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This chapter traces the collapse of Spanish rule in Dominican territory and the regional impact that Spanish defeat caused. News of the rebellion circulated everywhere, in newspapers, through travelers and prisoners, in revolutionary decrees, and by other means. Although the rebels fought largely without the help of regional neighbors, they had an eager audience. Spanish authority dissolved. Spanish troops were frustrated, exhausted, and dying at an alarming rate. Peninsular authorities debated, but then quickly authorized, Spanish withdrawal. Troops left peacefully in midsummer 1865, taking a small coterie of Dominican loyalists with them. Some of these figures morphed into revolutionaries on Cuban soil. Others organized secretly in Puerto Rico and other sites. The hard-won victories of Dominican rebels and their Haitian allies amount to the roots of antillanismo, or pan-Caribbean independence and federation, plans that sprang up in Cuba, Puerto Rico, New York, and elsewhere.

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