Robert Farris
.
Flash of the Spirit: African and Afro-American Art and Philosophy
.
New York
:
Vintage Books
,
1984
.
Timpano
,
Nathan
. “
Translating Vanguardia: Wifredo Lam, Transculturation, and the Crux of Avant-Gardism
.”
Rutgers Art Review
23
(
2007
):
48
67
.
Toomer
,
Jean
.
Cane
.
New York
:
Liveright
,
2011
.
Trotman
,
David
.
Crime in Trinidad: Conflict and Control in a Plantation Society, 1838–1900
.
Knoxville
:
University of Tennessee Press
,
1986
.
Turner
,
Victor
.
The Anthropology of Performance
.
New York
:
PAJ
,
1986
.
Tythacott
,
Louise
.
Surrealism and the Exotic
.
London
:
Routledge
,
2003
.
Vendryes
,
Margaret Rose
.
Barthé: A Life in Sculpture
.
Jackson
:
University Press of Mississippi
,
2008
.
Vos
,
Jelmer
,
Eltis
David
, and
Richardson
David
. “
The Dutch in the Atlantic World: New Perspectives from the Slave Trade with Particular Reference to the African Origins of the Traffic
.” In
Extending the Frontiers: Essays on the New Transatlantic Slave Trade Database
, edited by
Eltis
David
and
Richardson
David
.
New Haven, CT
:
Yale University Press
,
2008
.
Walrond
,
Eric
.
Tropic Death
.
New York
:
Liveright
,
1926
.
Warner-Lewis
,
Maureen
.
Guinea’s Other Suns: The African Dynamic in Trinidad Culture
.
Dover, MA
:
Majority Press
,
1991
.
Wilkins
,
Charles
. “
Glossary
.” In
The Fifth Report from the Select Committee of the House of Commons on the Affairs of the East India Company
, vol.
3
, edited by
Firminger
Walter Kelly
.
Calcutta
,
1918
.
Wilks
,
Jennifer M.
Race, Gender, and Comparative Black Modernism: Suzanne Lacascade, Marita Bonner, Suzanne Césaire, Dorothy West
.
Baton Rouge
:
Louisiana State University Press
,
2008
.
Wilson
,
Anthony
.
Shadow and Shelter: The Swamp in Southern Culture
.
Jackson
:
University Press of Mississippi
,
2006
.
Wirt
,
William
.
The Letters of the British Spy
. 10th ed.
New York
:
Harper
,
1832
.
Wolf
,
Norbert
.
Art Deco
. Translated by
Hall
Cynthia
.
New York
:
Preston
,
2016
.
Wood
,
Donald
.
Trinidad in Transition
.
London
:
Oxford University Press
,
1968
.
Woodruff
,
Nan Elizabeth
.
American Congo: The African American Freedom Struggle in the Delta
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
,
2003
.
Wynter
,
Sylvia
. “
Novel and History, Plot and Plantation
.”
Savacou
5
(
1971
):
95
102
.
Yelvington
,
Kevin A.
The War in Ethiopia and Trinidad, 1935–1936
.” In
The Colonial Caribbean in Transition: Essays on Postemancipation Social and Cultural History
, edited by
Brereton
Bridget
and
Yelvington
Kevin A.
.
Gainesville
:
University Press of Florida
,
1999
.
Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal