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References

Amrute
,
Sareeta
.
2014
. “
Proprietary Freedoms in an it Office: How Indian IT Workers Negotiate Code and Cultural Branding
.”
Social Anthropolog
.
22
, no.
1
:
101
17
.
Arafat
,
Oliver
, and
Riehle
Dirk
.
2009
. “
The Commenting Practice of Open Source
.”
Proceedings of the 24th ACM SIGPLAN Conference Companion on Object Oriented Programming Systems Languages and Applications
,
857
64
.
Arora
,
Ashish
,
Gambardella
Alfonso
, and
Klepper
Steven
.
2005
. “
Orga nizational Capabilities and the Rise of the Software Industry in the Emerging Economies: Lessons from the History of Some U.S. Industries
.” In
Underdogs to Tigers: The Rise and Growth of the Software Industry in Some Emerging Economies
, edited by
Arora
Ashish
and
Gambardella
Alfonso
,
171
206
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
.
Brown
,
John Seely
, and
Duguid
Paul
.
2001
. “
Knowledge and Organization: A Social-Practice Perspective
.”
Organization Scienc
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12
, no.
2
:
198
213
.
Coleman
,
Gabriella
.
2009
. “
Code Is Speech: Legal Tinkering, Expertise, and Protest among Free and Open Source Software Developers
.”
Cultural Anthropolog
.
24
, no.
3
:
420
54
.
Coleman
,
Gabriella
.
2013
.
Coding Freedom: The Ethics and Aesthetics of Hacking
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
.
Coleman
,
Gabriella
, and
Hill
Benjamin
.
2004
. “
The Social Production of Ethics in Debian and Free Software Communities: Anthropological Lessons for Vocational Ethics
.” In
Free/Open Source Software Development
, edited by
Koch
Stefan
,
273
95
.
Idea Group Publishing
.
Cox
,
Andrew
.
2005
. “
What Are Communities of Practice? A Comparative Review of Four Seminal Works
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Journal of Information Science
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31
, no.
6
:
527
40
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Dijkstra
,
Edsger Wybe
.
1976
.
A Discipline of Programming
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Englewood Cliffs, NJ
:
Prentice Hall
.
Ensmenger
,
Nathan
.
2001
. “
The ‘Question of Professionalism’ in the Computer Fields
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IEEE Annals of the History of Computin
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23
, no.
4
:
56
73
.
Ensmenger
,
Nathan
.
2010
.
The Computer Boys Take Over: Computers, Programmers, and the Politics of Technical Expertise
.
Cambridge, MA
:
MIT Press
.
Etzkowitz
,
Henry
.
2008
.
The Triple Helix: University-Industry-Government Innovation in Action
.
New York
:
Routledge
.
Foucault
,
Michael
.
(1969) 1984
. “
What Is an Author?
” In
The Foucault Reader
, edited by
Rabinow
Paul
,
101
20
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New York
:
Pantheon Books
.
Galloway
,
Alexander R.
2004
.
Protocol: How Control Exists after Decentralization
.
Cambridge, MA
:
MIT Press
.
Gilson
,
Ronald
.
1999
. “
The Legal Infrastructure of High-Technology Industrial Districts: Silicon Valley, Route 128, and Covenants Not to Compete
.”
New York University Law Review
74
, no.
3
:
575
629
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Graham
,
Ronald
,
Knuth
Donald E.
, and
Patashnik
Oren
.
1994
.
Concrete Mathematics: A Foundation for Computer Science
.
Boston
:
Addison-Wesley Professional
.
Haraway
,
Donna
.
1992
. “
The Promises of Monsters: A Regenerative Politics for Inappropriate/d Others
.” In
Cultural Studies Now and in the Future
, edited by
Nelson
Cary
,
Treichler
Paula A.
, and
Grossberg
Lawrence
,
295
337
.
New York
:
Routledge
.
Hastie
,
Shane
.
2015
. “
Linda Rising and Richard Sheridan on Creating a Culture of Joy—Part 2
.”
InfoQ
,
February
25
. .
Hoffman
,
Daniel M.
, and
Weiss
David M.
.
2001
.
Software Fundamentals: Collected Papers by David L. Parnas
.
Boston
:
Addison-Wesley Professional
.
Kelty
,
Christopher
.
2008
.
Two Bits: The Cultural Significance of Free Software
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
.
Kenney
,
Martin
, ed.
2000
.
Understanding Silicon Valley: The Anatomy of an Entrepreneurial Region
.
Stanford, CA
:
Stanford University Press
.
Kimble
,
Chris
.
2006
. “
Communities of Practice: Never Knowingly Undersold
.” In
Innovative Approaches for Learning and Knowledge Sharing
, edited by
Nejdl
Wolfgang
and
Tochtermann
Klaus
,
218
34
.
EC-TEL 2006 Workshops Proceedings
.
Knuth
,
Donald
.
1968
.
The Art of Computer Programming, Volume 1: Fundamental Algorithms
.
Boston
:
Addison-Wesley
.
Knuth
,
Donald
.
1984
. “
Literate Programming
.”
Computer Journa
.
27
, no.
2
:
97
111
.
Knuth
,
Donald
.
1996
.
Selected Papers on Computer Science
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Kogut
,
Bruce
, and
Metiu
Anca
.
2001
. “
Open-Source Software Development and Distributed Innovation
.”
Oxford Review of Economic Policy
17
, no.
2
:
248
64
.
Kuhn
,
Thomas
.
(1962) 2012
.
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Latour
,
Bruno
.
1990
. “
Drawing Things Together
.” In
Representation in Scientific Practice
, edited by
Lynch
Michael
and
Woolgar
Steve
,
19
68
.
Cambridge, MA
:
MIT Press
.
Latour
,
Bruno
.
2005
.
Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network-Theory
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
.
Lave
,
Jean
, and
Wenger
Étienne
.
1991
.
Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Lerner
,
Josh
.
2009
.
Boulevard of Broken Dreams: Why Public Efforts to Boost Entrepreneurship and Venture Capital Have Failed—and What to Do about It
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
.
Lynch
,
Michael
.
1985
. “
Discipline and the Material Form of Images: An Analysis of Scientific Visibility
.”
Social Studies of Scienc
.
15
, no.
1
:
37
66
.
Mackenzie
,
Adrian
.
2005
. “
The Performativity of Code Software and Cultures of Circulation
.”
Theory, Culture and Society
.
22
, no.
1
:
71
92
.
Mahoney
,
Michael
.
1992
. “
Computer and Mathematics: The Search for a Discipline of Computer Science
.” In
The Space of Mathematics
, edited by
Echeverría
Javier
,
Ibarra
Andoni
, and
Mormann
Thomas
,
349
65
.
New York
:
De Gruyter
.
Priestley
,
Mark
.
2011
.
A Science of Operations: Machines, Logic and the Invention of Programming
.
New York
:
Springer
.
Raymond
,
Eric
.
1999
.
The Cathedral and the Bazaar: Musings on Linux and Open Source by an Accidental Revolutionary
.
Cambridge, MA
:
O’Reilly Media
.
Saxenian
,
AnnaLee
.
1994
.
Regional Advantage: Culture and Competition in Silicon Valley and Route 128
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
.
Shapiro
,
Stuart
.
1994
. “
Boundaries and Quandaries: Establishing a Professional Context for IT
.”
Information Technology and People
.
7
, no.
1
:
47
68
.
Sheridan
,
Richard
.
2013
.
Joy Inc.: How We Built a Workplace People Love
.
New York
:
Penguin Group
.
Singh
,
Vandana
.
2012
. “
Newcomer Integration and Learning in Technical Support Communities for Open Source Software
.”
Proceedings of the 17th ACM International Conference on Supporting Group Work
,
65
74
.
Sokolov-Mitrich
,
Dmitriy
.
2014
.
Yandex.Book
.
[In Russian.] Moscow
:
Mann, Ivanov and Ferber
.
Stallman
,
Richard
.
2002
.
Free Software, Free Society: Selected Essays of Richard M. Stallman
. Introduction by L. Lessig, edited by
Gay
J.
.
Free Software Foundation
.
Steinmacher
,
Igor
,
Conte
Tayana
,
Gerosa
Marco A.
, and
Redmiles
David
.
2015
. “
Social Barriers Faced by Newcomers Placing Their First Contribution in Open Source Software Projects
.”
Proceedings of the 18th ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing
,
1379
92
.
Storberg-Walker
,
Julia
.
2008
. “
Wenger’s Communities of Practice Revisited: A (Failed?) Exercise in Applied Communities of Practice Theory-Building Research
.”
Advances in Developing Human Resource
.
10
, no.
4
:
555
77
.
Takhteyev
,
Yuri
.
2009
. “
Networks of Practice as Heterogeneous Actor-Networks
.”
Information, Communication and Societ
.
12
, no.
4
:
566
83
.
Takhteyev
,
Yuri
.
2012
.
Coding Places: Software Practice in a South American City
.
Cambridge, MA
:
MIT Press
.
Tedre
,
Matti
.
2013
. “
Three Debates about Computing
.” In
The Nature of Computation: Logic, Algorithms, Applications
, edited by
Bonizzoni
Paola
,
Brattka
Vasco
, and
Löwe
Benedikt
,
404
13
.
Berlin
:
Springer
.
von Krogh
,
Georg
,
Spaeth
Sebastian
, and
Lakhani
Karim R.
.
2003
. “
Community, Joining, and Specialization in Open Source Software Innovation: A Case Study
.”
Research Policy
.
32
, no.
7
:
1217
41
.
Winograd
,
Terry
.
1991
.
Oral history interview with Terry Allen Winograd
.
Charles Babbage Institute
.
Accessed July 25, 2018, University of Minnesota Digital Conservancy. http://hdl.handle.net/11299/107717
.
Wittgenstein
,
Ludwig
.
(1922) 2001
.
Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus
.
London
:
Routledge
.
Wittgenstein
,
Ludwig
.
(1953) 2010
.
Philosophical Investigations
.
New York
:
John Wiley and Sons
.

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References

References

Amrute
,
Sareeta
.
2014
. “
Proprietary Freedoms in an it Office: How Indian IT Workers Negotiate Code and Cultural Branding
.”
Social Anthropolog
.
22
, no.
1
:
101
17
.
Arafat
,
Oliver
, and
Riehle
Dirk
.
2009
. “
The Commenting Practice of Open Source
.”
Proceedings of the 24th ACM SIGPLAN Conference Companion on Object Oriented Programming Systems Languages and Applications
,
857
64
.
Arora
,
Ashish
,
Gambardella
Alfonso
, and
Klepper
Steven
.
2005
. “
Orga nizational Capabilities and the Rise of the Software Industry in the Emerging Economies: Lessons from the History of Some U.S. Industries
.” In
Underdogs to Tigers: The Rise and Growth of the Software Industry in Some Emerging Economies
, edited by
Arora
Ashish
and
Gambardella
Alfonso
,
171
206
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
.
Brown
,
John Seely
, and
Duguid
Paul
.
2001
. “
Knowledge and Organization: A Social-Practice Perspective
.”
Organization Scienc
.
12
, no.
2
:
198
213
.
Coleman
,
Gabriella
.
2009
. “
Code Is Speech: Legal Tinkering, Expertise, and Protest among Free and Open Source Software Developers
.”
Cultural Anthropolog
.
24
, no.
3
:
420
54
.
Coleman
,
Gabriella
.
2013
.
Coding Freedom: The Ethics and Aesthetics of Hacking
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
.
Coleman
,
Gabriella
, and
Hill
Benjamin
.
2004
. “
The Social Production of Ethics in Debian and Free Software Communities: Anthropological Lessons for Vocational Ethics
.” In
Free/Open Source Software Development
, edited by
Koch
Stefan
,
273
95
.
Idea Group Publishing
.
Cox
,
Andrew
.
2005
. “
What Are Communities of Practice? A Comparative Review of Four Seminal Works
.”
Journal of Information Science
.
31
, no.
6
:
527
40
.
Dijkstra
,
Edsger Wybe
.
1976
.
A Discipline of Programming
.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ
:
Prentice Hall
.
Ensmenger
,
Nathan
.
2001
. “
The ‘Question of Professionalism’ in the Computer Fields
.”
IEEE Annals of the History of Computin
.
23
, no.
4
:
56
73
.
Ensmenger
,
Nathan
.
2010
.
The Computer Boys Take Over: Computers, Programmers, and the Politics of Technical Expertise
.
Cambridge, MA
:
MIT Press
.
Etzkowitz
,
Henry
.
2008
.
The Triple Helix: University-Industry-Government Innovation in Action
.
New York
:
Routledge
.
Foucault
,
Michael
.
(1969) 1984
. “
What Is an Author?
” In
The Foucault Reader
, edited by
Rabinow
Paul
,
101
20
.
New York
:
Pantheon Books
.
Galloway
,
Alexander R.
2004
.
Protocol: How Control Exists after Decentralization
.
Cambridge, MA
:
MIT Press
.
Gilson
,
Ronald
.
1999
. “
The Legal Infrastructure of High-Technology Industrial Districts: Silicon Valley, Route 128, and Covenants Not to Compete
.”
New York University Law Review
74
, no.
3
:
575
629
.
Graham
,
Ronald
,
Knuth
Donald E.
, and
Patashnik
Oren
.
1994
.
Concrete Mathematics: A Foundation for Computer Science
.
Boston
:
Addison-Wesley Professional
.
Haraway
,
Donna
.
1992
. “
The Promises of Monsters: A Regenerative Politics for Inappropriate/d Others
.” In
Cultural Studies Now and in the Future
, edited by
Nelson
Cary
,
Treichler
Paula A.
, and
Grossberg
Lawrence
,
295
337
.
New York
:
Routledge
.
Hastie
,
Shane
.
2015
. “
Linda Rising and Richard Sheridan on Creating a Culture of Joy—Part 2
.”
InfoQ
,
February
25
. .
Hoffman
,
Daniel M.
, and
Weiss
David M.
.
2001
.
Software Fundamentals: Collected Papers by David L. Parnas
.
Boston
:
Addison-Wesley Professional
.
Kelty
,
Christopher
.
2008
.
Two Bits: The Cultural Significance of Free Software
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
.
Kenney
,
Martin
, ed.
2000
.
Understanding Silicon Valley: The Anatomy of an Entrepreneurial Region
.
Stanford, CA
:
Stanford University Press
.
Kimble
,
Chris
.
2006
. “
Communities of Practice: Never Knowingly Undersold
.” In
Innovative Approaches for Learning and Knowledge Sharing
, edited by
Nejdl
Wolfgang
and
Tochtermann
Klaus
,
218
34
.
EC-TEL 2006 Workshops Proceedings
.
Knuth
,
Donald
.
1968
.
The Art of Computer Programming, Volume 1: Fundamental Algorithms
.
Boston
:
Addison-Wesley
.
Knuth
,
Donald
.
1984
. “
Literate Programming
.”
Computer Journa
.
27
, no.
2
:
97
111
.
Knuth
,
Donald
.
1996
.
Selected Papers on Computer Science
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Kogut
,
Bruce
, and
Metiu
Anca
.
2001
. “
Open-Source Software Development and Distributed Innovation
.”
Oxford Review of Economic Policy
17
, no.
2
:
248
64
.
Kuhn
,
Thomas
.
(1962) 2012
.
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Latour
,
Bruno
.
1990
. “
Drawing Things Together
.” In
Representation in Scientific Practice
, edited by
Lynch
Michael
and
Woolgar
Steve
,
19
68
.
Cambridge, MA
:
MIT Press
.
Latour
,
Bruno
.
2005
.
Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network-Theory
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
.
Lave
,
Jean
, and
Wenger
Étienne
.
1991
.
Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Lerner
,
Josh
.
2009
.
Boulevard of Broken Dreams: Why Public Efforts to Boost Entrepreneurship and Venture Capital Have Failed—and What to Do about It
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
.
Lynch
,
Michael
.
1985
. “
Discipline and the Material Form of Images: An Analysis of Scientific Visibility
.”
Social Studies of Scienc
.
15
, no.
1
:
37
66
.
Mackenzie
,
Adrian
.
2005
. “
The Performativity of Code Software and Cultures of Circulation
.”
Theory, Culture and Society
.
22
, no.
1
:
71
92
.
Mahoney
,
Michael
.
1992
. “
Computer and Mathematics: The Search for a Discipline of Computer Science
.” In
The Space of Mathematics
, edited by
Echeverría
Javier
,
Ibarra
Andoni
, and
Mormann
Thomas
,
349
65
.
New York
:
De Gruyter
.
Priestley
,
Mark
.
2011
.
A Science of Operations: Machines, Logic and the Invention of Programming
.
New York
:
Springer
.
Raymond
,
Eric
.
1999
.
The Cathedral and the Bazaar: Musings on Linux and Open Source by an Accidental Revolutionary
.
Cambridge, MA
:
O’Reilly Media
.
Saxenian
,
AnnaLee
.
1994
.
Regional Advantage: Culture and Competition in Silicon Valley and Route 128
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
.
Shapiro
,
Stuart
.
1994
. “
Boundaries and Quandaries: Establishing a Professional Context for IT
.”
Information Technology and People
.
7
, no.
1
:
47
68
.
Sheridan
,
Richard
.
2013
.
Joy Inc.: How We Built a Workplace People Love
.
New York
:
Penguin Group
.
Singh
,
Vandana
.
2012
. “
Newcomer Integration and Learning in Technical Support Communities for Open Source Software
.”
Proceedings of the 17th ACM International Conference on Supporting Group Work
,
65
74
.
Sokolov-Mitrich
,
Dmitriy
.
2014
.
Yandex.Book
.
[In Russian.] Moscow
:
Mann, Ivanov and Ferber
.
Stallman
,
Richard
.
2002
.
Free Software, Free Society: Selected Essays of Richard M. Stallman
. Introduction by L. Lessig, edited by
Gay
J.
.
Free Software Foundation
.
Steinmacher
,
Igor
,
Conte
Tayana
,
Gerosa
Marco A.
, and
Redmiles
David
.
2015
. “
Social Barriers Faced by Newcomers Placing Their First Contribution in Open Source Software Projects
.”
Proceedings of the 18th ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing
,
1379
92
.
Storberg-Walker
,
Julia
.
2008
. “
Wenger’s Communities of Practice Revisited: A (Failed?) Exercise in Applied Communities of Practice Theory-Building Research
.”
Advances in Developing Human Resource
.
10
, no.
4
:
555
77
.
Takhteyev
,
Yuri
.
2009
. “
Networks of Practice as Heterogeneous Actor-Networks
.”
Information, Communication and Societ
.
12
, no.
4
:
566
83
.
Takhteyev
,
Yuri
.
2012
.
Coding Places: Software Practice in a South American City
.
Cambridge, MA
:
MIT Press
.
Tedre
,
Matti
.
2013
. “
Three Debates about Computing
.” In
The Nature of Computation: Logic, Algorithms, Applications
, edited by
Bonizzoni
Paola
,
Brattka
Vasco
, and
Löwe
Benedikt
,
404
13
.
Berlin
:
Springer
.
von Krogh
,
Georg
,
Spaeth
Sebastian
, and
Lakhani
Karim R.
.
2003
. “
Community, Joining, and Specialization in Open Source Software Innovation: A Case Study
.”
Research Policy
.
32
, no.
7
:
1217
41
.
Winograd
,
Terry
.
1991
.
Oral history interview with Terry Allen Winograd
.
Charles Babbage Institute
.
Accessed July 25, 2018, University of Minnesota Digital Conservancy. http://hdl.handle.net/11299/107717
.
Wittgenstein
,
Ludwig
.
(1922) 2001
.
Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus
.
London
:
Routledge
.
Wittgenstein
,
Ludwig
.
(1953) 2010
.
Philosophical Investigations
.
New York
:
John Wiley and Sons
.
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