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Bibliography

ARCHIVES, SPECIAL COLLECTIONS, AND PERSONAL PAPERS
Kenya

Kenyan National Archives, Nairobi Popular Magazine Collection

South Africa

Killie Campbell Library, Durban Makhanya Papers

National Archive Repository, Pretoria (SAB)

CSO 2

GES 1562, 1727, 1732, 1781, 1788

HEN 617, 618, 620, 4516

LTD 249, 250

NTS 1681, 1877, 7725

RHN 86, 177, 906, 907

National Library of South Africa, Special Collections, Cape Town

INIL 14165, 14210

Personal Papers of Hilary Carman, Johannesburg (Carman papers)

Personal Papers of Irwin Manoim, Big Media, TimesMedia House, Johannesburg (Manoim papers)

Supreme Court of South Africa, Bloemfontein

Hollywood Curl (PTY) Limited (First Appellant) and the International Hollywood Curl Hairdressers Suppliers and Training Centre (Second Appellant) and Twins Products (PTY) Limited (Respondent). Appeal Case No. 14561 of 1985, vol. 1.

Hollywood Curl (PTY) Limited and The International Hollywood Curl Hairdressers Suppliers and Training Centre v. Twins Products (PTY) Limited, Judgment Supreme Court of South Africa (Appellate Division). Case No. 281 of 1987, vol. 3.

University of Cape Town, African Studies Library Thesis and Manuscript Collection

University of Cape Town, Manuscripts and Archives, Cape Town (UCTMA)

BC880 Monica and Godfrey Wilson Papers

University of the Western Cape, Robben Island Mayibuye Archives, Cape Town

MCH280 Black Consciousness

MCH283 National Medical and Dental Association

University of Witwatersrand, Historical Papers Archive, the Library, Johannesburg (WHP)

A2675 Karis-Gerhart Collection

AD843 Correspondence on the Black Press

AD1912 South African Institute of Race Relations Collection (SAIRR)

AD2781 J. D. Mweli Skota Correspondence

AG3199 Legal Resources Centre Collection (LRC)

Western Cape Provincial Archives and Records Service, Cape Town (WCPA)

3/CT 4/1/5/1247

3/CT 4/1/5/1256

Tanzania

University of Dar es Salaam, East Africana Collection Thesis Collection

United States

Duke University, Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library, Durham, North Carolina (Duke Collection)

J. Walter Thompson Collection (JWT)

Box 2, Young Papers

Box 5, Sidney Berstein

Reel no. 53, Marketing Research Reports

Reel no. 225, Marketing Research Reports

Reel no. 233, Marketing Research Reports

Reel no. 712, Marketing Research Reports

Food and Drug Administration (FDA), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Skin Bleaching Drug Products
,”

National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, Maryland (NARA)

RG 88, Records of the Federal Drug Administration (FDA)

RG 122, Records of the Federal Trade Commission (FTC)

Northwestern University, Melville J. Herskovits Library of Africana Studies Popular Magazine Collection

Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division, New York Apex News Microfilm

U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, DC Zonk! and Drum Magazines

Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, New Haven, Connecticut Zonk! Magazine

FILMS
A Blues for Tiro
.
Directed by Steve Kwena Mokwena
.
South Africa
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X Productions
,
2007
.
Cinderella of the Cape Flats
.
Directed by Jane Kennedy
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,
2004
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Fantacoca
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Directed by Agnes Ndibi
. In
Africa, Africas
.
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,
2001
.
Frantz Fanon: Black Skin, White Masks
.
Directed by Isaac Julien
.
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California Newsreel
,
1996
.
Yellow Fever
.
Directed and written by Ng’endo Mukii (2013). https://vimeo.com/59241525 (accessed January 18, 2018)
.
FORMAL INTERVIEWS

Aboobaker, Jameela. Interviewed by Lynn M. Thomas. Durban, July 19, 2007.

Allan, Tony. Interviewed by Sarah Espi-Sanchis and Lynn M. Thomas. Constantia, Western Cape, July 25, 2008.

Bibi. Interviewed by Patricia Njuki, Stella Bosire, and Lynn M. Thomas. Antonio’s Café, Nairobi, June 17, 2009.

Budlender, Geoff. Phone interviewed by Lynn M. Thomas. Cape Town, July 25, 2008.

Carman, Hilary. Interviewed by Lynn M. Thomas. Johannesburg, August 15, 2004, and May 20, 2009.

Dike, Fatima. Interviewed by Moss Lulama and Lynn M. Thomas. Cape Town, July 7, 2009.

Gwantai, Mary. Interviewed by Lynn M. Thomas. Meru School, Meru, June 8, 2009.

Hutt, Peter. Phone interviewed by Lynn M. Thomas. Seattle, WA, November 2, 2017.

Khubeka, Abigail. Interviewed by Lynn M. Thomas. Soweto, May 21, 2009.

Krok, Solomon. Interviewed by Lynn M. Thomas. Johannesburg. August 8 and 12, 2008.

Kungu, Alfred. Interviewed by Lynn M. Thomas. Private Office, Nairobi Hospital, June 16, 2004.

Malgas, Cynthia. Interviewed by Lynn M. Thomas. Cape Town, July 21, 2008.

Maseko, Eunice. Interviewed by Lynn M. Thomas. Johannesburg, August 4, 2008.

Molefe, Joyce, and Notumato Tyeku (pseudonyms). Interviewed by Moss Lalama and Lynn M. Thomas. Langa, July 10, 2008.

Mosweu, Lorato (pseudonym). Interviewed by T. Mpho and Lynn M. Thomas. Thembisa, May 18, 2009.

Nyamu, Agnes. Interviewed by Patricia Njuki and Lynn M. Thomas. Langata, Nairobi, May 28 and June 1, 2009.

Owili, Malaki. Interviewed by Lynn M. Thomas. Private office, Aga Khan Hospital, Nairobi, June 16, 2004.

Rolfe, Phillip. Interviewed by Sarah Espi-Sanchis and Lynn M. Thomas. Mt. Edgecome, KwaZulu-Natal, July 29, 2008.

Roux, François and factory employees. Interviewed by Sarah Espi-Sanchis and Lynn M. Thomas. Middleburg, July 14, 2008.

Schap, Gerald. Interviewed by Sarah Espi-Sanchis and Lynn M. Thomas. Cape Town, July 22, 2008.

Sydo, Dia. Interviewed by Sarah Espi-Sanchis and Lynn M. Thomas. Athlone, Cape Town, July 22, 2008.

Vaphi, Don, Leticia Vaphi, and Primrose Coki. Interviewed by Lulama Moss and Lynn M. Thomas. Langa, Cape Town, July 20, 2008.

Vorster, Joe. Interviewed by Sarah Espi-Sanchis and Lynn M. Thomas. Mossel Bay, Western Cape, July 23, 2008.

NEWSPAPERS AND PERIODICALS
Ghana

Gold Coast In de pen dent. 1935.

India

Times of India. 1973.

Japan

Hokkaido Shinbun. 2003.

Tokyo Cosmetic Industry Association Bulletin. 1957.

Kenya

Daily Nation (Nairobi). 1972, 1996, 1999, 2001.

Drum (East and Central African Edition). 1962.

True Love ( Kenya). 1996.

Weekly Review. 1975, 1980.

Nigeria

Lagos Standard. 1909.

Lagos Weekly Record. 1921.

South Africa

Advertising & Selling. 1929, 1951, 1953.

Africa. 1955.

African Market. 1947–48, 1955, 1960.

A.P.O. 1922.

Artthrob. 2002.

Azania News. 1982.

Bantu World. 1932–55.

Bona. 1956–59, 1963–65, 1967–68, 1971, 1973.

Bona (Xhosa Edition). 1958–59.

Business Day. 1990.

Cape Argus. 1930, 1946, 1972, 1990.

Cape Standard. 1936, 1938, 1940, 1943.

Cape Times. 1913, 1926, 1945.

Child Welfare (official publication of the South African National Council for Child Welfare). 1927.

Citizen. 2005.

City Press. 1988.

City Vision Western Cape. 2001.

The Con. 2016.

Daily Dispatch. 1989.

Daily Mail. 2015.

Die Burger. 1975.

Die Huisgenoot. 1944, 1946, 1948.

Drum. 1952–53, 1957–59, 1961, 1965, 1990, 2011.

Drum (East African Edition). 1959.

Eastern Province Herald. 1987.

Finance Week. 1989.

Financial Mail. 1987.

Golden City Post. 1956–71.

Graham’s Town Journal. 1842.

Hi Note. 1954–55.

Ilanga lase Natal.

Imvo Zabantsundu.

Landstem.

Learn and Teach. 1982.

Mail and Guardian. 1997, 2016.

Natal Witness, and Agricultural and Commercial Advertiser. 1988.

Outspan. 1950.

Pretoria News. 1990.

Rand Daily Mail. 1902–3, 1905, 1909–10, 1937–38, 1961, 1982.

Selling Age—South African Sales Promotion and Packaging. 1956, 1959.

South African Advertising and Selling. 1945.

South African Business Efficiency. 1934, 1935.

South African Government Gazette. 1930.

South African Lady’s Pictorial. 1925, 1930.

South African Lady’s Pictorial and Home Journal. 1930.

South African Pharmaceutical Journal. 1934, 1935.

South African Pictorial. 1917, 1919, 1920–21.

South African Pictorial: Stage and Cinema. 1920, 1922–23.

South African Retail Chemist. 1953, 1955, 1958.

South African Spectator. 1901.

Sowetan. 1987–90.

The Spur. 1926.

Standard and Diggers’ News. 1899.

Star. 1961, 1980, 1982, 1997.

Sun. 1911, 1933–36, 1938, 1948–50, 1953, 1968, 1970–71.

Sunday In de pen dent. 2001.

Sunday Times. 1958, 1977, 1982, 1999, 2001, 2008, 2016.

Sunday Tribune. 1982, 1990.

Times. 2008.

UCT News. 2014.

Umlindi we Nyanga. 1938.

Umteteli wa Bantu. 1925, 1931, 1933.

Upbeat. 1981.

Urn. 1893.

Veld & Flora. 1996.

Weekly Mail. 1990.

Weekly Mail and Guardian. 1999.

Zonk! 1949–52, 1954, 1956–57, 1959–60, 1962–64.

United Kingdom BBC. 2013.

British Medical Journal. 1893.

Guardian. 2018.

In de pen dent. 2016.

Times (London). 1785, 1788, 1800, 1806, 1894, 1939, 1978.

United States

American Druggist and Pharmaceutical Record. 1906, 1917–19, 1921.

Apex News. 1936, 1939–40.

Atlanta Daily World. 1941, 1964, 1970.

Baltimore Afro-American. 1924, 1928–29, 1932–33, 1949, 1960.

Bay State Banner. 1972.

Bistoury: A Quarterly Medical Journal, Devoted to the Exposition of Charlatanism in Medicine. 1871, 1876.

Boston Cultivator. 1849.

Chicago Defender. 1935, 1943, 1947–49, 1958, 1960, 1970.

Chicago Tribune. 2007.

Christian Observer. 1895.

Christian Science Monitor. 1999.

Citizen. 1982, 1987.

Drug and Cosmetic Industry. 1932, 1935, 1937, 1939, 1940, 1943, 1945, 1962.

Druggists’ Circular and Chemical Gazette. 1891–94.

Ebony. 1959, 1968, 1978, 2014.

Esquire. 1968.

Harper’s Bazaar. 1900.

Herald Times. 1987.

Hygeia. 1926–27.

Jet. 1952, 1970, 1973.

Ladies’ Home Journal. 1893.

Lancet Medical News. 1861.

Los Angeles Times. 1992, 2014.

McClure, the Magazine of Romance. 1927.

Medical Record. 1884, 1905, 1915.

Negro World. 1925.

New Remedies. 1874, 1880.

New York Age. 1933.

New York Amsterdam News. 1929, 1932, 1949, 1962, 1966.

New York Times. 1918, 1927, 1939, 1962, 1992–93, 2001, 2005, 2016–18.

Philadelphia Tribune. 1960, 1976.

Pittsburgh Courier. 1926, 1955.

Press, Advertising, and Radio Review. 1956, 1965.

Printers’ Ink Monthly. 1929.

Salos. 1987.

Scientific American. 1861, 1875, 1895.

STAT. 2018.

Time. 2011.

Tri-State Defender (Memphis, TN). 1959.

Village Voice. 2002.

Vogue. 1941.

Washington Post. 1905, 1913, 1924, 1929, 1932, 1936, 1960, 1967, 1970, 1972, 1975.

Worker’s Herald. 1926–28.

Youth’s Companion. 1888.

Zimbabwe

Herald. 1987.

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Figures & Tables

Contents

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References

Bibliography

ARCHIVES, SPECIAL COLLECTIONS, AND PERSONAL PAPERS
Kenya

Kenyan National Archives, Nairobi Popular Magazine Collection

South Africa

Killie Campbell Library, Durban Makhanya Papers

National Archive Repository, Pretoria (SAB)

CSO 2

GES 1562, 1727, 1732, 1781, 1788

HEN 617, 618, 620, 4516

LTD 249, 250

NTS 1681, 1877, 7725

RHN 86, 177, 906, 907

National Library of South Africa, Special Collections, Cape Town

INIL 14165, 14210

Personal Papers of Hilary Carman, Johannesburg (Carman papers)

Personal Papers of Irwin Manoim, Big Media, TimesMedia House, Johannesburg (Manoim papers)

Supreme Court of South Africa, Bloemfontein