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This chapter considers the efforts of the newly born Provisional Government, as political and military leaders grappled for control of the revolution. Many prominent figures from prior decades, now fighting to regain national independence, emphasized a principled, “raceless” nationalism. Meanwhile, another newer and more radical leadership burgeoned. Among its ranks was Gaspar Polanco, a poor and illiterate man whose military brilliance catapulted him to the presidency of the Provisional Government in the fall of 1864. Polanco and his allies insisted on social revolution, on egalitarian anticolonialism, and on forging stronger and more radical ties with the republican administration in Haiti. Although Haiti’s president Geffrard maintained a position of neutrality, covert aid from Haitian citizens toward the east was constant. Reactionary members of the Dominican mobilization, meanwhile, were wary of the social revolution at hand. As they moved to topple Polanco, the fighting continued.

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