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References

Asmolov
,
Gregory
.
2010
. “
Russia: Online Cooperation as an Alternative for Government?
Global Voices
. .
Auray
,
Nicolas
.
2002
. “
De l’éthique à la politique: L’institution d’une cité libre
.”
Multitudes
8
. .
Badouard
,
Romain
.
2014
. “
La mise en technologie des projets politiques. Une approche ‘orientée design’ de la participation enligne
[Putting political projects in technology: Design-oriented approach to online participation]. Participation
.
8
:
31
54
.
Bennett
,
Elizabeth A.
,
Cordner
Alissa
,
Klein
Peter Taylor
,
Savell
Stephanie
, and
Baiocchi
Gianpaolo
.
2013
. “
Disavowing Politics: Civic Engagement in an Era of Political Skepticism
.”
American Journal of Sociolog
.
119
, no.
2
:
518
48
. .
Bogdanova
,
Elena
.
2013
. “
Complaining to Putin: A Paradox of the Hybrid Regime
.”
Cultures of Grievance (blog)
. .
Boltanski
,
Luc
, and
Thévenot
Laurent
.
1991
.
De la justification: Les économies de la grandeur
.
Paris
:
Gallimard
.
Bowker
,
Geoffrey
, and
Star
Susan Leigh
.
1998
. “
Building Information Infrastructures for Social Worlds: The Role of Classifications and Standards
.” In
Community Computing and Support Systems
, edited by
Ishida
Toru
,
231
48
.
Berlin
:
Springer
.
Bowker
,
Geoffrey
, and
Star
Susan Leigh
.
1999
.
Sorting Things Out: Classification and Its Consequences
.
Cambridge, MA
:
MIT Press
.
Brabham
,
Daren C.
2008
. “
Crowdsourcing as a Model for Problem Solving: An Introduction and Cases
.”
Convergenc
.
14
, no.
1
:
75
90
. .
Brabham
,
Daren C.
2013
.
Crowdsourcing
.
Cambridge, MA
:
MIT Press
.
Cefai
,
Daniel
.
2013
. “
L’expérience des publics: Institution et réflexivité. Sur la sociologie des problèmes publics 1/2
.”
EspaceTemps
. .
Chateauraynaud
,
Francis
, and
Torny
Didier
.
1999
.
Les sombres précurseurs, une sociologie pragmatique de l’alerte et du risque
.
Paris
:
Éditions de l’École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales
.
Collins
,
Harry
.
2002
. “
The Third Wave of Science Studies: Studies of Expertise and Experience
.”
Social Studies of Scienc
.
32
, no.
2
(
April
):
235
96
. .
Dewey
,
Horace
, and
Kleimola
Ann
.
1970
. “
Suretyship and Collective Responsibility in Pre-Petrine Russia
.”
Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas
18
:
337
54
.
Elliott
,
Marc
.
2006
. “
Stigmergic Collaboration: The Evolution of Group Work
.”
M/C Journal
9
, no.
2
. .
Ermoshina
,
Ksenia
.
2014a
. “
Democracy as Pothole Repair: Civic Applications and Cyber-Empowerment in Russia
.”
Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace
8
, no.
3
, .
Ermoshina
,
Ksenia
.
2014b
. “
Webnabludatel: A Russian Electoral Observation App
.” In
Civic Media Reader Project
,
MIT Press
. .
Erpyleva
,
Svetlana
, and
Magun
Artemy
, eds.
2014
.
“Politika Apolitichnyh: Grazhdanskiye Dvijeniya v Rossii 2011–2013 godov” [Politics of the apolitical: Civic movements in Russia in 2011–2013]
.
Moscow
:
Novoye Literaturnoye Obozreniye
.
Eyler-Werve
,
Kate
, and
Carlson
Virginia
.
2012
.
Civic Apps Competition Handbook
.
Sebastopol, CA
:
O’Reilly Media
.
Farman
,
James
.
2012
.
Mobile Interface Theory: Embodied Space and Locative Media
.
New York
:
Routledge
.
Felstiner
,
William L. F.
,
Abel
Richard L.
, and
Sarat
Austin
.
1980
81
. “
The Emergence and Transformation of Disputes: Naming, Blaming, Claiming
.”
Special issue, “Dispute Pro cessing and Civil Litigation”
. In
Law and Society Revie
.
15
, nos.
3/4
:
631
54
.
Forum.Mista.Ru.
n.d. .
Fuller
,
Matthew
.
2008
.
Software Studies: A Lexicon
.
Cambridge, MA
:
MIT Press
.
Garfinkel
,
Harold
.
1967
.
Studies in Ethnomethodology
.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ
:
Prentice Hall
.
Goody
,
Jack
.
1977
.
The Domestication of the Savage Mind
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Gregorio
,
Joe
.
2002
. “
Stigmergy and the World-Wide Web
.”
Bitworking
,
December
30
.
Accessed August 3, 2018. http://bitworking.org/news/Stigmergy
.
Gerasimova
,
Ekaterina
, and
Chuikina
Sofia
.
2004
. “
Society of Repair (Obshestvo remonta)
.” In
Neprikosnovenny Zapa
.
34
. .
Hemment
,
Julia
.
2012
. “
Redefining Need, Reconfiguring Expectations: The Rise of State-Run Youth Voluntarism Programs in Russia
.”
Anthropological Quarterl
.
85
, no.
2
. .
Heylighen
,
Francis
.
2007a
. “
Accelerating Socio-technological Evolution: From Ephemeralization and Stigmergy to the Global Brain
.” In
Globalization as an Evolutionary Process: Modeling Global Change
, edited by
Modelski
George
,
Devezas
Tessaleno
, and
Thompson
William
,
286
335
.
London
:
Routledge
.
Heylighen
,
Francis
.
2007b
. “
Why Is Open Access Development So Successful? Stigmergic Organization and the Economics of Information
.” In
Open Source Jahrbuch
, edited by
Lutterbeck
Bernd
,
Bärwolff
Mat
, and
Gehring
Robert A.
,
165
180
.
Berlin
:
Lehmanns Media
.
Irani
,
Lilly
.
2015
. “
Hackathons and the Making of Entrepreneurial Citizenship
.”
Science Technology and Human Value
.
40
, no.
5
:
799
824
. .
Joyce
,
Mary
.
2010
.
Digital Activism Decoded: The New Mechanics of Change
.
New York
:
Idebate Press
.
Kittur
,
Aniket
,
Chi
Ed H.
, and
Suh
Bongwon
.
2008
. “
Crowdsourcing User Studies with Mechanical Turk
.”
Proceedings of the 26th Annual acm Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
,
453
56
.
New York
:
ACM
.
Kharkhordin
,
Oleg
, ed.
2011
.
Ot obshchestvennogo k publichnomu: kollektivnaia monografii. [From social to public: Collective monograph]
.
Saint Petersburg
:
EUSP Press
.
Lambert
,
Nicolas
.
1985
.
Whistleblowing in the Soviet Union: Complaints and Abuses under State Socialism
.
London
:
Macmillan
.
Machleder
,
Josh
, and
Asmolov
Gregory
.
2011
. “
Social Change and the Russian Network Society: Redefining Development Priorities in New Information Environments
.”
Internews Network
. .
Nérard
,
François-Xavier
.
2002
. “
Les bureaux des plaintes dans l’URSS de Staline (1928–1941): La gestion du mécontentement dans un état socialiste
.”
Revue d’histoire moderne et contemporain
.
49
, no.
2
:
125
44
.
Parunak
.
2006
. “
A Survey of Environments and Mechanisms for Human-Human Stigmergy
.” In
Environments for Multi-Agent Systems II
, edited by
Weyns
Danny
,
Parunak
H. Van Dyke
, and
Michel
Fabien
,
163
186
.
Berlin
:
Springer
.
Raymond
,
Eric S.
1999
.
The Cathedral and the Bazaar: Musings on Linux and Open Source by an Accidental Revolutionary
.
Sebastopol, CA
:
O’Reilly Media
.
Robles
,
Gregorio
,
Merelo
Juan Julian
, and
Gonzalez-Barahona
Jesus M.
.
2005
. “
Self-Organized Development in Libre Software: A Model Based on the Stigmergy Concept
.”
Proceedings of 6th International Workshop on Software Process Simulation and Modeling
. .
Schuetz
,
Alfred
.
1944
. “
The Stranger: An Essay in Social Psychology
.”
American Journal of Sociolog
.
49
, no.
6
:
499
507
.
Accessed August 3, 2018. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2771547
.
Segalovich
,
Ilya
.
2011
.
“Video-nabludenie I Translyatsia Na Izbiratelnom Utchastke” [Video Observation and Broadcasting on Voting Stations]
.
Habrahabr
. .
Tapscott
,
Don
, and
Williams
Anthony D.
.
2006
.
Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything
.
London
:
Portfolio
.
Te-st.ru
. n.d.
Accessed August 3, 2018. https://te-st.ru/section/teplitsa/
.
Zhuravlev
,
Oleg
,
Savelyeva
Natalia
, and
Erpyleva
Svetlana
.
2014
. “
Apoliticism and Solidarity: Local Activism in Russia
.” .

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References

References

Asmolov
,
Gregory
.
2010
. “
Russia: Online Cooperation as an Alternative for Government?
Global Voices
. .
Auray
,
Nicolas
.
2002
. “
De l’éthique à la politique: L’institution d’une cité libre
.”
Multitudes
8
. .
Badouard
,
Romain
.
2014
. “
La mise en technologie des projets politiques. Une approche ‘orientée design’ de la participation enligne
[Putting political projects in technology: Design-oriented approach to online participation]. Participation
.
8
:
31
54
.
Bennett
,
Elizabeth A.
,
Cordner
Alissa
,
Klein
Peter Taylor
,
Savell
Stephanie
, and
Baiocchi
Gianpaolo
.
2013
. “
Disavowing Politics: Civic Engagement in an Era of Political Skepticism
.”
American Journal of Sociolog
.
119
, no.
2
:
518
48
. .
Bogdanova
,
Elena
.
2013
. “
Complaining to Putin: A Paradox of the Hybrid Regime
.”
Cultures of Grievance (blog)
. .
Boltanski
,
Luc
, and
Thévenot
Laurent
.
1991
.
De la justification: Les économies de la grandeur
.
Paris
:
Gallimard
.
Bowker
,
Geoffrey
, and
Star
Susan Leigh
.
1998
. “
Building Information Infrastructures for Social Worlds: The Role of Classifications and Standards
.” In
Community Computing and Support Systems
, edited by
Ishida
Toru
,
231
48
.
Berlin
:
Springer
.
Bowker
,
Geoffrey
, and
Star
Susan Leigh
.
1999
.
Sorting Things Out: Classification and Its Consequences
.
Cambridge, MA
:
MIT Press
.
Brabham
,
Daren C.
2008
. “
Crowdsourcing as a Model for Problem Solving: An Introduction and Cases
.”
Convergenc
.
14
, no.
1
:
75
90
. .
Brabham
,
Daren C.
2013
.
Crowdsourcing
.
Cambridge, MA
:
MIT Press
.
Cefai
,
Daniel
.
2013
. “
L’expérience des publics: Institution et réflexivité. Sur la sociologie des problèmes publics 1/2
.”
EspaceTemps
. .
Chateauraynaud
,
Francis
, and
Torny
Didier
.
1999
.
Les sombres précurseurs, une sociologie pragmatique de l’alerte et du risque
.
Paris
:
Éditions de l’École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales
.
Collins
,
Harry
.
2002
. “
The Third Wave of Science Studies: Studies of Expertise and Experience
.”
Social Studies of Scienc
.
32
, no.
2
(
April
):
235
96
. .
Dewey
,
Horace
, and
Kleimola
Ann
.
1970
. “
Suretyship and Collective Responsibility in Pre-Petrine Russia
.”
Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas
18
:
337
54
.
Elliott
,
Marc
.
2006
. “
Stigmergic Collaboration: The Evolution of Group Work
.”
M/C Journal
9
, no.
2
. .
Ermoshina
,
Ksenia
.
2014a
. “
Democracy as Pothole Repair: Civic Applications and Cyber-Empowerment in Russia
.”
Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace
8
, no.
3
, .
Ermoshina
,
Ksenia
.
2014b
. “
Webnabludatel: A Russian Electoral Observation App
.” In
Civic Media Reader Project
,
MIT Press
. .
Erpyleva
,
Svetlana
, and
Magun
Artemy
, eds.
2014
.
“Politika Apolitichnyh: Grazhdanskiye Dvijeniya v Rossii 2011–2013 godov” [Politics of the apolitical: Civic movements in Russia in 2011–2013]
.
Moscow
:
Novoye Literaturnoye Obozreniye
.
Eyler-Werve
,
Kate
, and
Carlson
Virginia
.
2012
.
Civic Apps Competition Handbook
.
Sebastopol, CA
:
O’Reilly Media
.
Farman
,
James
.
2012
.
Mobile Interface Theory: Embodied Space and Locative Media
.
New York
:
Routledge
.
Felstiner
,
William L. F.
,
Abel
Richard L.
, and
Sarat
Austin
.
1980
81
. “
The Emergence and Transformation of Disputes: Naming, Blaming, Claiming
.”
Special issue, “Dispute Pro cessing and Civil Litigation”
. In
Law and Society Revie
.
15
, nos.
3/4
:
631
54
.
Forum.Mista.Ru.
n.d. .
Fuller
,
Matthew
.
2008
.
Software Studies: A Lexicon
.
Cambridge, MA
:
MIT Press
.
Garfinkel
,
Harold
.
1967
.
Studies in Ethnomethodology
.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ
:
Prentice Hall
.
Goody
,
Jack
.
1977
.
The Domestication of the Savage Mind
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Gregorio
,
Joe
.
2002
. “
Stigmergy and the World-Wide Web
.”
Bitworking
,
December
30
.
Accessed August 3, 2018. http://bitworking.org/news/Stigmergy
.
Gerasimova
,
Ekaterina
, and
Chuikina
Sofia
.
2004
. “
Society of Repair (Obshestvo remonta)
.” In
Neprikosnovenny Zapa
.
34
. .
Hemment
,
Julia
.
2012
. “
Redefining Need, Reconfiguring Expectations: The Rise of State-Run Youth Voluntarism Programs in Russia
.”
Anthropological Quarterl
.
85
, no.
2
. .
Heylighen
,
Francis
.
2007a
. “
Accelerating Socio-technological Evolution: From Ephemeralization and Stigmergy to the Global Brain
.” In
Globalization as an Evolutionary Process: Modeling Global Change
, edited by
Modelski
George
,
Devezas
Tessaleno
, and
Thompson
William
,
286
335
.
London
:
Routledge
.
Heylighen
,
Francis
.
2007b
. “
Why Is Open Access Development So Successful? Stigmergic Organization and the Economics of Information
.” In
Open Source Jahrbuch
, edited by
Lutterbeck
Bernd
,
Bärwolff
Mat
, and
Gehring
Robert A.
,
165
180
.
Berlin
:
Lehmanns Media
.
Irani
,
Lilly
.
2015
. “
Hackathons and the Making of Entrepreneurial Citizenship
.”
Science Technology and Human Value
.
40
, no.
5
:
799
824
. .
Joyce
,
Mary
.
2010
.
Digital Activism Decoded: The New Mechanics of Change
.
New York
:
Idebate Press
.
Kittur
,
Aniket
,
Chi
Ed H.
, and
Suh
Bongwon
.
2008
. “
Crowdsourcing User Studies with Mechanical Turk
.”
Proceedings of the 26th Annual acm Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
,
453
56
.
New York
:
ACM
.
Kharkhordin
,
Oleg
, ed.
2011
.
Ot obshchestvennogo k publichnomu: kollektivnaia monografii. [From social to public: Collective monograph]
.
Saint Petersburg
:
EUSP Press
.
Lambert
,
Nicolas
.
1985
.
Whistleblowing in the Soviet Union: Complaints and Abuses under State Socialism
.
London
:
Macmillan
.
Machleder
,
Josh
, and
Asmolov
Gregory
.
2011
. “
Social Change and the Russian Network Society: Redefining Development Priorities in New Information Environments
.”
Internews Network
. .
Nérard
,
François-Xavier
.
2002
. “
Les bureaux des plaintes dans l’URSS de Staline (1928–1941): La gestion du mécontentement dans un état socialiste
.”
Revue d’histoire moderne et contemporain
.
49
, no.
2
:
125
44
.
Parunak
.
2006
. “
A Survey of Environments and Mechanisms for Human-Human Stigmergy
.” In
Environments for Multi-Agent Systems II
, edited by
Weyns
Danny
,
Parunak
H. Van Dyke
, and
Michel
Fabien
,
163
186
.
Berlin
:
Springer
.
Raymond
,
Eric S.
1999
.
The Cathedral and the Bazaar: Musings on Linux and Open Source by an Accidental Revolutionary
.
Sebastopol, CA
:
O’Reilly Media
.
Robles
,
Gregorio
,
Merelo
Juan Julian
, and
Gonzalez-Barahona
Jesus M.
.
2005
. “
Self-Organized Development in Libre Software: A Model Based on the Stigmergy Concept
.”
Proceedings of 6th International Workshop on Software Process Simulation and Modeling
. .
Schuetz
,
Alfred
.
1944
. “
The Stranger: An Essay in Social Psychology
.”
American Journal of Sociolog
.
49
, no.
6
:
499
507
.
Accessed August 3, 2018. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2771547
.
Segalovich
,
Ilya
.
2011
.
“Video-nabludenie I Translyatsia Na Izbiratelnom Utchastke” [Video Observation and Broadcasting on Voting Stations]
.
Habrahabr
. .
Tapscott
,
Don
, and
Williams
Anthony D.
.
2006
.
Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything
.
London
:
Portfolio
.
Te-st.ru
. n.d.
Accessed August 3, 2018. https://te-st.ru/section/teplitsa/
.
Zhuravlev
,
Oleg
,
Savelyeva
Natalia
, and
Erpyleva
Svetlana
.
2014
. “
Apoliticism and Solidarity: Local Activism in Russia
.” .
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