Skip to Main Content
This content is made freely available by the publisher. It may not be redistributed or altered. All rights reserved.
This content is only available as PDF.

Bibliography

Bibliography
Abel
,
Charles
. “
Making the Thing Desirable
.”
Commercial Photographer
2
, no.
3
(
1926
):
106
9
.
Ahmed
,
Sara
. “
Affective Economies
.”
Social Text
22
, no.
2
(
2004
):
117
39
.
Ahmed
,
Sara
.
The Cultural Politics of Emotion
.
London
:
Routledge
,
2004
.
Albrecht
,
Donald
.
Cecil Beaton: The New York Years
.
New York
:
Skira Rizzoli
,
2011
.
Alexis
,
Marcus
. “
Pathways to the Negro Market
.”
Journal of Negro Education
28
, no.
2
(
1959
):
114
27
.
Anzaldúa
,
Gloria E.
To(o) Queer the Writer: Loca, Escritoria, y Chicana
.” In
Living Chicana Theory
, edited by
Trujilla
Carla
,
263
76
.
Berkeley, CA
:
Third Woman Press
,
1998
.
Auerbach
,
Nina
.
Our Vampires, Ourselves
.
Chicago, IL
:
University of Chicago Press
,
2012
.
Avedon
,
Richard
, and
Baldwin
James
.
Nothing Personal
.
New York
:
Dell Publishing
,
1964
.
Bailey
,
David
, with
Sherwood
James
.
David Bailey: Models Close Up
.
London
:
Channel Four Books
,
1998
.
Bailey
,
Peter
. “
Parasexuality and Glamour: The Victorian Barmaid as Cultural Prototype
.”
Gender and History
2
, no.
2
(
June
1990
):
148
72
.
Bailie
,
Helen T.
Blood Ties: The Vampire Lover in the Popular Romance
.”
Journal of American Culture
34
, no.
2
(
2011
):
141
48
.
Bain
,
Donald
.
The Control of Candy Jones
.
New York
:
Harper Collins
,
1967
.
Baldwin
,
Davarian
.
Chicago’s New Negroes: Modernity, the Great Migration, and Black Urban Life
.
Chapel Hill
:
University of North Carolina Press
,
2007
.
Baral
,
Robert
.
Revue: A Nostalgic Reprise of the Great Broadway Period
.
New York
:
Fleet Publishing
,
1962
.
Barry
,
Kathleen
.
Femininity in Flight: A History of Flight Attendants
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2007
.
Bear
,
Jordan
.
Disillusioned: Victorian Photography and the Discerning Subject
.
Philadelphia
:
Penn State University Press
,
2015
.
Beaton
,
Cecil
.
The Glass of Fashion
.
New York
:
Doubleday
,
1954
.
Beaton
,
Cecil
.
Photobiography
.
London
:
Odhams Press
,
1951
.
Beaton
,
Cecil
.
The Wandering Years: Diaries, 1922–1939
.
London
:
Weidenfeld and Nicolson
,
1961
.
Beaton
,
Cecil
, and
Buckland
Gail
.
The Magic Image: The Genius of Photography
.
London
:
Pavilion Books
,
1975
.
Bederman
,
Gail
.
Manliness and Civilization: A Cultural History of Gender and Race in the United States, 1880–1917
.
Chicago, IL
:
University of Chicago Press
,
1995
.
Bender
,
Marylin
. “
Black Models Find They Have Friends in the White World
.”
New York Times
December
18
,
1968
,
40
.
Bengry
,
Justin
. “
Courting the Pink Pound: Men Only and the Queer Consumer, 1935–1939
.”
History Workshop Journal
68
(
2009
):
122
48
.
Benson
,
Susan Porter
.
Counter Cultures: Saleswomen, Managers, and Customers in American Department Stores, 1890–1940
.
Urbana
:
University of Illinois Press
,
1986
.
Bergman
,
David
.
Camp Grounds: Style and Homosexuality
.
Amherst
:
University of Massachusetts Press
,
1993
.
Berry
,
Sarah
.
Screen Style: Fashion and Femininity in 1930s Hollywood
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
,
2000
.
Bérubé
,
Allan
.
Coming Out Under Fire: The History of Gay Men and Women in World War Two
.
New York
:
Free Press
,
1990
.
Bettel-Vecker
,
Patricia
.
Shooting from the Hip: Photography, Masculinity, and Postwar America
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
,
2005
.
Binkley
,
Sam
.
Getting Loose: Lifestyle Consumption in the 1970s
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2007
.
Black
,
Gregory D.
The Catholic Crusade against the Movies, 1940–1975
.
New York
:
Cambridge University Press
,
1998
.
Blair
,
Sara
.
Harlem Crossroads: Black Writers and the Photograph in the Twentieth Century
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
,
2007
.
Blaszczyk
,
Regina Lee
.
Imagining Consumers: Design and Innovation from Wedgwood to Corning
.
Baltimore, MD
:
Johns Hopkins University Press
,
2000
.
Bochner
,
Jay
.
An American Lens: Scenes from Alfred Stieglitz’s New York Secession
.
Boston, MA
:
MIT Press
,
1995
.
Bogart
,
Michele
.
Artists, Advertising, and the Borders of Art, 1890–1960
.
Chicago, IL
:
University of Chicago
,
1995
.
Bogle
,
Donald
.
Toms, Coons, Mulattoes, Mammies, and Bucks; an Interpretive History of Blacks in American Films
.
New York
:
Viking Press
,
1973
.
Bokris
,
Victor
.
Warhol
.
London
:
Penguin
,
1989
.
Bosworth
,
Howard
, dir.
The Substitute Model
.
Los Angeles, CA
:
Selig Polyscope
,
1912
.
Bourdieu
,
Pierre
. “
Cultural Goodwill
.” In
Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgment of Taste
,
318
71
.
London
:
Routledge
,
1984
.
Boyd
,
Nan A.
Wide Open Town: A History of Queer San Francisco to 1965
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
2005
.
Brandow
,
Todd
, and
Ewing
William
.
Edward Steichen: In High Fashion: The Condé Nast Years, 1923–1937
.
New York
:
Norton
,
2008
.
Braun
,
Marta
. “
Chronophotography: Leaving Traces
.” In
Moving Pictures: American Art and Early Film, 1890–1910
, edited by
Mathews
Nancy Mowll
with
Musser
Charles
,
95
99
.
Williamstown, MA
:
Williams College
,
2005
.
Braun
,
Marta
. “
Muybridge le Magnifique
.”
Études Photographiques
10
(
November
2002
):
34
50
.
Bronstein
,
Carolyn
.
Battling Pornography: The American Feminist Anti-Pornography Movement, 1976–1986
.
New York
:
Cambridge University Press
,
2011
.
Brown
,
Elspeth H.
Black Models and the Invention of the U.S. ‘Negro Market,’ 1945–1960
.” In
Inside Marketing
, edited by
Zwick
Detlev
and
Cayla
Julien
,
185
211
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
,
2011
.
Brown
,
Elspeth H.
The Corporate Eye: Photography and the Rationalization of American Commercial Culture, 1884–1929
.
Baltimore, MD
:
Johns Hopkins University Press
,
2005
.
Brown
,
Elspeth H.
From Artist’s Model to the ‘Natural Girl’: Containing Sexuality in Early Twentieth-Century Modelling
.” In
Fashion Models: Modeling as Image, Text, and Industry
, edited by
Entwistle
Joanne
and
Wissinger
Elizabeth
,
37
55
.
London
:
Berg
,
2012
.
Brown
,
Elspeth H.
Rationalizing Consumption: Photography and Commercial Illustration, 1913–1919
.”
Enterprise and Society
1
, no.
4
(
2000
):
715
38
.
Brown
,
Elspeth H.
Racializing the Virile Body: Eadweard Muybridge’s Locomotion Studies, 1883–1887
.”
Gender and History
17
, no.
3
(
2005
):
1
30
.
Brown
,
Elspeth H.
De Meyer at Vogue: Commercializing Queer Affect in First World War-era Fashion Photography
.”
Photography and Culture
2
no.
3
(
2009
):
253
73
.
Brown
,
Elspeth H.
, and
Phu
Thy
. “
Introduction
.” In
Feeling Photography
, edited by
Brown
Elspeth
and
Phu
Thy
,
1
28
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2014
.
Brown
,
Jayna
.
Babylon Girls: Black Women Performers and the Shaping of the Modern
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2008
.
Butler
,
Judith
.
Gender Trouble
.
New York
:
Routledge
,
1990
.
Butler
,
Judith
. “
Imitation and Gender Insubordination
.” In
The Gay and Lesbian Studies Reader
, edited by
Abelove
Henry
et al
,
307
20
.
New York
:
Routledge
,
1993
.
Butler
,
Judith
. “
Is Kinship Always Heterosexual?
differences
15
, no.
1
(
2002
):
14
44
.
Buszek
,
Maria Elena
.
Pin-up Grrrls: Feminism, Sexuality, Popular Culture
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2006
.
Butt
,
Gavin
.
Between You and Me: Queer Disclosures in the New York Art World
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2005
.
Button
,
Janine
. “
Vogue Timelines
.”
Fashion Theory
10
, no.
1/2
(
2006
):
279
88
.
Canaday
,
Margot
.
The Straight State: Sexuality and Citizenship in Twentieth-Century America
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
,
2009
.
Carby
,
Hazel V.
Policing the Black Woman’s Body in the Urban Context
.”
Critical Inquiry
18
, no.
4
(
1992
):
738
55
.
Carter
,
Julian
. “
Of Mother Love: History, Queer Theory, and Nonlesbian Identity
.”
Journal of the History of Sexuality
14
, nos.
1–2
(
2005
):
107
38
.
Carter
,
Julian
.
The Heart of Whiteness: Normal Sexuality and Race in America, 1880–1940
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2007
.
Carter
,
Shawn Grain
. “
Naomi Sims: America’s First Black Cover Model
.”
Master’s thesis
,
Fashion Institute of Technology
,
2009
.
Chambers
,
Jason
.
Madison Avenue and the Color Line: African Americans in the Advertising Industry
.
Philadelphia
:
University of Pennsylvania Press
,
2008
.
Chapman
,
Erin D.
Prove It on Me: New Negroes, Sex, and Popular Culture in the 1920s
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
,
2012
.
Charles
,
David
. “
The Future of Photography in America
.”
Commercial Photographer
4
, no.
6
(
1929
):
282
84
.
Chase
,
Edna
.
Always in Vogue
.
London
:
Victor Gollancz
,
1954
.
Chasin
,
Alexandra
.
Selling Out: The Gay and Lesbian Movement Goes to Market
.
New York
:
Palgrave
,
2000
.
Chauncey
,
George
.
Gay New York: Gender, Urban Culture, and the Making of the Gay Male World, 1890–1940
.
New York
:
Basic Books
,
1994
.
Chauncey
,
George
. “
The Policed: Gay Men’s Strategies of Everyday Resistance in Times Square
.” In
Creating a Place for Ourselves: Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Community Histories
, edited by
Breemyn
Brett
,
9
25
.
New York
:
Routledge
,
1997
.
Cheddie
,
Janice
. “
The Politics of the First: The Emergence of the Black Model in the Civil Rights Era
.”
Fashion Theory
6
, no.
1
(
2002
):
61
82
.
Cheng
,
Anne
.
Second Skin: Josephine Baker and the Modern Surface
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
,
2011
.
Clement
,
Elizabeth A.
Love for Sale: Courting, Treating, and Prostitution in New York City, 1900–1945
.
Chapel Hill
:
University of North Carolina Press
,
2006
.
Cleto
,
Fabio
. “
Introduction: Queering the Camp
.” In
Camp: Queer Aesthetics and the Performing Subject: A Reader
, edited by
Cleto
Fabio
,
1
43
.
Edinburgh, UK
:
Edinburgh University Press
,
1999
.
Clough
,
Patricia T.
, and
Halley
Jean
.
Affective Turn: Theorizing the Social
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press Books
,
2007
.
Coffey-Webb
,
Louise
, and
Rosenbaum
Sandra L.
, “
James Galanos
.”
Dress
32
, no.
1
(
2005
):
66
74
.
Cogdell
,
Christina
.
Eugenic Design: Streamlining America in the 1930s
.
Philadelphia
:
University of Pennsylvania Press
,
2004
.
Cohen
,
Barbara Naomi
. “
The Dance Direction of Ned Wayburn
.”
PhD diss.
,
New York University
,
1980
.
Cohen
,
Cathy J.
Punks, Bulldaggers, and Welfare Queens: The Radical Potential of Queer Politics?
GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies
3
(
1997
):
437
65
.
Cohen
,
Lisa
.
All We Know: Three Lives
.
New York
:
Farrar, Straus and Giroux
,
2012
.
Cohen
,
Lizabeth
.
A Consumers’ Republic: The Politics of Mass Consumption in Postwar America
.
New York
:
Vintage
,
2004
.
Colette
. “
Mannequins
.”
1925
.
Vogue
,
May
1960
,
158
,
230
.
Comaroff
,
John L.
, and
Comaroff
Jean
.
Ethnicity Inc
.
Chicago, IL
:
University of Chicago Press
,
2007
.
Conover
,
Carole
.
Cover Girls: The Story of Harry Conover
.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ
:
Prentice Hall
,
1978
.
Courbold
,
Clare
.
Becoming African Americans: Black Public Life in Harlem, 1919–1939
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
,
2009
.
Couvares
,
Francis G.
, ed.
Movie Censorship and American Culture
.
Amherst
:
University of Massachusetts Press
,
2006
.
Craig
,
Maxine Leeds
.
Ain’t I a Beauty Queen? Black Women, Beauty, and the Politics of Race
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
,
2002
.
Craik
,
Jennifer
.
The Face of Fashion
.
London
:
Routledge
,
1994
.
Creadick
,
Anna G.
Perfectly Average: The Pursuit of Normality in Postwar America
.
Amherst
:
University of Massachusetts Press
,
2010
.
Crimp
,
Douglas
.
“Our Kind of Movie”: The Films of Andy Warhol
.
Cambridge, MA
:
MIT Press
,
2012
.
Crump
,
James
. “
The American Years, 1933–1943
.” In
When We Were Three: The Travel Albums of George Platt Lynes, Monroe Wheeler, and Glenway Wescott, 1925–1935
.
Santa Fe, NM
:
Arena Editions
,
1998
.
Crump
,
James
. “
Iconography of Desire: George Platt Lynes and Gay Male Visual Culture in Postwar New York
.” In
George Platt Lynes: Photographs from the Kinsey Institute
,
149
-
56
.
Boston, MA
:
Little, Brown
,
1993
.
Crump
,
James
. “
Photography as Agency: George Platt Lynes and the Avant-Garde
.” In
George Platt Lynes: Photographs from the Kinsey Institute
,
137
48
.
Boston, MA
:
Little, Brown
1993
.
Cvetkovich
,
Ann
.
An Archive of Feelings: Trauma, Sexuality, and Lesbian Public Cultures
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2003
.
Cvetkovich
,
Ann
. “
Public Feelings
.”
South Atlantic Quarterly
106
, no.
3
(
2007
):
459
68
.
Daly
,
Mary
.
Gyn/Ecology: The Metaethics of Radical Feminism
.
Boston, MA
:
Beacon Press
,
1978
.
Danae
,
Clark
. “
Commodity Lesbianism
.”
Camera Obscura: A Journal of Feminism, Culture, and Media Studies
25–26
, no.
25
(
1991
):
186
201
.
Dance
,
Robert
, and
Robertson
Bruce
.
Ruth Harriet Louise and Hollywood Glamour Photography
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
2002
.
Dates
,
Janette L.
Advertising
.” In
Split Image: African Americans in the Mass Media
, edited by
Dates
Janette L.
and
Barlow
William
,
421
54
.
Washington, DC
:
Howard University Press
,
1990
.
Davilo
,
Arlene
.
Latinos, Inc: The Marketing of a People
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
2001
.
Dawkins
,
Heather
.
The Nude in French Art and Culture, 1870–1910
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Cambridge University Press
,
2002
.
de la Peña
,
Carolyn Thomas
.
The Body Electric: How Strange Machines Built the Modern American
.
New York
:
NYU Press
,
2003
.
de Marly
,
Diana
.
The History of Haute Couture, 1850–1950
.
London
:
B. T. Batsford
,
1980
.
D’Emilio
,
John
. “
Capitalism and Gay Identity
.” In
Powers of Desire: The Politics of Sexuality
, edited by
Snitow
Ann
,
Stansell
Christine
, and
Thompson
Sharon
,
100
113
.
Boston, MA
:
Monthly Review Press
,
1983
.
D’Emilio
,
John
.
Sexual Politics, Sexual Community: The Making of a Homosexual Minority in the United States, 1940–1970
.
Chicago, IL
:
University of Chicago Press
,
1983
.
D’Emilio
,
John
, and
Freedman
Estelle B.
.
Intimate Matters: A History of Sexuality in America
. 3rd ed.
Chicago, IL
:
University of Chicago Press
,
2012
.
D’Emilio
,
John
, and
Freedman
Estelle B.
. “
Introduction
.” In
Coming Out Under Fire
, by
Bérubé
Allan
,
vii
xiv
.
Chapel Hill
:
University of North Carolina Press
,
2010
.
Densmore
,
Dana
. “
On the Temptation to Be a Beautiful Object
.” In
Female Liberation: History and Current Politics
, edited by
Salpert
Roberta
.
203
207
.
New York
:
Knopf
,
1972
.
Dijkstra
,
Bram
.
Evil Sisters: The Threat of Female Sexuality in Twentieth-Century Culture
.
New York
:
Henry Holt
,
1998
.
Dinerstein
,
Joel
.
Swinging the Machine: Modernity, Technology, and African American Culture between the World Wars
.
Amherst
:
University of Massachusetts Press
,
2003
.
Do Fashion Ads Need Tricks? No, Just Love
.”
Printers’ Ink
,
March
23
,
1962
,
48
.
Dolan
,
Jill
. “
Performance, Utopia, and the Utopian Performative
.”
Theatre Journal
53
(
2001
):
455
79
.
Doty
,
Robert
.
Photo-Secession: Stieglitz and the Fine-Art Movement in Photography
.
New York
:
Dover
,
1978
.
Douglas
,
Ann
.
Terrible Honesty: Mongrel Manhattan in the 1920s
.
New York
:
Farrar, Straus and Giroux
,
1995
.
Doyle
,
Jennifer
,
Flatley
Jonathan
, and
Muñoz
José Esteban
,
Pop Out: Queer Warhol
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
1996
.
Dramatic Photography in Advertising
.”
Commercial Photographer
5
, no.
12
(
1930
):
623
27
.
Duberman
,
Martin
.
The Worlds of Lincoln Kirstein
.
New York
:
Knopf
,
2007
.
Du Bois
,
W. E. B.
The Souls of Black Folk
.
1903
. Edited with an introduction by
Blight
David W.
and
Gooding-Williams
Robert
.
New York
:
Bedford/St. Martin’s
,
1997
.
Duff Gordon
,
Lady (“Lucile”)
.
Discretions and Indiscretions
.
New York
:
Frederick A. Stokes
,
1932
.
Duggan
,
Lisa
. “
The New Homonormativity: The Sexual Politics of Neoliberalism
.” In
Materializing Democracy: Toward a Revitalized Cultural Politics
, edited by
Castronovo
Russ
and
Nelson
Dana D.
,
188
207
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2002
.
Duggan
,
Lisa
.
The Twilight of Equality: Neoliberalism, Cultural Politics, and the Attack on Democracy
.
Boston, MA
:
Beacon Press
,
2004
.
du Maurier
,
George
.
Trilby
.
1894
.
Hertfordshire, UK
:
Wordsworth Editions
,
1995
.
Earle
,
Susan
. “
Harlem, Modernism, and Beyond: Aaron Douglas and His Role in Art/History
.” In
Aaron Douglas: African American Modernist
, edited by
Earle
Susan
,
5
52
.
New Haven, CT
:
Yale University Press
,
2008
.
Ebony and Jet Magazines Present the Urban Negro Market for Liquors, Wines, and Beers
.
Study no. 1
.
New York
:
Johnson Publishing
,
1953
.
Ebony and Jet Magazines Present the Urban Negro Market for Liquors, Wines, and Beers
.
Study no. 2
.
New York
:
Johnson Publishing
,
1954
.
Echols
,
Alice
.
Daring to Be Bad: Radical Feminism in America, 1967–1975
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
,
1987
.
Editorial
.”
Commercial Photographer
5
, no.
4
(
1930
):
190
91
.
Edwards
,
Elizabeth
. “
Ordering Others: Photography, Anthropologies, and Taxonomies
.” In
Invisible Light: Photography and Classification in Art, Science, and the Everyday
, edited by
Iles
Chrissie
and
Roberts
Russell
,
54
68
.
Oxford
:
Museum of Modern Art
,
1998
.
Edwards
,
Elizabeth
. “
Photographic Types: The Pursuit of Visual Method
.”
Visual Anthropology
3
(
1990
):
235
58
.
Edwards
,
Elizabeth
.
Raw Histories: Photographs, Anthropology, and Museums
.
London
:
Berg
,
2001
.
Edwards
,
Paul K.
The Southern Urban Negro as Consumer
.
1932
.
New York
:
Prentice Hall
,
1981
.
Ehrenreich
,
Barbara
.
The Hearts of Men
.
New York
:
Penguin
,
1987
.
El-Tayeb
,
Fatima
. “
‘Gays Who Cannot Properly Be Gay’: Queer Muslims in the Neoliberal European City
.”
European Journal of Women’s Studies
19
no.
1
(
2012
):
79
95
.
Enstad
,
Nan
.
Ladies of Love, Girls of Adventure Working Women, Popular Culture, and Labor Politics at the Turn of the Twentieth Century
.
New York
:
Columbia
,
1999
.
Enke
,
Finn
.
Finding the Movement: Sexuality, Contested Space, and Feminist Activism
.
Durham
:
Duke University Press
,
2007
.
Entwistle
,
Joanne
, and
Slater
Don
. “
Models as Brands: Critical Thinking about Bodies and Images
.” In
Fashioning Models: Image, Text, and Industry
, edited by
Entwistle
Joanne
and
Wissinger
Elizabeth
,
15
36
.
London
:
Berg
,
2012
.
Etherington-Smith
,
Meredith
, and
Pilcher
Jeremy
.
The “It” Girls: Lucy, Lady Duff Gordon, the Couturière“Lucile,” and Elinor Glyn, Romantic Novelist
.
London
:
H. Hamilton
,
1986
.
Evans
,
Caroline
. “
The Enchanted Spectacle
.”
Fashion Theory
5
, no.
3
(
2001
):
271
310
.
Evans
,
Caroline
. “
Jean Patou’s American Mannequins: Early Fashion Shows and Modernism
.”
Modernism/Modernity
15
, no.
2
(
2008
):
243
63
.
Evans
,
Caroline
.
The Mechanical Smile: Modernism and the First Fashion Shows in France and America, 1900–1929
.
New Haven, CT
:
Yale University Press
,
2013
.
Evans
,
Caroline
. “
Multiple, Movement, Model, Mode: The Mannequin Parade, 1900–1929
.” In
Fashion and Modernity
, edited by
Brewer
Christopher
and
Evans
Caroline
,
125
46
.
London
:
Berg
,
2005
.
Evans
,
Sara
.
Born for Liberty: A History of Women in America
.
New York
:
Free Press
,
1989
.
Ewing
,
William A.
The Photographic Art of Hoyningen-Huene
.
London
:
Thames and Hudson
,
1986
.
Ewing
,
William A.
, and
Brandow
Todd
.
Edward Steichen in High Fashion: The Condé Nast Years, 1923–1937
.
New York
:
W. W. Norton
,
2008
.
Farley
,
Lillian
. “
Alias Dinarzade: A Chronicle of the ’20s
.”
Unpublished manuscript
. Last modified
1980
.
Fields
,
Jill
.
An Intimate Affair: Women, Lingerie, and Sexuality
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
2007
.
Finn
,
Michelle R.
A Modern Necessity: Feminism, Popular Culture, and American Womanhood, 1920–1948
.”
PhD diss.
,
University of Rochester
,
2012
.
Firestone
,
Shulamith
.
The Dialectic of Sex: The Case for Feminist Revolution
.
New York
:
William Morrow
,
1970
.
First Negro Model Agency Opened in New York
.”
Printers’ Ink
,
August
9
,
1946
.
Flatley
,
Jonathan
. “
Warhol Gives Good Face: Publicity and the Politics of Prosopopoeia
.” In
Pop Out: Queer Warhol
, edited by
Doyle
Jennifer
,
Flatley
Jonathan
, and
Munoz
José Esteban
,
101
33
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
1996
.
Ford
,
Tanisha C.
Liberated Threads: Black Women, Style, and the Global Politics of Soul
.
Chapel Hill
:
University of North Carolina Press
,
2012
.
Ford
,
Charles Henri
, and
Tyler
Parker
.
The Young and the Evil
.
Paris
:
Obelisk Press
,
1933
.
Foresta
,
Merry A.
Irving Penn: The Passion of Certainties
.” In
Irving Penn: Master Images: The Collections of the National Museum of American Art and the National Portrait Gallery
, edited by
Foresta
Merry A.
and
Stapp
William F.
,
1
13
.
Washington D.C.
:
Smithsonian
,
1994
.
Foucault
,
Michel
.
The History of Sexuality. Vol. 1, An Introduction
. Translated by
Hurley
Robert
.
New York
:
Pantheon Books
,
1990 [1978]
.
Foucault
,
Michel
.
Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison
. Translated by
Sheridan
Alan
.
New York
:
Pantheon Books
,
1977
.
Fourteen Million Negro Consumers
.”
Management Review
36
(
June
1947
):
338
.
Fox
,
S.
The Mirror Makers: A History of American Advertising and Its Creators
.
New York
:
William Morrow
,
1984
.
Frank
,
Miriam
.
Out in the Union: A Labor History of Queer America
.
Philadelphia, PA
:
Temple University Press
,
2014
.
Fraser
,
Nancy
. “
Feminism’s Two Legacies: A Tale of Ambivalence
.”
South Atlantic Quarterly
114
, no.
4
(
2015
):
699
712
.
Fraterrigo
,
Elizabeth
.
Playboy and the Making of the Good Life in Modern America
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
,
2009
.
Frazier
,
E. Franklin
.
Black Bourgeoisie
.
New York
:
Free Press
,
1957
.
Frederickson
,
George M.
The Black Image in the White Mind: The Debate on Afro-American Character and Destiny, 1817–1914
.
New York
:
Harper and Row
,
1971
.
Friedman
,
Andrea
. “
The Smearing of Joe McCarthy: The Lavender Scare, Gossip, and Cold War Politics
.”
American Quarterly
57
, no.
4
(
2005
):
1105
29
.
Gabriel
,
Davina Anne
. “
Interview with the Transsexual Vampire: Sandy Stone’s Dark Gift
.”
TransSisters: The Journal of Transsexual Feminism
8
(
1993
):
15
27
.
Gamber
,
Wendy
.
The Female Economy: The Millinery and Dressmaking Trades, 1860–1930
.
Urbana
:
University of Illinois Press
,
1997
.
Garner
,
Philippe
. “
An Instinct for Style
.” In
Cecil Beaton
, edited by
Garner
Philippe
and
Mellor
David Allan
,
67
68
.
New York
:
Stewart, Tabori, and Chang
,
1994
.
Garner
,
Philippe
, and
Mellor
David Alan
, eds.
Cecil Beaton
.
New York
:
Stewart, Tabori, and Chang
,
1994
.
Garvey
,
Ellen Gruber
The Adman in the Parlor: Magazines and the Gendering of Consumer Culture, 1880s–1910
.
New York
:
Oxford
,
1996
.
Gerherdt
,
Jane
.
Desiring Revolution: Second-Wave Feminism and the Rewriting of American Sexual Thought, 1920–1982
.
New York
:
Columbia University Press
,
2011
.
Gilfoyle
,
Timothy J.
City of Eros: New York City, Prostitution, and the Commercialization of Sex, 1790–1920
.
New York
:
W. W. Norton
,
1994
.
Gill
,
Tiffany M.
Beauty Shop Politics: African American Women’s Activism in the Beauty Industry
.
Chicago
:
University of Illinois Press
,
2010
.
Gill
,
Tiffany M.
‘The First Thing Every Negro Girl Does’: Black Beauty Culture, Racial Politics, and the Construction of Modern Black Womanhood, 1905–1925
.” In
Cultures of Commerce: Representation and American Business Culture, 1877–1960
, edited by
Brown
Elspeth H.
,
Gudis
Catherine
, and
Moskowitz
Marina
,
143
70
.
New York
:
Palgrave Macmillan
,
2006
.
Givhan
,
Robin
.
The Battle of Versailles
.
New York
:
Flatiron Books
,
2015
.
Georgen
,
Eleanor
.
The Delsarte System of Physical Culture
.
New York
:
Butterick
,
1893
.
Gilbert
,
James
.
Men in the Middle: Searching for Masculinity in the 1950s
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
,
2005
.
Glenn
,
Susan A.
Female Spectacle: The Theatrical Roots of Modern Feminism
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
,
2000
.
Goeser
,
Caroline
.
Picturing the New Negro: Harlem Renaissance Print Culture and Modern Black Identity
.
Lawrence
:
University of Kansas Press
,
2007
.
Goldberg
,
Vicki
, and
Richardson
Nan
.
Louise Dahl-Wolfe
.
New York
:
Harry N. Abrams
,
2000
.
Gordon
,
Carma R.
Educating the Eye: Body Mechanics and Streamlining in the United States, 1925–1950
.”
American Quarterly
58
, no.
3
(
2006
):
839
68
.
Gorn
,
Eliot
. “
Re-Membering John Dillinger
” In
The Cultural Turn in US History
, edited by
Cook
Jay
,
Glickman
Lawrence
, and
O’Malley
Michael
,
153
85
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
,
2008
.
Green
,
Adam
.
Selling the Race: Culture, Community, and Black Chicago, 1940–1955
.
Chicago, IL
:
University of Chicago Press
,
2007
.
Green
,
David
. “
Classified Subjects
.”
Ten/8 Photographic Journal
no.
14
(
1984
):
30
37
.
Green
,
Harvey
.
Fit for America: Fitness, Sport, and American Society
.
New York
:
Pantheon Books
,
1986
.
Green
,
Nancy L.
Ready-to-Wear and Ready-to-Work: A Century of Industry and Immigrants in Paris and New York
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
1997
.
Greer
,
Brenna
. “
Image Matters: Black Representation Politics and Civil Rights Work in the Mid-Twentieth Century United States
.”
PhD diss.
,
University of Wisconsin–Madison
2011
.
Greer
,
Brenna
.
Represented: The Black Imagemakers Who Reimagined African American Citizenship
.
University of Pennsylvania Press
,
2019
.
Griffin
,
Susan
.
Pornography and Silence
.
New York
:
Harper and Row
,
1981
.
Griffin
,
Susan
.
Woman and Nature: The Roaring inside Her
.
New York
:
Harper Colophon
,
1980
.
Gross
,
Michael
.
Model: The Ugly Business of Beautiful Women
.
1995
; repr.,
New York
:
Harper’s Perennial
,
2003
.
Grossman
,
James R.
Land of Hope: Chicago, Black Southerners, and the Great Migration
.
Chicago, IL
:
University of Chicago Press
,
1989
.
Guadagnolo
,
Dan
. “
Segmenting America: Consumption and Niche Marketing in the Postwar United States
.”
PhD diss
.,
University of Wisconsin–Madison
,
forthcoming
.
Gundle
,
Stephen
. “
Hollywood Glamour and Mass Consumption in Post-War Italy
.”
Journal of Cold War Studies
4
, no.
3
(
2002
):
95
118
.
Gundle
,
Stephen
, and
Castelli
Clino T.
.
The Glamour System
.
London
:
Palgrave Macmillan
,
2006
.
Guterl
,
Matthew
.
Mother of the World: Josephine Baker and the Rainbow Tribe
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
,
2014
.
Haas
,
Steven
, ed.
George Platt Lynes: The Male Nudes
.
New York
:
Rizzoli
,
2011
.
Haidarali
,
Laila
. “
Polishing Brown Diamonds: African American Women, Popular Magazines, and the Advent of Modeling in Early Postwar America
.”
Journal of Women’s History
17
, no.
1
(
2005
):
10
37
.
Haidarali
,
Laila
. “
The Vampingest Vamp Is a Brownskin”: Colour, Sex, Beauty and African American Womanhood, 1920–1954
.”
PhD diss.
,
York University
,
2007
.
Halberstam
,
Judith
.
In a Queer Time and Place: Transgender Bodies, Subcultural Lives
.
New York
:
New York University Press
,
2005
.
Halberstam
,
Jack
.
The Queer Art of Failure
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2011
.
Hale
,
Grace Elizabeth
.
A Nation of Outsiders: How the White Middle Class Fell in Love with Rebellion in Post-War America
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
,
2010
.
Hale
,
Grace Elizabeth
. “
The Romance of Rebellion
.” In
The Port Huron Statement: Sources and Legacies of the New Left’s Manifesto
, edited by
Flacks
Richard
and
Lichtenstein
Nelson
,
65
80
.
Philadelphia
:
University of Pennsylvania Press
,
2015
.
Hall
,
Stuart
. “
Encoding/Decoding
.” In
The Cultural Studies Reader
, edited by
During
Simon
,
90
103
.
New York
:
Routledge
,
1993
.
Hall-Duncan
,
Nancy
.
The History of Fashion Photography
.
New York
:
International Museum of Photography/Alpine Book Company
,
1979
.
Halperin
,
David M.
How to Be Gay
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
,
2012
.
Halter
,
Marilyn
.
Shopping for Identity: The Marketing of Ethnicity
.
New York
:
Schocken Books
,
2000
.
Haraway
,
Donna
. “
A Manifesto for Cyborgs: Science, Technology, and Socialist Feminism in the 1980s
.”
Socialist Review
15
, no.
2
(
1985
):
65
107
.
Hardt
,
Michael
. “
Affective Labor
.”
boundary 2
26
, no.
2
(
1999
):
89
100
.
Harker
,
Margaret F.
Linked Ring
.
London
:
William Heinemann
,
1979
.
Harris
,
Muriel
. “
The Rising Star of the Paris Mannequin
.”
New York Times
,
July
23
,
1923
,
50
.
Haselstein
,
Ulla
,
Gross
Andrew
, and
Snyder-Körber
Maryann
.
The Pathos of Authenticity: American Passions of the Real
.
Heidelberg, Germany
:
Universitatsverlag Winter
,
2010
.
Haskins
,
Jim
.
The Cotton Club
.
New York
:
Random House
,
1977
.
Heap
,
Chad
.
Slumming: Sexual and Racial Encounters in American Nightlife, 1885–1940
.
Chicago, IL
:
University of Chicago Press
,
2009
.
Henle
,
James
. “
Realism in Advertising to Women
.”
Printer’s Ink
5
, no.
2
(
1922
):
33
34
.
Hennessey
,
Rosemary
.
Profit and Pleasure: Sexual Identities in Late Capitalism
.
New York
:
Routledge
,
2000
.
Hesford
,
Victoria
.
Feeling Women’s Liberation
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2013
.
Higginbotham
,
Evelyn Brooks
.
Righteous Discontent: The Women’s Movement in the Black Baptist Church
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
,
1993
.
Hilderbrand
,
Lucas
.
Paris Is Burning: A Queer Film Classic
.
Vancouver, BC
:
Arsenal Pulp Press
,
2013
.
Hite
,
Shere
.
The Hite Report: A Nationwide Study of Female Sexuality
.
New York
:
Macmillan
,
1976
.
Hite
,
Shere
.
The Hite Report on Shere Hite: Daughter in Exile
.
London
:
Arcadia
,
1999
.
Hoby
,
Hermione
. “
How Tracey Norman, America’s First Black Trans Model, Returned to the Limelight
.”
Guardian
,
August
21
,
2016
. .
Hochschild
,
Arlie R.
The Managed Heart: Commercialization of Human Feeling
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
1983
.
Hoffman
,
Katherine
. “
Baron Adolph de Meyer
.” In
Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography
, edited by
Hannavy
John
,
395
96
. Vol.
1
,
A-I, index
.
New York
:
Routledge
,
2007
.
Hoganson
,
Kristin L.
Consumers’ Imperium: The Global Production of American Domesticity, 1865–1920
.
Chapel Hill
:
University of North Carolina Press
,
2007
.
Hoganson
,
Kristin L.
Cosmopolitan Domesticity: Importing the American Dream, 1865–1920
.”
American Historical Review
107
, no.
1
(
2002
):
55
83
.
Homer
,
William Innes
.
Alfred Stieglitz and the Photo-Secession
.
Boston, MA
:
Little Brown
,
1983
.
Honnef
,
Klaus
,
Kaufhold
Enno
,
Avedon
Richard
, and
Gundlach
F. C.
.
Martin Munkácsi
.
London
:
Thames & Hudson
,
2006
.
hooks
,
bell
. “
In Our Glory: Photography and Black Life
.” In
Picturing Us: African American Identity in Photography
, edited by
Willis
Deborah
,
54
64
.
New York
:
New Press
,
1994
.
Horowitz
,
Daniel
.
The Anxieties of Affluence
.
Amherst
:
University of Massachusetts Press
,
2005
.
Huggins
,
Nathan
.
Harlem Renaissance
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
,
1971
.
Igo
,
Sarah E.
The Averaged American: Surveys, Citizens, and the Making of a Mass Public
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
,
2007
.
Integrated Ads
.”
Commonweal
78
(
May
24
,
1963
):
236
.
Isserman
,
Maurice
.
If I Had a Hammer…The Death of the Old Left and the Birth of the New Left
.
New York
:
Basic Books
,
1987
.
Jacobson
,
Matthew Frye
Barbarian Virtues: The United States Encounters Foreign Peoples at Home and Abroad, 1876–1917
.
New York
:
Hill and Wang
,
2000
.
Jacobson
,
Matthew Frye
.
Roots Too: White Ethnic Revival in Post-Civil Rights America
.
Boston, MA
:
Harvard University Press
,
2009
.
Jacobson
,
Matthew Frye
.
Whiteness of a Different Color: European Immigrants and the Alchemy of Race
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
,
1998
.
Jameson
,
Fredric
. “
Reification and Utopia in Mass Culture
.”
Social Text
1
(
1979
):
130
48
.
Johnson
,
David K.
The Lavender Scare: The Cold War Persecution of Gays and Lesbians in the Federal Government
.
Chicago, IL
:
University of Chicago Press
,
2004
.
Johnson
,
David K.
Physique Pioneers: The Politics of 1960s Gay Consumer Culture
.”
Journal of Social History
43
, no.
4
(
2010
):
867
92
.
Johnson
,
James Weldon
.
Black Manhattan
.
New York
:
Knopf
,
1930
.
Johnson
,
John H.
Does Your Sales Force Know How to Sell the Negro Trade? Some Dos and Don’ts
.”
Advertising Age
23
(
March
17
,
1952
):
73
74
.
Johnson
,
John H.
, with
Bennett
Lerone
, Jr.
Succeeding Against the Odds
.
New York
:
Amistad
,
1989
.
Johnson
,
Joseph T.
The Potential Negro Market
.
New York
:
Pageant Press
,
1952
.
Johnston
,
Patricia
.
Real Fantasies: Edward Steichen’s Advertising Photography
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
1997
.
Jones
,
Lois Liberty
, and
Jones
John Henry
.
All about the Natural
.
New York
:
Clairol
,
1971
.
Julian
,
Philippe
. “
De Meyer
.” In
De Meyer
, edited by
Brandau
Robert
,
10
46
.
New York
:
Knopf
,
1976
.
Kaiser
,
Charles
.
The Gay Metropolis, 1940–1996
.
New York
:
Harcourt Brace
,
1997
.
Kaplan
,
Joel L.
, and
Stowell
Sheila
.
Theatre and Fashion: Oscar Wilde to the Suffragettes
.
London
:
Cambridge University Press
,
1994
.
Kasson
,
John
.
Houdini, Tarzan, and the Perfect Man: The White Male Body and the Challenge of Modernity in America
.
New York
:
Hill and Wang
,
2002
.
Kazin
,
Michael
.
American Dreamers: How the Left Change a Nation
.
New York
:
Vintage
,
2012
.
Keenan
,
Brigid
.
The Women We Wanted to Look Like
.
London
:
Macmillan
,
1977
.
Kelley
,
Robin D. G.
Nap Time: Historicizing the Afro
.”
Fashion Theory
1
, no.
4
,
1997
:
339
52
.
Kennedy
,
Elizabeth Lapovsky
, and
Davis
Madeline
.
Boots of Leather, Slippers of Gold: The History of a Lesbian Community
.
New York
:
Routledge
,
1993
.
Kern-Foxworth
,
Marilyn
.
Aunt Jemima, Uncle Ben, and Rastus: Blacks in Advertising Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow
.
Westport, CT
:
Greenwood Press
,
1994
.
Kibler
,
M. Alison
.
Rank Ladies: Gender and Cultural Hierarchy in American Vaudeville
.
Chapel Hill
:
University of North Carolina Press
,
1999
.
Kinloch
,
Valerie Felita
. “
Beauty, Femininity, and Black Bodies: Challenging the Paradigms of Race in the Miss America Pageant
.” In
“There She Is, Miss America”: The Politics of Sex, Beauty, and Race in America’s Most Famous Pageant
, edited by
Watson
Elwood
and
Martin
Darcy
,
93
109
.
New York
:
Palgrave Macmillan
,
2004
.
Kitch
,
Carolyn L.
The Girl on the Magazine Cover: The Origins of Visual Stereotypes in American Mass Media
.
Chapel Hill
:
University of North Carolina Press
,
2001
.
Knowles
,
Eleanor N.
The Snappiest Girls in Town
.”
Collier’s
,
August
7
,
1926
,
8
,
41
.
Kobal
,
John
.
The Art of the Great Hollywood Portrait Photographers
.
London
:
Allan Lane
,
1980
.
Koda
,
Harold
, and
Yohannan
Kohle
.
Model as Muse: Embodying Fashion
.
New York
:
Metropolitan Museum of Art
,
2009
.
Koestenbaum
,
Wayne
.
Andy Warhol: A Biography
.
Open Road Media
,
2015
.
Lacey
,
Robert
.
Model Woman: Eileen Ford and the Business of Beauty
.
New York
:
Harper Collins
,
2015
.
Lamprey
,
J.
On a Method of Measuring Human Form for Students of Ethnology
.”
Journal of the Ethnological Society
,
1869
, N.S.
1
,
84
85
.
Larned
,
W. Livingston
. “
The Drama of the Human Face
.”
Commercial Photographer
8
, no.
1
(
1932
):
8
12
.
Lawford
,
Valentine
.
Horst: His Work and His World
.
New York
:
Knopf
,
1984
.
Leach
,
William
.
Land of Desire: Merchants, Power, and the Rise of a New American Culture
.
New York
:
Pantheon
,
1993
.
Lears
,
T. J. Jackson
.
Fables of Abundance: A Cultural History of Advertising in America
.
New York
:
Basic Books
,
1994
.
Leddick
,
David
.
Intimate Companions: A Triography of George Platt Lynes, Paul Cadmus, Lincoln Kirstein, and Their Circle
.
New York
:
St. Martin’s Press
,
2000
.
Leff
,
Leonard J.
The Dame in the Kimono: Hollywood, Censorship, and the Production Code
.
Lexington
:
University Press of Kentucky
,
2001
.
Leigh
,
Dorian
, with
Hobe
Laura
.
The Girl Who Had Everything: The Story of the “Fire and Ice Girl
.”
Garden City, NY
:
Doubleday
,
1980
.
Lemke
,
Sieglinde
.
Primitivist Modernism: Black Culture and the Origins of Transatlantic Modernism
.
London
:
Oxford University Press
,
1998
.
Lewis
,
David Levering
.
When Harlem Was in Vogue
.
New York
:
Vintage
,
1981
.
Leys
,
Ruth
. “
The Turn to Affect: A Critique
.”
Critical Inquiry
37
(
2011
):
434
72
.
Lhamon
,
W. T.
, Jr.
Raisin’ Cain: Blackface Performance from Jim Crow to Hip Hop
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
,
1998
.
Liaut
,
Jean Noel
.
Cover Girls and Super Models, 1945–1965
. Translated by
Buss
Robin
.
London
:
Marion Boyars
,
1996
.
Lichtenstein
,
Nelson
.
Retail Revolution: How Wal-Mart Remade American Business, Transformed the Global Economy, and Put Politics in Every Store
.
New York
:
Metropolitan Books
,
2009
.
Livingston
,
Jennie
, dir.
Paris Is Burning
.
Los Angeles, CA
:
Miramax
,
1991
.
Locke
,
Alain
. “
The New Negro
.” In
The New Negro: Voices of the Harlem Renaissance
,
3
17
.
New York
:
Simon and Schuster
,
1992
.
Loftin
,
Craig M.
Masked Voices: Gay Men and Lesbians in Cold War America
.
Albany
:
State University of New York Press
,
2012
.
Lott
,
Eric
.
Love and Theft: Blackface Minstrelsy and the American Working Class
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
,
1993
.
Love
,
Heather
.
Feeling Backward: Loss and the Politics of Queer History
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
,
2007
.
Lyons
,
Harriet
, and
Rosenblatt
Rebecca W.
. “
Body Hair, the Last Frontier
.” In
The First Ms. Reader
, edited by
Klagsbrun
Francine
,
145
49
.
New York
:
Warner
,
1973
.
MacDonald
,
J. Fred
.
Blacks and White TV: Afro-Americans in Television since 1948
.
Chicago, IL
:
Nelson-Hall Publishers
,
1983
.
MacKall
,
Lawton
. “
Merchandising with a Camera
.”
Commercial Photographer
5
, no.
5
(
1930
):
246
50
.
Mahaffey
,
Perry L.
Helping the Advertising, Publicity, and Sales Promotion Departments by Photography
.”
Commercial Photographer
5
, no.
9
(
1930
):
458
66
.
Manalansan
,
Martin
, IV
. “
In the Shadows of Stonewall: Examining Gay Transnational Politics and the Diasporic Dilemma
.”
GLQ: Gay and Lesbian Quarterly
2
(
1995
):
425
38
.
Manring
,
M. M.
Slave in a Box: The Strange Career of Aunt Jemima
.
Charlottesville
:
University Press of Virginia
,
1998
.
Marchand
,
Roland
.
Advertising the American Dream: Making Way for Modernity, 1920–1940
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
1985
.
Martin
,
Earle
. “
Photography in Advertising
.”
The American Annual of Photography
44
(
1930
),
190
91
.
Massumi
,
Brian
. “
Autonomy of Affect
.”
Cultural Critique
31
(
1995
):
83
109
.
Massumi
,
Brian
.
Parables of the Virtual: Movement, Affect, Sensation
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2002
.
Matelski
,
Elizabeth
. “
(Big) and Black Is Beautiful: Body Image and Expanded Beauty Ideals in the African-American Community, 1945–1968
.”
Essays in History
(
2012
):
3
20
.
Matthis
,
Irene
. “
Sketch for a Metapsychology of Affect
.”
International Journal of Psychoanalysis
81
(
2000
):
215
27
.
May
,
Elaine Tyler
.
Homeward Bound: American Families in the Cold War Era
.
New York
:
Basic Books
,
1988
.
McAndrew
,
Malia
. “
Selling Black Beauty: African American Modeling Agencies and Charm Schools in Postwar America
.”
OAH Magazine of History
,
January
2010
,
28
32
.
McElya
,
Micki
.
Clinging to Mammy: The Faithful Slave in Twentieth-Century America
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
,
2007
.
McEntee
,
Ann Marie
. “
Feathers, Finials, and Frou-Frou: Florenz Ziegfeld’s Exoticized Follies Girls
.” In
Art, Glitter, and Glitz: Mainstream Playwrights and Popular Theatre in 1920s America
, edited by
Gewirtz
Arthur
and
Kolb
James L.
,
177
88
.
Westport, CT
:
Praeger
,
2004
.
McGovern
,
Charles F.
Sold American: Consumption and Citizenship, 1890–1945
.
Chapel Hill, NC
:
University of North Carolina Press
,
2006
.
McGuire
,
Danielle L.
At the Dark End of the Street: Black Women, Rape, and Resistance: A New History of the Civil Rights Movement from Rosa Parks to the Rise of Black Power
.
New York
:
Alred A. Knopf
,
2010
.
McLeod
,
Norman Z.
, dir.
The Powers Girls
.
Los Angeles, CA
:
General Service Studios
,
1943
.
Mears
,
Ashley
.
Pricing Beauty: The Making of a Fashion Model
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
2011
.
Meikle
,
Jeffrey L.
American Plastic: A Cultural History
.
New Brunswick, NJ
:
Rutgers University Press
,
1995
.
Mellor
,
David Alan
. “
Beaton’s Beauties
.” In
Cecil Beaton
, edited by
Garner
Philippe
and
Mellor
David Alan
,
12
24
.
New York
:
Stewart, Tabori, and Chang
.
Mendes
,
Valerie D.
, and
de la Haye
Amy
.
Lucile, Ltd.: London, Paris, New York, and Chicago, 1890s–1930s
.
London
:
V&A Publishing
,
2009
.
Mercer
,
Kobena
. “
Black Hair/Style Politics
.” In
Out There: Marginalization and Contemporary Cultures
, edited by
Ferguson
Russell
,
Gever
Martha
,
Minhha
Trinh T.
, and
West
Cornel
,
247
64
.
New York
:
New Museum of Contemporary Art
/
Cambridge, MA
:
MIT Press
,
1990
.
Meyerowitz
,
Joanne J.
How Sex Changed: A History of Transsexuality in the United States
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
,
2004
.
Meyerowitz
,
Joanne
, ed.
Not June Cleaver: Women and Gender in Postwar America
.
Philadelphia, PA
:
Temple University Press
,
1994
.
Meyerowitz
,
Joanne J.
Women Adrift: Independent Wage Earners in Chicago, 1880–1930
.
Chicago, IL
:
University of Chicago Press
,
1991
.
Miller
,
Monica L.
Slaves to Fashion: Black Dandyism and the Styling of Black Diasporic Identity
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2009
.
Mizejewski
,
Linda
.
Ziegfeld Girl: Image and Icon in Culture and Cinema
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
1999
.
Mock
,
Janet
.
Redefining Realness: My Path to Womanhood, Identity, Love, and So Much More
.
New York
:
Atria Books
,
2014
.
The Model’s Redemption
.
New York
:
Independent Moving Pictures Co. of America
,
1910
.
Monloss
,
Kristina
. “
Clairol Brings Back the First Black Transgender Fashion Model in Its Lovely New Campaign
.”
Adweek
,
August
16
,
2016
. .
Moreton
,
Bethany
.
To Serve God and Wal-Mart: The Making of Christian Free Enterprise
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
,
2009
.
Morgan
,
Robin
. “
Women Disrupt the Miss America Pageant
.” In
Going Too Far: The Personal Chronicles of a Feminist
,
64
65
.
New York
:
Random House
,
1977
.
Moskowitz
,
Marina
, and
Schweitzer
Marlis
.
Introduction to Testimonial Advertising in the American Marketplace
, edited by
Schweitzer
Marlis
and
Moskowitz
Marina
,
1
22
.
New York
:
Palgrave
,
2009
.
Movie ‘Stills’ Crash Advertising Pages
.”
Commercial Photographer
9
, no.
2
(
1933
):
45
46
.
Mumford
,
Kevin J.
Interzones: Black/White Sex Districts in Chicago and New York in the Early Twentieth Century
.
New York
:
Columbia University Press
,
1997
.
Muñoz
,
José Esteban
. “
Feeling Brown: Ethnicity and Affect in Ricardo Bracho’s The Sweetest Hangover (and Other STDs)
.”
Theatre Journal
52
(
2000
):
67
79
.
Muñoz
,
José Esteban
. “
Ephemera as Evidence: Introductory Notes to Queer Acts
.”
Women and Performace: A Journal of Feminist Theory
8
, Issue
2
(
1996
):
5
16
.
The Negro Market
.”
Tide
26
(
July
1952
):
47
.
The Negro Market: An Appraisal
.”
Tide
21
(
March
1947
):
15
.
Negus
,
Keith
. “
The Work of Cultural Intermediaries and the Enduring Distance between Production and Consumption
.”
Cultural Studies
16
, no.
4
(
2002
):
501
15
.
Newman
,
Kathy M.
The Forgotten Fifteen Million: Black Radio, The ‘Negro Market,’ and the Civil Rights Movement
.”
Radical History Review
76
(
2000
):
115
35
.
Newton
,
Esther
.
Mother Camp: Female Impersonators in America
.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ
:
Prentice-Hall
,
1972
.
Niven
,
Penelope
.
Steichen
.
New York
:
Clarkson Potter
,
1997
.
Ochoa
,
Marcia
.
Queen for a Day: Transformistas, Beauty Queens, and the Performance of Femininity in Venezuela
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2014
.
O’Dwyer
,
Jack
. “
Minority Groups Might Get More Ad Notice
.”
Printers’ Ink
282
, no.
4
(
January
35,
1963
):
10
.
Orvell
,
Miles
.
The Real Thing: Imitation and Authenticity in American Culture, 1880–1940
.
Chapel Hill
:
University of North Carolina Press
,
1990
.
Ott
,
Katherine
,
Serlin
David
and
Mihm
Stephen
.
Artificial Parts, Practical Lives: Modern Histories of Prosthetics
.
New York
:
NYU Press
,
2002
.
Owen
,
N. Courtney
. “
Pictorial Advertising
.”
Photo-Era
54
(
1925
):
76
78
.
Padiha
,
Roger
, and
Padiha
Mauricio
.
Stephen Sprouse
.
New York
:
Rizzoli
,
2009
.
Peiss
,
Kathy
. “
‘Charity Girls’ and City Pleasures: Historical Notes on Working-Class Sexuality, 1880–1920
.” In
Passion and Power: Sexuality in History
, edited by
Peiss
Kathy
et al
,
57
70
.
Philadelphia, PA
:
Temple University Press
,
1987
.
Peiss
,
Kathy
.
Cheap Amusements: Working Women and Leisure in Turn-of-the-Century New York
.
Philadelphia, PA
:
Temple University Press
,
1986
.
Peiss
,
Kathy
.
Hope in a Jar: The Making of America’s Beauty Culture
.
New York
:
Henry Holdt
,
1998
.
Peiss
,
Kathy
. “
Making Faces: The Cosmetics Industry and the Cultural Construction of Gender
.”
Genders
7
(
1990
):
143
69
.
Pellegrini
,
Ann
. “
Consuming Lifestyle: Commodity Capitalism and Transformations in Gay Identity
.” In
Cruz-Malave
Arnaldo
and
Manalansan
Martin F.
IV
, editors,
Queer Globalizations: Citizenship and the Afterlife of Colonialism
New York
:
New York University Press
,
2002
:
134
48
.
Pepper
,
Terence
.
Horst Portraits: Paris, London, New York
.
London
:
National Portrait Gallery
,
2001
.
Peterson
,
Christian A.
American Arts and Crafts: The Photograph Beautiful, 1895–1915
.”
History of Photography
16
, no.
3
(
1992
):
189
232
.
Phillips
,
Kimberly L.
Alabama North: African-American Migrants, Community, and Working-Class Activism in Cleveland, 1915–1945
.
Urbana
:
University of Illinois Press
,
1999
.
Pieterse
,
Jan Nederveen
.
White on Black: Images of Africa and Blacks in Western Popular Culture
.
New Haven, CT
:
Yale University Press
,
1992
.
Pitzulo
,
Carrie
.
Bachelors and Bunnies: The Sexual Politics of Playboy
.
Chicago, IL
:
University of Chicago Press
,
2011
.
Pohorilenko
,
Anatole
. “
The Expatriate Years, 1926–1934
.” In
When We Were Three: The Travel Albums of George Platt Lynes, Monroe Wheeler, and Glenway Wescott, 1925–1935
.
Santa Fe, NM
:
Arena Editions
,
1998
.
Pohorilenko
,
Anatole
.
The Photographer George Platt Lynes: Known and Unknown
.
New York
:
John Stevenson Gallery
,
2004
.
Poiret
,
Paul
.
King of Fashion: The Autobiography of Paul Poiret
. Translated by
Guest
Stephen Haden
.
Philadelphia, PA
:
J. B. Lippincott
,
1931
.
Powell
,
Richard
.
Cutting a Figure: Fashioning Black Portraiture
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
,
2008
.
Powers
,
John Robert
.
The Power Girls: The Story of Models and Modeling and the Natural Steps by Which Attractive Girls Are Created
.
New York
:
E. P. Dutton
,
1941
.
Preciado
,
Beatriz
.
Pornotopia: An Essay on Playboy’s Architecture and Biopolitics
.
New York
:
Zone Books
,
2014
.
Puar
,
Jasbir K.
Mapping U.S. Homonormativities
.”
Gender, Place and Culture
13
, no.
1
(
2006
):
Puar
,
Jasbir K.
Terrorist Assemblages: Homonationalism in Queer Times
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2007
.
Putney
,
Clifford
.
Muscular Christianity: Manhood and Sports in Protestant America, 1880–1920
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
,
2001
.
Quackenbush
,
Edgar
. “
The Setting That Enhances the Product
.”
Commercial Photographer
2
, no.
7
(
1927
):
300
304
.
Quant
,
Mary
.
Quant by Quant
.
London
:
Victoria and Albert Publishing
,
2012
.
Quick
,
Harriet
.
Catwalking: A History of the Fashion Model
.
London
:
Hamlyn
,
1997
.
Raymond
,
Janice
.
The Transsexual Empire: The Making of the She-Male
.
Boston, MA
:
Beacon Press
,
1979
.
Reichert
,
Tom
.
The Erotic History of Advertising
.
Amherst, MA
:
Prometheus Books
,
2003
.
Rich
,
Adrienne
.
Of Woman Born
.
New York
:
W. W. Norton
,
1976
.
Roach
,
Joseph
.
It
.
Ann Arbor
:
University of Michigan Press
,
2007
.
Roberts
,
Russell
. “
Taxonomy: Some Notes towards the Histories of Photography and Classification
.” In
Invisible Light: Photography and Classification in Art, Science, and the Everyday
, edited by
Iles
Chrissie
and
Roberts
Russell
,
9
52
.
Oxford
:
Museum of Modern Art
,
1998
.
Rooks
,
Noliwe M.
Hair Raising: Beauty, Culture, and African American Women
.
New Brunswick, NJ
:
Rutgers University Press
,
1996
.
Roosevelt
,
Theodore
.
The Strenuous Life: Essays and Addresses
.
New York
:
Century
,
1901
.
Rosco
,
Jerry
.
Glenway Wescott Personally: A Biography
.
Madison
:
University of Wisconsin Press
,
2002
.
Rose
,
Joseph
et al
.
Glamour: Fashion and Industrial Design and Architecture
.
New Haven, CT
:
Yale University Press
,
2004
.
Rosen
,
Ruth
.
The Lost Sisterhood: Prostitution in America, 1900–1918
.
Baltimore, MD
:
Johns Hopkins University Press
,
1982
.
Rosen
,
Ruth
.
The World Split Open: How the Modern Women’s Movement Changed America
.
New York
:
Penguin
,
2000
.
Ross
,
Kip
.
The Theory and Practice of Photography: Illustrative Advertising Photography
.
New York
:
New York Institute of Photography/Universal Photographers, ca
.
1930s
.
Ross
,
Stephen J.
Working-Class Hollywood: Silent Cinema and the Shaping of Class in America
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
,
1998
.
Roth
,
Paul
. “
Family Tree: Richard Avedon, Politics, and Power, 1969–1976
.” In
Richard Avedon: Portraits of Power
,
241
76
.
London
:
Thames and Hudson
,
2008
.
Roth
,
Paul
.
Preface to Richard Avedon: Portraits of Power
.
London
:
Thames and Hudson
,
2008
.
Rotskoff
,
Lori
, and
Lovett
Laura L.
.
When We Were Free to Be: Looking Back at a Children’s Classic and the Difference It Made
.
Chapel Hill
:
University of North Carolina Press
,
2012
.
Rotundo
,
E. Anthony
.
American Manhood: Transformations in Masculinity from the Revolution to the Modern Era
.
New York
:
Basic Books
,
1993
.
Rowlands
,
Penelope
.
A Dash of Darling: Carmel Snow and Her Life in Fashion, Art, and Letters
.
New York
:
Atria Books
,
2006
.
Ruffins
,
Fath Davis
. “
Reflecting on Ethnic Imagery in the Landscape of Commerce
.” In
Getting and Spending: European and American Consumer Societies in the Twentieth Century
, edited by
Strasser
Susan
,
McGovern
Charles
, and
Judt
Matthias
,
379
406
.
Washington, DC
:
German Historical Institute
,
1998
.
Said
,
Edward
.
Orientalism
.
New York
:
Pantheon Books
,
1979
.
Sampson
,
Henry T.
Blacks in Blackface: A Sourcebook on Early Black Musical Shows
.
Metuchen, NJ
:
The Scarecrow Press
,
1980
.
Sayers
,
William
. “
The Etymology of Queer
.”
American Notes and Queries
18
, no.
2
(
2005
):
15
18
.
Scanlon
,
Jennifer
.
Bad Girls Go Everywhere: The Life of Helen Gurley Brown
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
,
2009
.
Scanlon
,
Jennifer
.
Inarticulate Longings: The Ladies’ Home Journal, Gender, and the Promises of Consumer Culture
.
New York
:
Routledge
,
1995
.
Schwartz
,
Vanessa
.
It’s So French: Hollywood, Paris, and the Making of Cosmopolitan Film Culture
.
Chicago, IL
:
University of Chicago Press
,
2007
.
Schweitzer
,
Marlis
. “
Accessible Feelings, Modern Looks: Irene Castle, Ira L. Hill, and Broadway’s Affective Economy
.” In
Feeling Photography
, edited by
Brown
Elspeth H.
and
Phu
Thy
,
223
55
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2014
.
Schweitzer
,
Marlis
.
When Broadway Was the Runway: Theatre, Fashion, and American Culture
.
Philadelphia
:
University of Pennsylvania Press
,
2009
.
Scott
,
Walter Dill
.
Theory of Advertising
.
1903
.
New York
:
Garland
,
1985
.
Seebohm
,
Caroline
.
The Man Who Was Vogue
.
New York
:
Viking Press
,
1982
.
Sender
,
Katherine
.
Business, Not Politics: The Making of the Gay Market
.
New York
:
Columbia University Press
,
2004
.
Serlin
,
David
.
Replaceable You: Engineering the Body in Postwar America
.
Chicago, IL
:
University of Chicago Press
,
2004
.
Sheridan
,
Jayne
.
Fashion, Media, Promotion: The New Black Magic
.
Chichester, UK
:
Wiley
,
2013
.
Sides
,
Josh
.
Erotic City: Sexual Revolutions and the Making of Modern San Francisco
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
,
2009
.
Simmel
,
Georg
. “
Fashion
.” In
Individuality and Social Forms
, edited by
Levine
D.
.
London
:
University of Chicago Press
,
1941
.
Smith
,
Jessie Carney
, and
Phelps
Shirelle
.
Notable Black American Women
. Vol.
2
.
Detroit, MI
:
Gale Research
,
1992
2003
.
Smith
,
Shawn Michelle
.
Photography on the Color Line: W. E. B. Du Bois, Race, and Visual Culture
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2004
.
Smith
,
Shawn Michelle
.
At the Edge of Sight
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2013
.
Sones
,
Melissa
. “
The Secret to Inner Beauty
.”
American Legacy
9
, no.
3
(
2003
):
20
32
.
Sontag
,
Susan
. “
Notes on Camp
.” In
Against Interpretation
,
275
92
.
New York
:
Farrar, Straus and Giroux
,
1961
.
Sotiropoulos
,
Karen
.
Staging Race: Black Performers in Turn-of-the-Century America
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
,
2006
.
Souhami
,
Diana
.
Greta and Cecil
.
New York
:
Phoenix Press
,
2001
.
Spring
,
Justin
.
The Secret Historian: The Life and Times of Samuel Steward, Tattoo Artist, Professor, and Sexual Renegade
.
New York
:
Farrar, Straus and Giroux
,
2010
.
Spencer
,
Frank
. “
Some Notes on the Attempt to Apply Photography to Anthropometry during the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century
.” In
Anthropology and Photography, 1860–1920
, edited by
Edwards
Elizabeth
,
99
107
.
New Haven, CT
:
Yale University Press
,
1992
.
Squiers
,
Carol
. “
‘Let’s Call It Fashion’: Richard Avedon at Harper’s Bazaar
.” In
Avedon Fashion, 1944–2000
, edited by
Squiers
Carol
,
Aletti
Vince
et al
,
156
99
.
New York
:
Abrams
,
2009
.
Stafford
,
Sidney F.
Toni Frissell: Photographs, 1933–1967
.
New York
:
Doubleday in association with the Library of Congress
,
1994
.
Stapely
,
Gordon
, and
Sharpe
Leonard
.
Photography in the Modern Advertisement
.
London
:
Chapman and Hall
,
1937
.
Stapp
,
William F.
Penn as Portraitist
.” In
Irving Penn Master Images: The Collections of the National Museum of American Art and the National Portrait Gallery
, edited by
Foresta
Merry A.
and
Stapp
William F.
,
85
91
.
Washington D.C.
:
Smithsonian
,
1994
.
Steele
,
Edgar A.
Some Aspects of the Negro Market
.”
Journal of Marketing
11
, no.
4
(
1947
):
399
401
.
Steele
,
Valerie
, ed.
A Queer History of Fashion: From the Closet to the Catwalk
.
New Haven, CT
:
Yale University Press
2013
.
Stein
,
Marc
.
City of Sisterly and Brotherly Loves: Lesbian and Gay Philadelphia, 1945–1972
.
Chicago, IL
:
University of Chicago Press
,
2000
.
Stevens
,
Norma
, and
Aronson
Stephen M.L.
Avedon: Something Personal
.
New York
:
Spigel & Grau
,
2017
.
Steward
,
Samuel
.
Bad Boys and Tough Tattoos: A Social History of the Tattoo with Gangs, Sailors, and Street-Corner Punks 1950–1965
.
Routledge
,
1990
.
Stewart
,
Kathleen
.
Ordinary Affects
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2007
.
Stewart
,
Wert
. “
And the Ship Sank—in a Bath Tub!
Commercial Photographer
5
, no.
4
(
1930
):
190
93
.
Stine
,
Whitney
.
50 Years of Photographing Hollywood: The Hurrell Style
.
New York
:
Greenwich House, distributed by Crown Publishers
,
1983
.
Stoker
,
Bram
.
Dracula
.
New York
:
Grosset and Dunlap
,
1897
.
Stokes
,
Melvyn
.
D. W. Griffith’s “The Birth of a Nation”: A History of “The Most Controversial Motion Picture of All Time
.”
New York
:
Oxford University Press
,
2007
.
Stone
,
Sandy
. “
The Empire Strikes Back: A Posttranssexual Manifesto
.” In
The Transgender Studies Reader
, edited by
Stryker
Susan
and
Whittle
Stephen
,
221
35
.
New York
:
Routledge
,
2006
.
Stovall
,
Tyler
.
Paris Noir: African Americans in the City of Light
.
Boston, MA
:
Houghton Mifflin
,
1996
.
Strand
,
Paul
. “
Photography and the New God
.”
1917
. In
Classic Essays on Photography
, edited by
Trachtenberg
Alan
,
144
51
.
New Haven, CT
:
Leetes Island Books
,
1980
.
Strasser
,
Susan
.
Satisfaction Guaranteed: The Making of the American Mass Market
.
New York
:
Pantheon
,
1989
.
Strub
,
Whitney
.
Perversion for Profit: The Politics of Pornography and the Rise of the New Right
.
New York
:
Columbia University Press
,
2011
.
Stryker
,
Susan
.
Transgender History
.
Berkeley, CA
:
Seal Press
,
2008
.
Stryker
,
Susan
. “
Transgender Studies: Queer Theory’s Evil Twin
.”
GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies
10
, no.
2
(
2004
):
212
15
.
Students for a Democratic Society (US)
.
The Port Huron Statement
.
1962
.
Chicago, IL
:
C. H. Kerr
,
1990
.
Studlar
,
Gaylyn
. “
The Perils of Plea sure? Fan Magazine Discourse as Women’s Com-modified Culture in the 1920s
.” In
Silent Film
, edited by
Abel
Richard
,
263
98
.
New Brunswick, NJ
:
Rutgers University Press
,
1996
.
Sugrue
,
Thomas
. “
Model Jobs
.”
American Magazine
,
April
1937
,
80
.
Sullivan
,
David J.
The American Negro—an ‘Export Market’ at Home!
Printer’s Ink
208
(
1944
):
46
50
.
Sullivan
,
David J.
Don’t Do This— If You Want to Sell Your Product to Negroes!
Sales Management
52
(
1943
):
46
50
.
Sullivan
,
David J.
The Negro Market Today and Postwar
.”
Journal of Marketing
10
, no.
1
(
1945
):
68
69
.
Sullivan
,
David J.
Why a Handful of Advertisers Dominate the Negro Markets
.”
Sales Management
65
(
September
1950
):
154
60
.
Summers
,
Barbara
.
Black and Beautiful: How Women of Color Changed the Fashion Industry
.
New York
:
Amistad Press
,
2001
.
Summers
,
Barbara
.
Skin Deep: The Story of Black Models in America and Abroad
.
New York
:
Amistad
,
1998
.
Summers
,
Martin
.
Manliness and Its Discontents: The Black Middle Class and the Transformation of Masculinity, 1900–1930
.
Chapel Hill
:
University of North Carolina Press
,
2004
.
Szarkowski
,
John
.
Irving Penn
.
New York
:
Museum of Modern Art
,
1984
.
Terry
,
Jennifer
.
An American Obsession: Science, Medicine, and Homosexuality in Modern Society
.
Chicago, IL
:
University of Chicago Press
,
1999
.
Terry
,
Jennifer
and
Urda
Jacqueline
.
Deviant Bodies
.
Bloomington
:
Indiana University Press
,
1995
.
Thom
,
Mary
.
Inside Ms: 25 Years of the Magazine and the Feminist Movement
.
New York
:
Harry Holt
,
1997
.
Thompson
,
Lisa
.
Beyond the Black Lady: Sexuality and the New African American Middle Class
.
Urbana-Champaign
:
University of Illinois Press
,
2012
.
Thompson
,
William R.
Sex, Lies, and Photographs: Letters from George Platt Lynes
.”
Master’s thesis
,
Rice University
,
1996
.
Thrift
,
Nigel
. “
Understanding the Material Practices of Glamour
.” In
The Affect Theory Reader
, edited by
Gregg
Melissa
and
Seigworth
Gregory J.
,
289
308
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2010
.
Tiemeyer
,
Phil
.
Plane Queer: Labor, Sexuality, and aids in the History of Male Flight Attendants
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
2013
.
Tinkom
,
Matthew
.
Working Like a Homosexual: Camp, Capital, and Cinema
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2002
.
Todd
,
Mabel Elsworth
. “
Principles of Posture
.”
1920
. In
Early Writings, 1920–1934
,
45
49
.
New York
:
Dance Horizons
,
1977
.
Toll
,
Robert
.
Blacking Up: The Minstrel Show in Nineteenth-Century America
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
,
1974
.
Torgovnick
,
Marianna
.
Gone Primitive: Savage Intellects, Modern Lives
.
Chicago, IL
:
University of Chicago Press
,
1990
.
Troy
,
Nancy J.
Couture Culture: A Study in Modern Art and Fashion
.
Cambridge, MA
:
MIT Press
,
2003
.
Turner
,
Mark W.
Backward Glances: Cruising the Queer Streets of New York and London
.
London
:
Reaktion Books
,
2003
.
Ullman
,
Sharon R.
Sex Seen: The Emergence of Modern Sexuality in America
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
1997
.
Valentine
,
David
.
Imagining Transgender: An Ethnography of a Category
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2007
.
van den Oever
,
Roel
.
Mama’s Boy: Momism and Homophobia in Postwar American Culture
.
London
:
Palgrave MacMillan
,
2012
.
Vantoch
,
Victoria
.
The Jet Sex: Airline Stewardesses and the Making of an American Icon
.
Philadelphia
:
University of Pennsylvania Press
,
2013
.
Vettel-Becker
,
Patricia
.
Shooting from the Hip: Photography, Masculinity, and Postwar America
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
,
2005
.
Vickers
,
Hugh
.
Cecil Beaton: The Authorized Biography
.
London
:
Weidenfeld & Nicolson
,
1983
.
Vickers
,
Hugh
.
Loving Garbo: The Story of Greta Garbo, Cecil Beaton, and Mercedes de Acosta
.
London
:
J. Cape
,
1994
.
Vickers
,
Hugh
.
The Unexpurgated Beaton: The Cecil Beaton Diaries as He Wrote Them
.
New York
:
Alfred A. Knopf
,
2003
.
Vidor
,
Charles
, dir.
Cover Girl
.
Los Angeles, CA
:
Columbia Pictures
,
1944
.
Vogel
,
Shane
.
The Scene of Harlem Cabaret: Race, Sexuality, Performance
.
Chicago, IL
:
University of Chicago Press
,
2009
.
Walker
,
Susannah
.
Style and Status: Selling Beauty to African American Women, 1920–1975
.
Louisville
:
University Press of Kentucky
,
2007
.
Walkowitz
,
Judith
. “
The ‘Vision of Salome’: Cosmopolitanism and Erotic Dancing in Central London, 1908–1918
.”
American Historical Review
108
, no.
2
(
2003
):
337
76
.
Waller
,
Susan
.
The Invention of the Model: Artists and Models in Paris, 1830–1870
.
London
:
Ashgate
,
2006
.
Warner
,
Michael
. Ed.
Fear of a Queer Planet: Queer Politics and Social Theory
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
,
1993
.
Warner
,
Michael
. “
Publics and Counter Publics
.”
Public Culture
14
, no.
1
(
2002
):
49
90
.
Warner
,
Michael
.
Publics and Counter Publics
.
New York
:
Zone Books
,
2002
.
Watkins
,
Julian L.
The 100 Greatest Advertisements
.
New York
:
Dover
,
1959
.
Watts
,
Steven
.
Mr. Playboy: Hugh Hefner and the American Dream
.
New York
:
Wiley
,
2009
.
Weeks
,
Jeffrey
.
Coming Out: Homosexual Politics in Britain
.
London
:
Quartet Books
,
1977
.
Weems
,
Robert E.
, Jr.
Desegregating the Dollar: African American Consumerism in the Twentieth Century
.
New York
:
New York University Press
,
1998
.
Weinstein
,
Hal
. “
How an Agency Builds a Brand: The Virginia Slims Story
.”
Papers from the aaaa Region Conventions of 1969
. Last accessed June 21, 2018. .
West
,
Nancy Martha
.
Kodak and the Lens of Nostalgia
.
Charlottesville
:
University Press of Virginia
,
2000
.
Weston
,
Kath
.
Families We Choose: Lesbians, Gays, and Kinship
.
New York
:
Columbia University Press
,
1991
.
White
,
Deborah Gray
.
Ar’n’t I a Woman? Female Slaves in the Plantation South
.
New York
:
Norton
,
1995
.
White
,
Deborah Gray
.
Too Heavy a Load: Black Women in Defense of Themselves, 1894–1994
.
New York
:
Norton
,
1999
.
White
,
Shane
, and
White
Graham
.
Stylin’: African American Expressive Culture from Its Beginnings to the Zoot Suit
.
Ithaca, NY
:
Cornell University Press
,
1998
.
Whiting
,
Cécile
. “
Decorating with Stettheimer and the Boys
.”
American Art
14
, no.
1
(
2000
):
25
49
.
Williams
,
Brooke
. “
The Retreat to Cultural Feminism
.” In
Feminist Revolution
,
65
68
.
New Paltz, NY
:
Redstockings
,
1975
.
Williams
,
Raymond L.
The Long Revolution
.
Westport, CT
:
Greenwood Press
,
1961
.
Willis-Tropea
,
Liz
. “
Hollywood Glamour: Sex, Power, and Photography, 1925–1939
.”
PhD diss.
,
University of California, Los Angeles
,
2008
.
Wilson
,
Elizabeth
. “
A Note on Glamour
.”
Fashion Theory
11
, no.
1
(
2007
):
95
108
.
Windham
,
Donald
. “
Which Urges and Reasonably So the Attraction of Some for Others
,”
Yale Review
86
, no.
4
(
Oct
1998
):
18
31
.
Wissinger
,
Elizabeth
. “
Always on Display: Affective Production in the Modeling Industry
.” In
The Affective Turn: Theorizing the Social
, edited by
Clough
Patricia
and
Halley
Jean
,
231
60
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2007
.
Wissinger
,
Elizabeth
. “
Modelling a Way of Life: Immaterial and Affective Labour in the Fashion Modeling Industry
.”
Ephemera
7
, no.
1
(
2007
):
250
69
.
Wissinger
,
Elizabeth
.
This Year’s Model: Fashion, Media, and the Making of Glamour
.
New York
:
New York University Press
,
2015
.
Witherington
,
K.
How Advertising Photographs Are Made
.”
Commercial Photographer
5
, no.
10
(
1930
):
510
15
.
Wolcott
,
Victoria
.
Remaking Respectability: African American Women in Interwar Detroit
.
Chapel Hill
:
University of North Carolina Press
,
2001
.
Wolf
,
Bryan
. “
Confessions of a Closet Ekphrastic: Literature, Painting and Other Unnatural Relations
.”
Yale Journal of Criticism
3
(
1990
):
181
203
.
Woll
,
Allen
.
Black Musical Theatre: From Coontown to Dreamgirls
.
Baton Rouge
:
Louisiana State University Press
,
1989
.
Woll
,
Allen
.
Dictionary of Black Theatre
.
Westport, CT
:
Greenwood Press
,
1983
.
Wormald
,
Charles
. “
Has Your Model the Right Expression?
Commercial Photographer
8
, no.
7
(
1933
):
201
2
.
Wormald
,
Charles
. “
Making Photographs That Have Advertising Appeal
.”
Commercial Photographer
1
, no.
11
(
1926
):
389
92
.
Yano
,
Christine R.
Airborne Dreams: Nisei Stewardesses and Pan American World Airways
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2011
.
Yochelson
,
Bonnie
. “
Clarence White: Peaceful Warrior
.” In
Pictorialism into Modernism
, edited by
Fulton
Marianne
,
111
14
.
New York
:
Rizzoli
,
1996
.
Yosifon
,
David
, and
Stearns
Peter N.
. “
The Rise and Fall of American Posture
.”
American Historical Review
103
, no.
4
(
1998
):
1057
95
.
Young
,
Cynthia A.
Soul Power: Culture, Radicalism, and the Making of a U.S. Third World Left
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2006
.
Young
,
Ralph
. “
Human-Interest Illustrations
.”
American Photography
22
, no.
1
(
1928
):
6
10
.
Yuan
,
Jada
. “
Tracey Africa Norman Is Back as the Face of Clairol
.”
New York Magazine
.
August
15
,
2016
. .
Yuan
,
Jada
, and
Ada
Wong
, “
The First Black Trans Model Had Her Face on a Box of Clairol
.”
New York Magazine
,
December
14
,
2015
. .
Zill
,
Jo Ahern
. “
Black Beauty
.”
Look
33
(
January
7
,
1969
):
70
75
.

Figures & Tables

Contents

Advertisement

References

Bibliography

Bibliography
Abel
,
Charles
. “
Making the Thing Desirable
.”
Commercial Photographer
2
, no.
3
(
1926
):
106
9
.
Ahmed
,
Sara
. “
Affective Economies
.”
Social Text
22
, no.
2
(
2004
):
117
39
.
Ahmed
,
Sara
.
The Cultural Politics of Emotion
.
London
:
Routledge
,
2004
.
Albrecht
,
Donald
.
Cecil Beaton: The New York Years
.
New York
:
Skira Rizzoli
,
2011
.
Alexis
,
Marcus
. “
Pathways to the Negro Market
.”
Journal of Negro Education
28
, no.
2
(
1959
):
114
27
.
Anzaldúa
,
Gloria E.
To(o) Queer the Writer: Loca, Escritoria, y Chicana
.” In
Living Chicana Theory
, edited by
Trujilla
Carla
,
263
76
.
Berkeley, CA
:
Third Woman Press
,
1998
.
Auerbach
,
Nina
.
Our Vampires, Ourselves
.
Chicago, IL
:
University of Chicago Press
,
2012
.
Avedon
,
Richard
, and
Baldwin
James
.
Nothing Personal
.
New York
:
Dell Publishing
,
1964
.
Bailey
,
David
, with
Sherwood
James
.
David Bailey: Models Close Up
.
London
:
Channel Four Books
,
1998
.
Bailey
,
Peter
. “
Parasexuality and Glamour: The Victorian Barmaid as Cultural Prototype
.”
Gender and History
2
, no.
2
(
June
1990
):
148
72
.
Bailie
,
Helen T.
Blood Ties: The Vampire Lover in the Popular Romance
.”
Journal of American Culture
34
, no.
2
(
2011
):
141
48
.
Bain
,
Donald
.
The Control of Candy Jones
.
New York
:
Harper Collins
,
1967
.
Baldwin
,
Davarian
.
Chicago’s New Negroes: Modernity, the Great Migration, and Black Urban Life
.
Chapel Hill
:
University of North Carolina Press
,
2007
.
Baral
,
Robert
.
Revue: A Nostalgic Reprise of the Great Broadway Period
.
New York
:
Fleet Publishing
,
1962
.
Barry
,
Kathleen
.
Femininity in Flight: A History of Flight Attendants
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2007
.
Bear
,
Jordan
.
Disillusioned: Victorian Photography and the Discerning Subject
.
Philadelphia
:
Penn State University Press
,
2015
.
Beaton
,
Cecil
.
The Glass of Fashion
.
New York
:
Doubleday
,
1954
.
Beaton
,
Cecil
.
Photobiography
.
London
:
Odhams Press
,
1951
.
Beaton
,
Cecil
.
The Wandering Years: Diaries, 1922–1939
.
London
:
Weidenfeld and Nicolson
,
1961
.
Beaton
,
Cecil
, and
Buckland
Gail
.
The Magic Image: The Genius of Photography
.
London
:
Pavilion Books
,
1975
.
Bederman
,
Gail
.
Manliness and Civilization: A Cultural History of Gender and Race in the United States, 1880–1917
.
Chicago, IL
:
University of Chicago Press
,
1995
.
Bender
,
Marylin
. “
Black Models Find They Have Friends in the White World
.”
New York Times
December
18
,
1968
,
40
.
Bengry
,
Justin
. “
Courting the Pink Pound: Men Only and the Queer Consumer, 1935–1939
.”
History Workshop Journal
68
(
2009
):
122
48
.
Benson
,
Susan Porter
.
Counter Cultures: Saleswomen, Managers, and Customers in American Department Stores, 1890–1940
.
Urbana
:
University of Illinois Press
,
1986
.
Bergman
,
David
.
Camp Grounds: Style and Homosexuality
.
Amherst
:
University of Massachusetts Press
,
1993
.
Berry
,
Sarah
.
Screen Style: Fashion and Femininity in 1930s Hollywood
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
,
2000
.
Bérubé
,
Allan
.
Coming Out Under Fire: The History of Gay Men and Women in World War Two
.
New York
:
Free Press
,
1990
.
Bettel-Vecker
,
Patricia
.
Shooting from the Hip: Photography, Masculinity, and Postwar America
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
,
2005
.
Binkley
,
Sam
.
Getting Loose: Lifestyle Consumption in the 1970s
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2007
.
Black
,
Gregory D.
The Catholic Crusade against the Movies, 1940–1975
.
New York
:
Cambridge University Press
,
1998
.
Blair
,
Sara
.
Harlem Crossroads: Black Writers and the Photograph in the Twentieth Century
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
,
2007
.
Blaszczyk
,
Regina Lee
.
Imagining Consumers: Design and Innovation from Wedgwood to Corning
.
Baltimore, MD
:
Johns Hopkins University Press
,
2000
.
Bochner
,
Jay
.
An American Lens: Scenes from Alfred Stieglitz’s New York Secession
.
Boston, MA
:
MIT Press
,
1995
.
Bogart
,
Michele
.
Artists, Advertising, and the Borders of Art, 1890–1960
.
Chicago, IL
:
University of Chicago
,
1995
.
Bogle
,
Donald
.
Toms, Coons, Mulattoes, Mammies, and Bucks; an Interpretive History of Blacks in American Films
.
New York
:
Viking Press
,
1973
.
Bokris
,
Victor
.
Warhol
.
London
:
Penguin
,
1989
.
Bosworth
,
Howard
, dir.
The Substitute Model
.
Los Angeles, CA
:
Selig Polyscope
,
1912
.
Bourdieu
,
Pierre
. “
Cultural Goodwill
.” In
Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgment of Taste
,
318
71
.
London
:
Routledge
,
1984
.
Boyd
,
Nan A.
Wide Open Town: A History of Queer San Francisco to 1965
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
2005
.
Brandow
,
Todd
, and
Ewing
William
.
Edward Steichen: In High Fashion: The Condé Nast Years, 1923–1937
.
New York
:
Norton
,
2008
.
Braun
,
Marta
. “
Chronophotography: Leaving Traces
.” In
Moving Pictures: American Art and Early Film, 1890–1910
, edited by
Mathews
Nancy Mowll
with
Musser
Charles
,
95
99
.
Williamstown, MA
:
Williams College
,
2005
.
Braun
,
Marta
. “
Muybridge le Magnifique
.”
Études Photographiques
10
(
November
2002
):
34
50
.
Bronstein
,
Carolyn
.
Battling Pornography: The American Feminist Anti-Pornography Movement, 1976–1986
.
New York
:
Cambridge University Press
,
2011
.
Brown
,
Elspeth H.
Black Models and the Invention of the U.S. ‘Negro Market,’ 1945–1960
.” In
Inside Marketing
, edited by
Zwick
Detlev
and
Cayla
Julien
,
185
211
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
,
2011
.
Brown
,
Elspeth H.
The Corporate Eye: Photography and the Rationalization of American Commercial Culture, 1884–1929
.
Baltimore, MD
:
Johns Hopkins University Press
,
2005
.
Brown
,
Elspeth H.
From Artist’s Model to the ‘Natural Girl’: Containing Sexuality in Early Twentieth-Century Modelling
.” In
Fashion Models: Modeling as Image, Text, and Industry
, edited by
Entwistle
Joanne
and
Wissinger
Elizabeth
,
37
55
.
London
:
Berg
,
2012
.
Brown
,
Elspeth H.
Rationalizing Consumption: Photography and Commercial Illustration, 1913–1919
.”
Enterprise and Society
1
, no.
4
(
2000
):
715
38
.
Brown
,
Elspeth H.
Racializing the Virile Body: Eadweard Muybridge’s Locomotion Studies, 1883–1887
.”
Gender and History
17
, no.
3
(
2005
):
1
30
.
Brown
,
Elspeth H.
De Meyer at Vogue: Commercializing Queer Affect in First World War-era Fashion Photography
.”
Photography and Culture
2
no.
3
(
2009
):
253
73
.
Brown
,
Elspeth H.
, and
Phu
Thy
. “
Introduction
.” In
Feeling Photography
, edited by
Brown
Elspeth
and
Phu
Thy
,
1
28
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2014
.
Brown
,
Jayna
.
Babylon Girls: Black Women Performers and the Shaping of the Modern
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2008
.
Butler
,
Judith
.
Gender Trouble
.
New York
:
Routledge
,
1990
.
Butler
,
Judith
. “
Imitation and Gender Insubordination
.” In
The Gay and Lesbian Studies Reader
, edited by
Abelove
Henry
et al
,
307
20
.
New York
:
Routledge
,
1993
.
Butler
,
Judith
. “
Is Kinship Always Heterosexual?
differences
15
, no.
1
(
2002
):
14
44
.
Buszek
,
Maria Elena
.
Pin-up Grrrls: Feminism, Sexuality, Popular Culture
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2006
.
Butt
,
Gavin
.
Between You and Me: Queer Disclosures in the New York Art World
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2005
.
Button
,
Janine
. “
Vogue Timelines
.”
Fashion Theory
10
, no.
1/2
(
2006
):
279
88
.
Canaday
,
Margot
.
The Straight State: Sexuality and Citizenship in Twentieth-Century America
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
,
2009
.
Carby
,
Hazel V.
Policing the Black Woman’s Body in the Urban Context
.”
Critical Inquiry
18
, no.
4
(
1992
):
738
55
.
Carter
,
Julian
. “
Of Mother Love: History, Queer Theory, and Nonlesbian Identity
.”
Journal of the History of Sexuality
14
, nos.
1–2
(
2005
):
107
38
.
Carter
,
Julian
.
The Heart of Whiteness: Normal Sexuality and Race in America, 1880–1940
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2007
.
Carter
,
Shawn Grain
. “
Naomi Sims: America’s First Black Cover Model
.”
Master’s thesis
,
Fashion Institute of Technology
,
2009
.
Chambers
,
Jason
.
Madison Avenue and the Color Line: African Americans in the Advertising Industry
.
Philadelphia
:
University of Pennsylvania Press
,
2008
.
Chapman
,
Erin D.
Prove It on Me: New Negroes, Sex, and Popular Culture in the 1920s
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
,
2012
.
Charles
,
David
. “
The Future of Photography in America
.”
Commercial Photographer
4
, no.
6
(
1929
):
282
84
.
Chase
,
Edna
.
Always in Vogue
.
London
:
Victor Gollancz
,
1954
.
Chasin
,
Alexandra
.
Selling Out: The Gay and Lesbian Movement Goes to Market
.
New York
:
Palgrave
,
2000
.
Chauncey
,
George
.
Gay New York: Gender, Urban Culture, and the Making of the Gay Male World, 1890–1940
.
New York
:
Basic Books
,
1994
.
Chauncey
,
George
. “
The Policed: Gay Men’s Strategies of Everyday Resistance in Times Square
.” In
Creating a Place for Ourselves: Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Community Histories
, edited by
Breemyn
Brett
,
9
25
.
New York
:
Routledge
,
1997
.
Cheddie
,
Janice
. “
The Politics of the First: The Emergence of the Black Model in the Civil Rights Era
.”
Fashion Theory
6
, no.
1
(
2002
):
61
82
.
Cheng
,
Anne
.
Second Skin: Josephine Baker and the Modern Surface
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
,
2011
.
Clement
,
Elizabeth A.
Love for Sale: Courting, Treating, and Prostitution in New York City, 1900–1945
.
Chapel Hill
:
University of North Carolina Press
,
2006
.
Cleto
,
Fabio
. “
Introduction: Queering the Camp
.” In
Camp: Queer Aesthetics and the Performing Subject: A Reader
, edited by
Cleto
Fabio
,
1
43
.
Edinburgh, UK
:
Edinburgh University Press
,
1999
.
Clough
,
Patricia T.
, and
Halley
Jean
.
Affective Turn: Theorizing the Social
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press Books
,
2007
.
Coffey-Webb
,
Louise
, and
Rosenbaum
Sandra L.
, “
James Galanos
.”
Dress
32
, no.
1
(
2005
):
66
74
.
Cogdell
,
Christina
.
Eugenic Design: Streamlining America in the 1930s
.
Philadelphia
:
University of Pennsylvania Press
,
2004
.
Cohen
,
Barbara Naomi
. “
The Dance Direction of Ned Wayburn
.”
PhD diss.
,
New York University
,
1980
.
Cohen
,
Cathy J.
Punks, Bulldaggers, and Welfare Queens: The Radical Potential of Queer Politics?
GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies
3
(
1997
):
437
65
.
Cohen
,
Lisa
.
All We Know: Three Lives
.
New York
:
Farrar, Straus and Giroux
,
2012
.
Cohen
,
Lizabeth
.
A Consumers’ Republic: The Politics of Mass Consumption in Postwar America
.
New York
:
Vintage
,
2004
.
Colette
. “
Mannequins
.”
1925
.
Vogue
,
May
1960
,
158
,
230
.
Comaroff
,
John L.
, and
Comaroff
Jean
.
Ethnicity Inc
.
Chicago, IL
:
University of Chicago Press
,
2007
.
Conover
,
Carole
.
Cover Girls: The Story of Harry Conover
.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ
:
Prentice Hall
,
1978
.
Courbold
,
Clare
.
Becoming African Americans: Black Public Life in Harlem, 1919–1939
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
,
2009
.
Couvares
,
Francis G.
, ed.
Movie Censorship and American Culture
.
Amherst
:
University of Massachusetts Press
,
2006
.
Craig
,
Maxine Leeds
.
Ain’t I a Beauty Queen? Black Women, Beauty, and the Politics of Race
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
,
2002
.
Craik
,
Jennifer
.
The Face of Fashion
.
London
:
Routledge
,
1994
.
Creadick
,
Anna G.
Perfectly Average: The Pursuit of Normality in Postwar America
.
Amherst
:
University of Massachusetts Press
,
2010
.
Crimp
,
Douglas
.
“Our Kind of Movie”: The Films of Andy Warhol
.
Cambridge, MA
:
MIT Press
,
2012
.
Crump
,
James
. “
The American Years, 1933–1943
.” In
When We Were Three: The Travel Albums of George Platt Lynes, Monroe Wheeler, and Glenway Wescott, 1925–1935
.
Santa Fe, NM
:
Arena Editions
,
1998
.
Crump
,
James
. “
Iconography of Desire: George Platt Lynes and Gay Male Visual Culture in Postwar New York
.” In
George Platt Lynes: Photographs from the Kinsey Institute
,
149
-
56
.
Boston, MA
:
Little, Brown
,
1993
.
Crump
,
James
. “
Photography as Agency: George Platt Lynes and the Avant-Garde
.” In
George Platt Lynes: Photographs from the Kinsey Institute
,
137
48
.
Boston, MA
:
Little, Brown
1993
.
Cvetkovich
,
Ann
.
An Archive of Feelings: Trauma, Sexuality, and Lesbian Public Cultures
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2003
.
Cvetkovich
,
Ann
. “
Public Feelings
.”
South Atlantic Quarterly
106
, no.
3
(
2007
):
459
68
.
Daly
,
Mary
.
Gyn/Ecology: The Metaethics of Radical Feminism
.
Boston, MA
:
Beacon Press
,
1978
.
Danae
,
Clark
. “
Commodity Lesbianism
.”
Camera Obscura: A Journal of Feminism, Culture, and Media Studies
25–26
, no.
25
(
1991
):
186
201
.
Dance
,
Robert
, and
Robertson
Bruce
.
Ruth Harriet Louise and Hollywood Glamour Photography
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
2002
.
Dates
,
Janette L.
Advertising
.” In
Split Image: African Americans in the Mass Media
, edited by
Dates
Janette L.
and
Barlow
William
,
421
54
.
Washington, DC
:
Howard University Press
,
1990
.
Davilo
,
Arlene
.
Latinos, Inc: The Marketing of a People
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
2001
.
Dawkins
,
Heather
.
The Nude in French Art and Culture, 1870–1910
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Cambridge University Press
,
2002
.
de la Peña
,
Carolyn Thomas
.
The Body Electric: How Strange Machines Built the Modern American
.
New York
:
NYU Press
,
2003
.
de Marly
,
Diana
.
The History of Haute Couture, 1850–1950
.
London
:
B. T. Batsford
,
1980
.
D’Emilio
,
John
. “
Capitalism and Gay Identity
.” In
Powers of Desire: The Politics of Sexuality
, edited by
Snitow
Ann
,
Stansell
Christine
, and
Thompson
Sharon
,
100
113
.
Boston, MA
:
Monthly Review Press
,
1983
.
D’Emilio
,
John
.
Sexual Politics, Sexual Community: The Making of a Homosexual Minority in the United States, 1940–1970
.
Chicago, IL
:
University of Chicago Press
,
1983
.
D’Emilio
,
John
, and
Freedman
Estelle B.
.
Intimate Matters: A History of Sexuality in America
. 3rd ed.
Chicago, IL
:
University of Chicago Press
,
2012
.
D’Emilio
,
John
, and
Freedman
Estelle B.
. “
Introduction
.” In
Coming Out Under Fire
, by
Bérubé
Allan
,
vii
xiv
.
Chapel Hill
:
University of North Carolina Press
,
2010
.
Densmore
,
Dana
. “
On the Temptation to Be a Beautiful Object
.” In
Female Liberation: History and Current Politics
, edited by
Salpert
Roberta
.
203
207
.
New York
:
Knopf
,
1972
.
Dijkstra
,
Bram
.
Evil Sisters: The Threat of Female Sexuality in Twentieth-Century Culture
.
New York
:
Henry Holt
,
1998
.
Dinerstein
,
Joel
.
Swinging the Machine: Modernity, Technology, and African American Culture between the World Wars
.
Amherst
:
University of Massachusetts Press
,
2003
.
Do Fashion Ads Need Tricks? No, Just Love
.”
Printers’ Ink
,
March
23
,
1962
,
48
.
Dolan
,
Jill
. “
Performance, Utopia, and the Utopian Performative
.”
Theatre Journal
53
(
2001
):
455
79
.
Doty
,
Robert
.
Photo-Secession: Stieglitz and the Fine-Art Movement in Photography
.
New York
:
Dover
,
1978
.
Douglas
,
Ann
.
Terrible Honesty: Mongrel Manhattan in the 1920s
.
New York
:
Farrar, Straus and Giroux
,
1995
.
Doyle
,
Jennifer
,
Flatley
Jonathan
, and
Muñoz
José Esteban
,
Pop Out: Queer Warhol
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
1996
.
Dramatic Photography in Advertising
.”
Commercial Photographer
5
, no.
12
(
1930
):
623
27
.
Duberman
,
Martin
.
The Worlds of Lincoln Kirstein
.
New York
:
Knopf
,
2007
.
Du Bois
,
W. E. B.
The Souls of Black Folk
.
1903
. Edited with an introduction by
Blight
David W.
and
Gooding-Williams
Robert
.
New York
:
Bedford/St. Martin’s
,
1997
.
Duff Gordon
,
Lady (“Lucile”)
.
Discretions and Indiscretions
.
New York
:
Frederick A. Stokes
,
1932
.
Duggan
,
Lisa
. “
The New Homonormativity: The Sexual Politics of Neoliberalism
.” In
Materializing Democracy: Toward a Revitalized Cultural Politics
, edited by
Castronovo
Russ
and
Nelson
Dana D.
,
188
207
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2002
.
Duggan
,
Lisa
.
The Twilight of Equality: Neoliberalism, Cultural Politics, and the Attack on Democracy
.
Boston, MA
:
Beacon Press
,
2004
.
du Maurier
,
George
.
Trilby
.
1894
.
Hertfordshire, UK
:
Wordsworth Editions
,
1995
.
Earle
,
Susan
. “
Harlem, Modernism, and Beyond: Aaron Douglas and His Role in Art/History
.” In
Aaron Douglas: African American Modernist
, edited by
Earle
Susan
,
5
52
.
New Haven, CT
:
Yale University Press
,
2008
.
Ebony and Jet Magazines Present the Urban Negro Market for Liquors, Wines, and Beers
.
Study no. 1
.
New York
:
Johnson Publishing
,
1953
.
Ebony and Jet Magazines Present the Urban Negro Market for Liquors, Wines, and Beers
.
Study no. 2
.
New York
:
Johnson Publishing
,
1954
.
Echols
,
Alice
.
Daring to Be Bad: Radical Feminism in America, 1967–1975
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
,
1987
.
Editorial
.”
Commercial Photographer
5
, no.
4
(
1930
):
190
91
.
Edwards
,
Elizabeth
. “
Ordering Others: Photography, Anthropologies, and Taxonomies
.” In
Invisible Light: Photography and Classification in Art, Science, and the Everyday
, edited by
Iles
Chrissie
and
Roberts
Russell
,
54
68
.
Oxford
:
Museum of Modern Art
,
1998
.
Edwards
,
Elizabeth
. “
Photographic Types: The Pursuit of Visual Method
.”
Visual Anthropology
3
(
1990
):
235
58
.
Edwards
,
Elizabeth
.
Raw Histories: Photographs, Anthropology, and Museums
.
London
:
Berg
,
2001
.
Edwards
,
Paul K.
The Southern Urban Negro as Consumer
.
1932
.
New York
:
Prentice Hall
,
1981
.
Ehrenreich
,
Barbara
.
The Hearts of Men
.
New York
:
Penguin
,
1987
.
El-Tayeb
,
Fatima
. “
‘Gays Who Cannot Properly Be Gay’: Queer Muslims in the Neoliberal European City
.”
European Journal of Women’s Studies
19
no.
1
(
2012
):
79
95
.
Enstad
,
Nan
.
Ladies of Love, Girls of Adventure Working Women, Popular Culture, and Labor Politics at the Turn of the Twentieth Century
.
New York
:
Columbia
,
1999
.
Enke
,
Finn
.
Finding the Movement: Sexuality, Contested Space, and Feminist Activism
.
Durham
:
Duke University Press
,
2007
.
Entwistle
,
Joanne
, and
Slater
Don
. “
Models as Brands: Critical Thinking about Bodies and Images
.” In
Fashioning Models: Image, Text, and Industry
, edited by
Entwistle
Joanne
and
Wissinger
Elizabeth
,
15
36
.
London
:
Berg
,
2012
.
Etherington-Smith
,
Meredith
, and
Pilcher
Jeremy
.
The “It” Girls: Lucy, Lady Duff Gordon, the Couturière“Lucile,” and Elinor Glyn, Romantic Novelist
.
London
:
H. Hamilton
,
1986
.
Evans
,
Caroline
. “
The Enchanted Spectacle
.”
Fashion Theory
5
, no.
3
(
2001
):
271
310
.
Evans
,
Caroline
. “
Jean Patou’s American Mannequins: Early Fashion Shows and Modernism
.”
Modernism/Modernity
15
, no.
2
(
2008
):
243
63
.
Evans
,
Caroline
.
The Mechanical Smile: Modernism and the First Fashion Shows in France and America, 1900–1929
.
New Haven, CT
:
Yale University Press
,
2013
.
Evans
,
Caroline
. “
Multiple, Movement, Model, Mode: The Mannequin Parade, 1900–1929
.” In
Fashion and Modernity
, edited by
Brewer
Christopher
and
Evans
Caroline
,
125
46
.
London
:
Berg
,
2005
.
Evans
,
Sara
.
Born for Liberty: A History of Women in America
.
New York
:
Free Press
,
1989
.
Ewing
,
William A.
The Photographic Art of Hoyningen-Huene
.
London
:
Thames and Hudson
,
1986
.
Ewing
,
William A.
, and
Brandow
Todd
.
Edward Steichen in High Fashion: The Condé Nast Years, 1923–1937
.
New York
:
W. W. Norton
,
2008
.
Farley
,
Lillian
. “
Alias Dinarzade: A Chronicle of the ’20s
.”
Unpublished manuscript
. Last modified
1980
.
Fields
,
Jill
.
An Intimate Affair: Women, Lingerie, and Sexuality
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
2007
.
Finn
,
Michelle R.
A Modern Necessity: Feminism, Popular Culture, and American Womanhood, 1920–1948
.”
PhD diss.
,
University of Rochester
,
2012
.
Firestone
,
Shulamith
.
The Dialectic of Sex: The Case for Feminist Revolution
.
New York
:
William Morrow
,
1970
.
First Negro Model Agency Opened in New York
.”
Printers’ Ink
,
August
9
,
1946
.
Flatley
,
Jonathan
. “
Warhol Gives Good Face: Publicity and the Politics of Prosopopoeia
.” In
Pop Out: Queer Warhol
, edited by
Doyle
Jennifer
,
Flatley
Jonathan
, and
Munoz
José Esteban
,
101
33
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
1996
.
Ford
,
Tanisha C.
Liberated Threads: Black Women, Style, and the Global Politics of Soul
.
Chapel Hill
:
University of North Carolina Press
,
2012
.
Ford
,
Charles Henri
, and
Tyler
Parker
.
The Young and the Evil
.
Paris
:
Obelisk Press
,
1933
.
Foresta
,
Merry A.
Irving Penn: The Passion of Certainties
.” In
Irving Penn: Master Images: The Collections of the National Museum of American Art and the National Portrait Gallery
, edited by
Foresta
Merry A.
and
Stapp
William F.
,
1
13
.
Washington D.C.
:
Smithsonian
,
1994
.
Foucault
,
Michel
.
The History of Sexuality. Vol. 1, An Introduction
. Translated by
Hurley
Robert
.
New York
:
Pantheon Books
,
1990 [1978]
.
Foucault
,
Michel
.
Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison
. Translated by
Sheridan
Alan
.
New York
:
Pantheon Books
,
1977
.
Fourteen Million Negro Consumers
.”
Management Review
36
(
June
1947
):
338
.
Fox
,
S.
The Mirror Makers: A History of American Advertising and Its Creators
.
New York
:
William Morrow
,
1984
.
Frank
,
Miriam
.
Out in the Union: A Labor History of Queer America
.
Philadelphia, PA
:
Temple University Press
,
2014
.
Fraser
,
Nancy
. “
Feminism’s Two Legacies: A Tale of Ambivalence
.”
South Atlantic Quarterly
114
, no.
4
(
2015
):
699
712
.
Fraterrigo
,
Elizabeth
.
Playboy and the Making of the Good Life in Modern America
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
,
2009
.
Frazier
,
E. Franklin
.
Black Bourgeoisie
.
New York
:
Free Press
,
1957
.
Frederickson
,
George M.
The Black Image in the White Mind: The Debate on Afro-American Character and Destiny, 1817–1914
.
New York
:
Harper and Row
,
1971
.
Friedman
,
Andrea
. “
The Smearing of Joe McCarthy: The Lavender Scare, Gossip, and Cold War Politics
.”
American Quarterly
57
, no.
4
(
2005
):
1105
29
.
Gabriel
,
Davina Anne
. “
Interview with the Transsexual Vampire: Sandy Stone’s Dark Gift
.”
TransSisters: The Journal of Transsexual Feminism
8
(
1993
):
15
27
.
Gamber
,
Wendy
.
The Female Economy: The Millinery and Dressmaking Trades, 1860–1930
.
Urbana
:
University of Illinois Press
,
1997
.
Garner
,
Philippe
. “
An Instinct for Style
.” In
Cecil Beaton
, edited by
Garner
Philippe
and
Mellor
David Allan
,
67
68
.
New York
:
Stewart, Tabori, and Chang
,
1994
.
Garner
,
Philippe
, and
Mellor
David Alan
, eds.
Cecil Beaton
.
New York
:
Stewart, Tabori, and Chang
,
1994
.
Garvey
,
Ellen Gruber
The Adman in the Parlor: Magazines and the Gendering of Consumer Culture, 1880s–1910
.
New York
:
Oxford
,
1996
.
Gerherdt
,
Jane
.
Desiring Revolution: Second-Wave Feminism and the Rewriting of American Sexual Thought, 1920–1982
.
New York
:
Columbia University Press
,
2011
.
Gilfoyle
,
Timothy J.
City of Eros: New York City, Prostitution, and the Commercialization of Sex, 1790–1920
.
New York
:
W. W. Norton
,
1994
.
Gill
,
Tiffany M.
Beauty Shop Politics: African American Women’s Activism in the Beauty Industry
.
Chicago
:
University of Illinois Press
,
2010
.
Gill
,
Tiffany M.
‘The First Thing Every Negro Girl Does’: Black Beauty Culture, Racial Politics, and the Construction of Modern Black Womanhood, 1905–1925
.” In
Cultures of Commerce: Representation and American Business Culture, 1877–1960
, edited by
Brown
Elspeth H.
,
Gudis
Catherine
, and
Moskowitz
Marina
,
143
70
.
New York
:
Palgrave Macmillan
,
2006
.
Givhan
,
Robin
.
The Battle of Versailles
.
New York
:
Flatiron Books
,
2015
.
Georgen
,
Eleanor
.
The Delsarte System of Physical Culture
.
New York
:
Butterick
,
1893
.
Gilbert
,
James
.
Men in the Middle: Searching for Masculinity in the 1950s
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
,
2005
.
Glenn
,
Susan A.
Female Spectacle: The Theatrical Roots of Modern Feminism
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
,
2000
.
Goeser
,
Caroline
.
Picturing the New Negro: Harlem Renaissance Print Culture and Modern Black Identity
.
Lawrence
:
University of Kansas Press
,
2007
.
Goldberg
,
Vicki
, and
Richardson
Nan
.
Louise Dahl-Wolfe
.
New York
:
Harry N. Abrams
,
2000
.
Gordon
,
Carma R.
Educating the Eye: Body Mechanics and Streamlining in the United States, 1925–1950
.”
American Quarterly
58
, no.
3
(
2006
):
839
68
.
Gorn
,
Eliot
. “
Re-Membering John Dillinger
” In
The Cultural Turn in US History
, edited by
Cook
Jay
,
Glickman
Lawrence
, and
O’Malley
Michael
,
153
85
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
,
2008
.
Green
,
Adam
.
Selling the Race: Culture, Community, and Black Chicago, 1940–1955
.
Chicago, IL
:
University of Chicago Press
,
2007
.
Green
,
David
. “
Classified Subjects
.”
Ten/8 Photographic Journal
no.
14
(
1984
):
30
37
.
Green
,
Harvey
.
Fit for America: Fitness, Sport, and American Society
.
New York
:
Pantheon Books
,
1986
.
Green
,
Nancy L.
Ready-to-Wear and Ready-to-Work: A Century of Industry and Immigrants in Paris and New York
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
1997
.
Greer
,
Brenna
. “
Image Matters: Black Representation Politics and Civil Rights Work in the Mid-Twentieth Century United States
.”
PhD diss.
,
University of Wisconsin–Madison
2011
.
Greer
,
Brenna
.
Represented: The Black Imagemakers Who Reimagined African American Citizenship
.
University of Pennsylvania Press
,
2019
.
Griffin
,
Susan
.
Pornography and Silence
.
New York
:
Harper and Row
,
1981
.
Griffin
,
Susan
.
Woman and Nature: The Roaring inside Her
.
New York
:
Harper Colophon
,
1980
.
Gross
,
Michael
.
Model: The Ugly Business of Beautiful Women
.
1995
; repr.,
New York
:
Harper’s Perennial
,
2003
.
Grossman
,
James R.
Land of Hope: Chicago, Black Southerners, and the Great Migration
.
Chicago, IL
:
University of Chicago Press
,
1989
.
Guadagnolo
,
Dan
. “
Segmenting America: Consumption and Niche Marketing in the Postwar United States
.”
PhD diss
.,
University of Wisconsin–Madison
,
forthcoming
.
Gundle
,
Stephen
. “
Hollywood Glamour and Mass Consumption in Post-War Italy
.”
Journal of Cold War Studies
4
, no.
3
(
2002
):
95
118
.
Gundle
,
Stephen
, and
Castelli
Clino T.
.
The Glamour System
.
London
:
Palgrave Macmillan
,
2006
.
Guterl
,
Matthew
.
Mother of the World: Josephine Baker and the Rainbow Tribe
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
,
2014
.
Haas
,
Steven
, ed.
George Platt Lynes: The Male Nudes
.
New York
:
Rizzoli
,
2011
.
Haidarali
,
Laila
. “
Polishing Brown Diamonds: African American Women, Popular Magazines, and the Advent of Modeling in Early Postwar America
.”
Journal of Women’s History
17
, no.
1
(
2005
):
10
37
.
Haidarali
,
Laila
. “
The Vampingest Vamp Is a Brownskin”: Colour, Sex, Beauty and African American Womanhood, 1920–1954
.”
PhD diss.
,
York University
,
2007
.
Halberstam
,
Judith
.
In a Queer Time and Place: Transgender Bodies, Subcultural Lives
.
New York
:
New York University Press
,
2005
.
Halberstam
,
Jack
.
The Queer Art of Failure
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2011
.
Hale
,
Grace Elizabeth
.
A Nation of Outsiders: How the White Middle Class Fell in Love with Rebellion in Post-War America
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
,
2010
.
Hale
,
Grace Elizabeth
. “
The Romance of Rebellion
.” In
The Port Huron Statement: Sources and Legacies of the New Left’s Manifesto
, edited by
Flacks
Richard
and
Lichtenstein
Nelson
,
65
80
.
Philadelphia
:
University of Pennsylvania Press
,
2015
.
Hall
,
Stuart
. “
Encoding/Decoding
.” In
The Cultural Studies Reader
, edited by
During
Simon
,
90
103
.
New York
:
Routledge
,
1993
.
Hall-Duncan
,
Nancy
.
The History of Fashion Photography
.
New York
:
International Museum of Photography/Alpine Book Company
,
1979
.
Halperin
,
David M.
How to Be Gay
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
,
2012
.
Halter
,
Marilyn
.
Shopping for Identity: The Marketing of Ethnicity
.
New York
:
Schocken Books
,
2000
.
Haraway
,
Donna
. “
A Manifesto for Cyborgs: Science, Technology, and Socialist Feminism in the 1980s
.”
Socialist Review
15
, no.
2
(
1985
):
65
107
.
Hardt
,
Michael
. “
Affective Labor
.”
boundary 2
26
, no.
2
(
1999
):
89
100
.
Harker
,
Margaret F.
Linked Ring
.
London
:
William Heinemann
,
1979
.
Harris
,
Muriel
. “
The Rising Star of the Paris Mannequin
.”
New York Times
,
July
23
,
1923
,
50
.
Haselstein
,
Ulla
,
Gross
Andrew
, and
Snyder-Körber
Maryann
.
The Pathos of Authenticity: American Passions of the Real
.
Heidelberg, Germany
:
Universitatsverlag Winter
,
2010
.
Haskins
,
Jim
.
The Cotton Club
.
New York
:
Random House
,
1977
.
Heap
,
Chad
.
Slumming: Sexual and Racial Encounters in American Nightlife, 1885–1940
.
Chicago, IL
:
University of Chicago Press
,
2009
.
Henle
,
James
. “
Realism in Advertising to Women
.”
Printer’s Ink
5
, no.
2
(
1922
):
33
34
.
Hennessey
,
Rosemary
.
Profit and Pleasure: Sexual Identities in Late Capitalism
.
New York
:
Routledge
,
2000
.
Hesford
,
Victoria
.
Feeling Women’s Liberation
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2013
.
Higginbotham
,
Evelyn Brooks
.
Righteous Discontent: The Women’s Movement in the Black Baptist Church
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
,
1993
.
Hilderbrand
,
Lucas
.
Paris Is Burning: A Queer Film Classic
.
Vancouver, BC
:
Arsenal Pulp Press
,
2013
.
Hite
,
Shere
.
The Hite Report: A Nationwide Study of Female Sexuality
.
New York
:
Macmillan
,
1976
.
Hite
,
Shere
.
The Hite Report on Shere Hite: Daughter in Exile
.
London
:
Arcadia
,
1999
.
Hoby
,
Hermione
. “
How Tracey Norman, America’s First Black Trans Model, Returned to the Limelight
.”
Guardian
,
August
21
,
2016
. .
Hochschild
,
Arlie R.
The Managed Heart: Commercialization of Human Feeling
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
1983
.
Hoffman
,
Katherine
. “
Baron Adolph de Meyer
.” In
Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography
, edited by
Hannavy
John
,
395
96
. Vol.
1
,
A-I, index
.
New York
:
Routledge
,
2007
.
Hoganson
,
Kristin L.
Consumers’ Imperium: The Global Production of American Domesticity, 1865–1920
.
Chapel Hill
:
University of North Carolina Press
,
2007
.
Hoganson
,
Kristin L.
Cosmopolitan Domesticity: Importing the American Dream, 1865–1920
.”
American Historical Review
107
, no.
1
(
2002
):
55
83
.
Homer
,
William Innes
.
Alfred Stieglitz and the Photo-Secession
.
Boston, MA
:
Little Brown
,
1983
.
Honnef
,
Klaus
,
Kaufhold
Enno
,
Avedon
Richard
, and
Gundlach
F. C.
.
Martin Munkácsi
.
London
:
Thames & Hudson
,
2006
.
hooks
,
bell
. “
In Our Glory: Photography and Black Life
.” In
Picturing Us: African American Identity in Photography
, edited by
Willis
Deborah
,
54
64
.
New York
:
New Press
,
1994
.
Horowitz
,
Daniel
.
The Anxieties of Affluence
.
Amherst
:
University of Massachusetts Press
,
2005
.
Huggins
,
Nathan
.
Harlem Renaissance
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
,
1971
.
Igo
,
Sarah E.
The Averaged American: Surveys, Citizens, and the Making of a Mass Public
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
,
2007
.
Integrated Ads
.”
Commonweal
78
(
May
24
,
1963
):
236
.
Isserman
,
Maurice
.
If I Had a Hammer…The Death of the Old Left and the Birth of the New Left
.
New York
:
Basic Books
,
1987
.
Jacobson
,
Matthew Frye
Barbarian Virtues: The United States Encounters Foreign Peoples at Home and Abroad, 1876–1917
.
New York
:
Hill and Wang
,
2000
.
Jacobson
,
Matthew Frye
.
Roots Too: White Ethnic Revival in Post-Civil Rights America
.
Boston, MA
:
Harvard University Press
,
2009
.
Jacobson
,
Matthew Frye
.
Whiteness of a Different Color: European Immigrants and the Alchemy of Race
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
,
1998
.
Jameson
,
Fredric
. “
Reification and Utopia in Mass Culture
.”
Social Text
1
(
1979
):
130
48
.
Johnson
,
David K.
The Lavender Scare: The Cold War Persecution of Gays and Lesbians in the Federal Government
.
Chicago, IL
:
University of Chicago Press
,
2004
.
Johnson
,
David K.
Physique Pioneers: The Politics of 1960s Gay Consumer Culture
.”
Journal of Social History
43
, no.
4
(
2010
):
867
92
.
Johnson
,
James Weldon
.
Black Manhattan
.
New York
:
Knopf
,
1930
.
Johnson
,
John H.
Does Your Sales Force Know How to Sell the Negro Trade? Some Dos and Don’ts
.”
Advertising Age
23
(
March
17
,
1952
):
73
74
.
Johnson
,
John H.
, with
Bennett
Lerone
, Jr.
Succeeding Against the Odds
.
New York
:
Amistad
,
1989
.
Johnson
,
Joseph T.
The Potential Negro Market
.
New York
:
Pageant Press
,
1952
.
Johnston
,
Patricia
.
Real Fantasies: Edward Steichen’s Advertising Photography
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
1997
.
Jones
,
Lois Liberty
, and
Jones
John Henry
.
All about the Natural
.
New York
:
Clairol
,
1971
.
Julian
,
Philippe
. “
De Meyer
.” In
De Meyer
, edited by
Brandau
Robert
,
10
46
.
New York
:
Knopf
,
1976
.
Kaiser
,
Charles
.
The Gay Metropolis, 1940–1996
.
New York
:
Harcourt Brace
,
1997
.
Kaplan
,
Joel L.
, and
Stowell
Sheila
.
Theatre and Fashion: Oscar Wilde to the Suffragettes
.
London
:
Cambridge University Press
,
1994
.
Kasson
,
John
.
Houdini, Tarzan, and the Perfect Man: The White Male Body and the Challenge of Modernity in America
.
New York
:
Hill and Wang
,
2002
.
Kazin
,
Michael
.
American Dreamers: How the Left Change a Nation
.
New York
:
Vintage
,
2012
.
Keenan
,
Brigid
.
The Women We Wanted to Look Like
.
London
:
Macmillan
,
1977
.
Kelley
,
Robin D. G.
Nap Time: Historicizing the Afro
.”
Fashion Theory
1
, no.
4
,
1997
:
339
52
.
Kennedy
,
Elizabeth Lapovsky
, and
Davis
Madeline
.
Boots of Leather, Slippers of Gold: The History of a Lesbian Community
.
New York
:
Routledge
,
1993
.
Kern-Foxworth
,
Marilyn
.
Aunt Jemima, Uncle Ben, and Rastus: Blacks in Advertising Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow
.
Westport, CT
:
Greenwood Press
,
1994
.
Kibler
,
M. Alison
.
Rank Ladies: Gender and Cultural Hierarchy in American Vaudeville
.
Chapel Hill
:
University of North Carolina Press
,
1999
.
Kinloch
,
Valerie Felita
. “
Beauty, Femininity, and Black Bodies: Challenging the Paradigms of Race in the Miss America Pageant
.” In
“There She Is, Miss America”: The Politics of Sex, Beauty, and Race in America’s Most Famous Pageant
, edited by
Watson
Elwood
and
Martin
Darcy
,
93
109
.
New York
:
Palgrave Macmillan
,
2004
.
Kitch
,
Carolyn L.
The Girl on the Magazine Cover: The Origins of Visual Stereotypes in American Mass Media
.
Chapel Hill
:
University of North Carolina Press
,
2001
.
Knowles
,
Eleanor N.
The Snappiest Girls in Town
.”
Collier’s
,
August
7
,
1926
,
8
,
41
.
Kobal
,
John
.
The Art of the Great Hollywood Portrait Photographers
.
London
:
Allan Lane
,
1980
.
Koda
,
Harold
, and
Yohannan
Kohle
.
Model as Muse: Embodying Fashion
.
New York
:
Metropolitan Museum of Art
,
2009
.
Koestenbaum
,
Wayne
.
Andy Warhol: A Biography
.
Open Road Media
,
2015
.
Lacey
,
Robert
.
Model Woman: Eileen Ford and the Business of Beauty
.
New York
:
Harper Collins
,
2015
.
Lamprey
,
J.
On a Method of Measuring Human Form for Students of Ethnology
.”
Journal of the Ethnological Society
,
1869
, N.S.
1
,
84
85
.
Larned
,
W. Livingston
. “
The Drama of the Human Face
.”
Commercial Photographer
8
, no.
1
(
1932
):
8
12
.
Lawford
,
Valentine
.
Horst: His Work and His World
.
New York
:
Knopf
,
1984
.
Leach
,
William
.
Land of Desire: Merchants, Power, and the Rise of a New American Culture
.
New York
:
Pantheon
,
1993
.
Lears
,
T. J. Jackson
.
Fables of Abundance: A Cultural History of Advertising in America
.
New York
:
Basic Books
,
1994
.
Leddick
,
David
.
Intimate Companions: A Triography of George Platt Lynes, Paul Cadmus, Lincoln Kirstein, and Their Circle
.
New York
:
St. Martin’s Press
,
2000
.
Leff
,
Leonard J.
The Dame in the Kimono: Hollywood, Censorship, and the Production Code
.
Lexington
:
University Press of Kentucky
,
2001
.
Leigh
,
Dorian
, with
Hobe
Laura
.
The Girl Who Had Everything: The Story of the “Fire and Ice Girl
.”
Garden City, NY
:
Doubleday
,
1980
.
Lemke
,
Sieglinde
.
Primitivist Modernism: Black Culture and the Origins of Transatlantic Modernism
.
London
:
Oxford University Press
,
1998
.
Lewis
,
David Levering
.
When Harlem Was in Vogue
.
New York
:
Vintage
,
1981
.
Leys
,
Ruth
. “
The Turn to Affect: A Critique
.”
Critical Inquiry
37
(
2011
):
434
72
.
Lhamon
,
W. T.
, Jr.
Raisin’ Cain: Blackface Performance from Jim Crow to Hip Hop
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
,
1998
.
Liaut
,
Jean Noel
.
Cover Girls and Super Models, 1945–1965
. Translated by
Buss
Robin
.
London
:
Marion Boyars
,
1996
.
Lichtenstein
,
Nelson
.
Retail Revolution: How Wal-Mart Remade American Business, Transformed the Global Economy, and Put Politics in Every Store
.
New York
:
Metropolitan Books
,
2009
.
Livingston
,
Jennie
, dir.
Paris Is Burning
.
Los Angeles, CA
:
Miramax
,
1991
.
Locke
,
Alain
. “
The New Negro
.” In
The New Negro: Voices of the Harlem Renaissance
,
3
17
.
New York
:
Simon and Schuster
,
1992
.
Loftin
,
Craig M.
Masked Voices: Gay Men and Lesbians in Cold War America
.
Albany
:
State University of New York Press
,
2012
.
Lott
,
Eric
.
Love and Theft: Blackface Minstrelsy and the American Working Class
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
,
1993
.
Love
,
Heather
.
Feeling Backward: Loss and the Politics of Queer History
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
,
2007
.
Lyons
,
Harriet
, and
Rosenblatt
Rebecca W.
. “
Body Hair, the Last Frontier
.” In
The First Ms. Reader
, edited by
Klagsbrun
Francine
,
145
49
.
New York
:
Warner
,
1973
.
MacDonald
,
J. Fred
.
Blacks and White TV: Afro-Americans in Television since 1948
.
Chicago, IL
:
Nelson-Hall Publishers
,
1983
.
MacKall
,
Lawton
. “
Merchandising with a Camera
.”
Commercial Photographer
5
, no.
5
(
1930
):
246
50
.
Mahaffey
,
Perry L.
Helping the Advertising, Publicity, and Sales Promotion Departments by Photography
.”
Commercial Photographer
5
, no.
9
(
1930
):
458
66
.
Manalansan
,
Martin
, IV
. “
In the Shadows of Stonewall: Examining Gay Transnational Politics and the Diasporic Dilemma
.”
GLQ: Gay and Lesbian Quarterly
2
(
1995
):
425
38
.
Manring
,
M. M.
Slave in a Box: The Strange Career of Aunt Jemima
.
Charlottesville
:
University Press of Virginia
,
1998
.
Marchand
,
Roland
.
Advertising the American Dream: Making Way for Modernity, 1920–1940
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
1985
.
Martin
,
Earle
. “
Photography in Advertising
.”
The American Annual of Photography
44
(
1930
),
190
91
.
Massumi
,
Brian
. “
Autonomy of Affect
.”
Cultural Critique
31
(
1995
):
83
109
.
Massumi
,
Brian
.
Parables of the Virtual: Movement, Affect, Sensation
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2002
.
Matelski
,
Elizabeth
. “
(Big) and Black Is Beautiful: Body Image and Expanded Beauty Ideals in the African-American Community, 1945–1968
.”
Essays in History
(
2012
):
3
20
.
Matthis
,
Irene
. “
Sketch for a Metapsychology of Affect
.”
International Journal of Psychoanalysis
81
(
2000
):
215
27
.
May
,
Elaine Tyler
.
Homeward Bound: American Families in the Cold War Era
.
New York
:
Basic Books
,
1988
.
McAndrew
,
Malia
. “
Selling Black Beauty: African American Modeling Agencies and Charm Schools in Postwar America
.”
OAH Magazine of History
,
January
2010
,
28
32
.
McElya
,
Micki
.
Clinging to Mammy: The Faithful Slave in Twentieth-Century America
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
,
2007
.
McEntee
,
Ann Marie
. “
Feathers, Finials, and Frou-Frou: Florenz Ziegfeld’s Exoticized Follies Girls
.” In
Art, Glitter, and Glitz: Mainstream Playwrights and Popular Theatre in 1920s America
, edited by
Gewirtz
Arthur
and
Kolb
James L.
,
177
88
.
Westport, CT
:
Praeger
,
2004
.
McGovern
,
Charles F.
Sold American: Consumption and Citizenship, 1890–1945
.
Chapel Hill, NC
:
University of North Carolina Press
,
2006
.
McGuire
,
Danielle L.
At the Dark End of the Street: Black Women, Rape, and Resistance: A New History of the Civil Rights Movement from Rosa Parks to the Rise of Black Power
.
New York
:
Alred A. Knopf
,
2010
.
McLeod
,
Norman Z.
, dir.
The Powers Girls
.
Los Angeles, CA
:
General Service Studios
,
1943
.
Mears
,
Ashley
.
Pricing Beauty: The Making of a Fashion Model
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
2011
.
Meikle
,
Jeffrey L.
American Plastic: A Cultural History
.
New Brunswick, NJ
:
Rutgers University Press
,
1995
.
Mellor
,
David Alan
. “
Beaton’s Beauties
.” In
Cecil Beaton
, edited by
Garner
Philippe
and
Mellor
David Alan
,
12
24
.
New York
:
Stewart, Tabori, and Chang
.
Mendes
,
Valerie D.
, and
de la Haye
Amy
.
Lucile, Ltd.: London, Paris, New York, and Chicago, 1890s–1930s
.
London
:
V&A Publishing
,
2009
.
Mercer
,
Kobena
. “
Black Hair/Style Politics
.” In
Out There: Marginalization and Contemporary Cultures
, edited by
Ferguson
Russell
,
Gever
Martha
,
Minhha
Trinh T.
, and
West
Cornel
,
247
64
.
New York
:
New Museum of Contemporary Art
/
Cambridge, MA
:
MIT Press
,
1990
.
Meyerowitz
,
Joanne J.
How Sex Changed: A History of Transsexuality in the United States
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
,
2004
.
Meyerowitz
,
Joanne
, ed.
Not June Cleaver: Women and Gender in Postwar America
.
Philadelphia, PA
:
Temple University Press
,
1994
.
Meyerowitz
,
Joanne J.
Women Adrift: Independent Wage Earners in Chicago, 1880–1930
.
Chicago, IL
:
University of Chicago Press
,
1991
.
Miller
,
Monica L.
Slaves to Fashion: Black Dandyism and the Styling of Black Diasporic Identity
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2009
.
Mizejewski
,
Linda
.
Ziegfeld Girl: Image and Icon in Culture and Cinema
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
1999
.
Mock
,
Janet
.
Redefining Realness: My Path to Womanhood, Identity, Love, and So Much More
.
New York
:
Atria Books
,
2014
.
The Model’s Redemption
.
New York
:
Independent Moving Pictures Co. of America
,
1910
.
Monloss
,
Kristina
. “
Clairol Brings Back the First Black Transgender Fashion Model in Its Lovely New Campaign
.”
Adweek
,
August
16
,
2016
. .
Moreton
,
Bethany
.
To Serve God and Wal-Mart: The Making of Christian Free Enterprise
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
,
2009
.
Morgan
,
Robin
. “
Women Disrupt the Miss America Pageant
.” In
Going Too Far: The Personal Chronicles of a Feminist
,
64
65
.
New York
:
Random House
,
1977
.
Moskowitz
,
Marina
, and
Schweitzer
Marlis
.
Introduction to Testimonial Advertising in the American Marketplace
, edited by
Schweitzer
Marlis
and
Moskowitz
Marina
,
1
22
.
New York
:
Palgrave
,
2009
.
Movie ‘Stills’ Crash Advertising Pages
.”
Commercial Photographer
9
, no.
2
(
1933
):
45
46
.
Mumford
,
Kevin J.
Interzones: Black/White Sex Districts in Chicago and New York in the Early Twentieth Century
.
New York
:
Columbia University Press
,
1997
.
Muñoz
,
José Esteban
. “
Feeling Brown: Ethnicity and Affect in Ricardo Bracho’s The Sweetest Hangover (and Other STDs)
.”
Theatre Journal
52
(
2000
):
67
79
.
Muñoz
,
José Esteban
. “
Ephemera as Evidence: Introductory Notes to Queer Acts
.”
Women and Performace: A Journal of Feminist Theory
8
, Issue
2
(
1996
):
5
16
.
The Negro Market
.”
Tide
26
(
July
1952
):
47
.
The Negro Market: An Appraisal
.”
Tide
21
(
March
1947
):
15
.
Negus
,
Keith
. “
The Work of Cultural Intermediaries and the Enduring Distance between Production and Consumption
.”
Cultural Studies
16
, no.
4
(
2002
):
501
15
.
Newman
,
Kathy M.
The Forgotten Fifteen Million: Black Radio, The ‘Negro Market,’ and the Civil Rights Movement
.”
Radical History Review
76
(
2000
):
115
35
.
Newton
,
Esther
.
Mother Camp: Female Impersonators in America
.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ
:
Prentice-Hall
,
1972
.
Niven
,
Penelope
.
Steichen
.
New York
:
Clarkson Potter
,
1997
.
Ochoa
,
Marcia
.
Queen for a Day: Transformistas, Beauty Queens, and the Performance of Femininity in Venezuela
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2014
.
O’Dwyer
,
Jack
. “
Minority Groups Might Get More Ad Notice
.”
Printers’ Ink
282
, no.
4
(
January
35,
1963
):
10
.
Orvell
,
Miles
.
The Real Thing: Imitation and Authenticity in American Culture, 1880–1940
.
Chapel Hill
:
University of North Carolina Press
,
1990
.
Ott
,
Katherine
,
Serlin
David
and
Mihm
Stephen
.
Artificial Parts, Practical Lives: Modern Histories of Prosthetics
.
New York
:
NYU Press
,
2002
.
Owen
,
N. Courtney
. “
Pictorial Advertising
.”
Photo-Era
54
(
1925
):
76
78
.
Padiha
,
Roger
, and
Padiha
Mauricio
.
Stephen Sprouse
.
New York
:
Rizzoli
,
2009
.
Peiss
,
Kathy
. “
‘Charity Girls’ and City Pleasures: Historical Notes on Working-Class Sexuality, 1880–1920
.” In
Passion and Power: Sexuality in History
, edited by
Peiss
Kathy
et al
,
57
70
.
Philadelphia, PA
:
Temple University Press
,
1987
.
Peiss
,
Kathy
.
Cheap Amusements: Working Women and Leisure in Turn-of-the-Century New York
.
Philadelphia, PA
:
Temple University Press
,
1986
.
Peiss
,
Kathy
.
Hope in a Jar: The Making of America’s Beauty Culture
.
New York
:
Henry Holdt
,
1998
.
Peiss
,
Kathy
. “
Making Faces: The Cosmetics Industry and the Cultural Construction of Gender
.”
Genders
7
(
1990
):
143
69
.
Pellegrini
,
Ann
. “
Consuming Lifestyle: Commodity Capitalism and Transformations in Gay Identity
.” In
Cruz-Malave
Arnaldo
and
Manalansan
Martin F.
IV
, editors,
Queer Globalizations: Citizenship and the Afterlife of Colonialism
New York
:
New York University Press
,
2002
:
134
48
.
Pepper
,
Terence
.
Horst Portraits: Paris, London, New York
.
London
:
National Portrait Gallery
,
2001
.
Peterson
,
Christian A.
American Arts and Crafts: The Photograph Beautiful, 1895–1915
.”
History of Photography
16
, no.
3
(
1992
):
189
232
.
Phillips
,
Kimberly L.
Alabama North: African-American Migrants, Community, and Working-Class Activism in Cleveland, 1915–1945
.
Urbana
:
University of Illinois Press
,
1999
.
Pieterse
,
Jan Nederveen
.
White on Black: Images of Africa and Blacks in Western Popular Culture
.
New Haven, CT
:
Yale University Press
,
1992
.
Pitzulo
,
Carrie
.
Bachelors and Bunnies: The Sexual Politics of Playboy
.
Chicago, IL
:
University of Chicago Press
,
2011
.
Pohorilenko
,
Anatole
. “
The Expatriate Years, 1926–1934
.” In
When We Were Three: The Travel Albums of George Platt Lynes, Monroe Wheeler, and Glenway Wescott, 1925–1935
.
Santa Fe, NM
:
Arena Editions
,
1998
.
Pohorilenko
,
Anatole
.
The Photographer George Platt Lynes: Known and Unknown
.
New York
:
John Stevenson Gallery
,
2004
.
Poiret
,
Paul
.
King of Fashion: The Autobiography of Paul Poiret
. Translated by
Guest
Stephen Haden
.
Philadelphia, PA
:
J. B. Lippincott
,
1931
.
Powell
,
Richard
.
Cutting a Figure: Fashioning Black Portraiture
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
,
2008
.
Powers
,
John Robert
.
The Power Girls: The Story of Models and Modeling and the Natural Steps by Which Attractive Girls Are Created
.
New York
:
E. P. Dutton
,
1941
.
Preciado
,
Beatriz
.
Pornotopia: An Essay on Playboy’s Architecture and Biopolitics
.
New York
:
Zone Books
,
2014
.
Puar
,
Jasbir K.
Mapping U.S. Homonormativities
.”
Gender, Place and Culture
13
, no.
1
(
2006
):
Puar
,
Jasbir K.
Terrorist Assemblages: Homonationalism in Queer Times
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2007
.
Putney
,
Clifford
.
Muscular Christianity: Manhood and Sports in Protestant America, 1880–1920
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
,
2001
.
Quackenbush
,
Edgar
. “
The Setting That Enhances the Product
.”
Commercial Photographer
2
, no.
7
(
1927
):
300
304
.
Quant
,
Mary
.
Quant by Quant
.
London
:
Victoria and Albert Publishing
,
2012
.
Quick
,
Harriet
.
Catwalking: A History of the Fashion Model
.
London
:
Hamlyn
,
1997
.
Raymond
,
Janice
.
The Transsexual Empire: The Making of the She-Male
.
Boston, MA
:
Beacon Press
,
1979
.
Reichert
,
Tom
.
The Erotic History of Advertising
.
Amherst, MA
:
Prometheus Books
,
2003
.
Rich
,
Adrienne
.
Of Woman Born
.
New York
:
W. W. Norton
,
1976
.
Roach
,
Joseph
.
It
.
Ann Arbor
:
University of Michigan Press
,
2007
.
Roberts
,
Russell
. “
Taxonomy: Some Notes towards the Histories of Photography and Classification
.” In
Invisible Light: Photography and Classification in Art, Science, and the Everyday
, edited by
Iles
Chrissie
and
Roberts
Russell
,
9
52
.
Oxford
:
Museum of Modern Art
,
1998
.
Rooks
,
Noliwe M.
Hair Raising: Beauty, Culture, and African American Women
.
New Brunswick, NJ
:
Rutgers University Press
,
1996
.
Roosevelt
,
Theodore
.
The Strenuous Life: Essays and Addresses
.
New York
:
Century
,
1901
.
Rosco
,
Jerry
.
Glenway Wescott Personally: A Biography
.
Madison
:
University of Wisconsin Press
,
2002
.
Rose
,
Joseph
et al
.
Glamour: Fashion and Industrial Design and Architecture
.
New Haven, CT
:
Yale University Press
,
2004
.
Rosen
,
Ruth
.
The Lost Sisterhood: Prostitution in America, 1900–1918
.
Baltimore, MD
:
Johns Hopkins University Press
,
1982
.
Rosen
,
Ruth
.
The World Split Open: How the Modern Women’s Movement Changed America
.
New York
:
Penguin
,
2000
.
Ross
,
Kip
.
The Theory and Practice of Photography: Illustrative Advertising Photography
.
New York
:
New York Institute of Photography/Universal Photographers, ca
.
1930s
.
Ross
,
Stephen J.
Working-Class Hollywood: Silent Cinema and the Shaping of Class in America
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
,
1998
.
Roth
,
Paul
. “
Family Tree: Richard Avedon, Politics, and Power, 1969–1976
.” In
Richard Avedon: Portraits of Power
,
241
76
.
London
:
Thames and Hudson
,
2008
.
Roth
,
Paul
.
Preface to Richard Avedon: Portraits of Power
.
London
:
Thames and Hudson
,
2008
.
Rotskoff
,
Lori
, and
Lovett
Laura L.
.
When We Were Free to Be: Looking Back at a Children’s Classic and the Difference It Made
.
Chapel Hill
:
University of North Carolina Press
,
2012
.
Rotundo
,
E. Anthony
.
American Manhood: Transformations in Masculinity from the Revolution to the Modern Era
.
New York
:
Basic Books
,
1993
.
Rowlands
,
Penelope
.
A Dash of Darling: Carmel Snow and Her Life in Fashion, Art, and Letters
.
New York
:
Atria Books
,
2006
.
Ruffins
,
Fath Davis
. “
Reflecting on Ethnic Imagery in the Landscape of Commerce
.” In
Getting and Spending: European and American Consumer Societies in the Twentieth Century
, edited by
Strasser
Susan
,
McGovern
Charles
, and
Judt
Matthias
,
379
406
.
Washington, DC
:
German Historical Institute
,
1998
.
Said
,
Edward
.
Orientalism
.
New York
:
Pantheon Books
,
1979
.
Sampson
,
Henry T.
Blacks in Blackface: A Sourcebook on Early Black Musical Shows
.
Metuchen, NJ
:
The Scarecrow Press
,
1980
.
Sayers
,
William
. “
The Etymology of Queer
.”
American Notes and Queries
18
, no.
2
(
2005
):
15
18
.
Scanlon
,
Jennifer
.
Bad Girls Go Everywhere: The Life of Helen Gurley Brown
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
,
2009
.
Scanlon
,
Jennifer
.
Inarticulate Longings: The Ladies’ Home Journal, Gender, and the Promises of Consumer Culture
.
New York
:
Routledge
,
1995
.
Schwartz
,
Vanessa
.
It’s So French: Hollywood, Paris, and the Making of Cosmopolitan Film Culture
.
Chicago, IL
:
University of Chicago Press
,
2007
.
Schweitzer
,
Marlis
. “
Accessible Feelings, Modern Looks: Irene Castle, Ira L. Hill, and Broadway’s Affective Economy
.” In
Feeling Photography
, edited by
Brown
Elspeth H.
and
Phu
Thy
,
223
55
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2014
.
Schweitzer
,
Marlis
.
When Broadway Was the Runway: Theatre, Fashion, and American Culture
.
Philadelphia
:
University of Pennsylvania Press
,
2009
.
Scott
,
Walter Dill
.
Theory of Advertising
.
1903
.
New York
:
Garland
,
1985
.
Seebohm
,
Caroline
.
The Man Who Was Vogue
.
New York
:
Viking Press
,
1982
.
Sender
,
Katherine
.
Business, Not Politics: The Making of the Gay Market
.
New York
:
Columbia University Press
,
2004
.
Serlin
,
David
.
Replaceable You: Engineering the Body in Postwar America
.
Chicago, IL
:
University of Chicago Press
,
2004
.
Sheridan
,
Jayne
.
Fashion, Media, Promotion: The New Black Magic
.
Chichester, UK
:
Wiley
,
2013
.
Sides
,
Josh
.
Erotic City: Sexual Revolutions and the Making of Modern San Francisco
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
,
2009
.
Simmel
,
Georg
. “
Fashion
.” In
Individuality and Social Forms
, edited by
Levine
D.
.
London
:
University of Chicago Press
,
1941
.
Smith
,
Jessie Carney
, and
Phelps
Shirelle
.
Notable Black American Women
. Vol.
2
.
Detroit, MI
:
Gale Research
,
1992
2003
.
Smith
,
Shawn Michelle
.
Photography on the Color Line: W. E. B. Du Bois, Race, and Visual Culture
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2004
.
Smith
,
Shawn Michelle
.
At the Edge of Sight
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2013
.
Sones
,
Melissa
. “
The Secret to Inner Beauty
.”
American Legacy
9
, no.
3
(
2003
):
20
32
.
Sontag
,
Susan
. “
Notes on Camp
.” In
Against Interpretation
,
275
92
.
New York
:
Farrar, Straus and Giroux
,
1961
.
Sotiropoulos
,
Karen
.
Staging Race: Black Performers in Turn-of-the-Century America
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
,
2006
.
Souhami
,
Diana
.
Greta and Cecil
.
New York
:
Phoenix Press
,
2001
.
Spring
,
Justin
.
The Secret Historian: The Life and Times of Samuel Steward, Tattoo Artist, Professor, and Sexual Renegade
.
New York
:
Farrar, Straus and Giroux
,
2010
.
Spencer
,
Frank
. “
Some Notes on the Attempt to Apply Photography to Anthropometry during the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century
.” In
Anthropology and Photography, 1860–1920
, edited by
Edwards
Elizabeth
,
99
107
.
New Haven, CT
:
Yale University Press
,
1992
.
Squiers
,
Carol
. “
‘Let’s Call It Fashion’: Richard Avedon at Harper’s Bazaar
.” In
Avedon Fashion, 1944–2000
, edited by
Squiers
Carol
,
Aletti
Vince
et al
,
156
99
.
New York
:
Abrams
,
2009
.
Stafford
,
Sidney F.
Toni Frissell: Photographs, 1933–1967
.
New York
:
Doubleday in association with the Library of Congress
,
1994
.
Stapely
,
Gordon
, and
Sharpe
Leonard
.
Photography in the Modern Advertisement
.
London
:
Chapman and Hall
,
1937
.
Stapp
,
William F.
Penn as Portraitist
.” In
Irving Penn Master Images: The Collections of the National Museum of American Art and the National Portrait Gallery
, edited by
Foresta
Merry A.
and
Stapp
William F.
,
85
91
.
Washington D.C.
:
Smithsonian
,
1994
.
Steele
,
Edgar A.
Some Aspects of the Negro Market
.”
Journal of Marketing
11
, no.
4
(
1947
):
399
401
.
Steele
,
Valerie
, ed.
A Queer History of Fashion: From the Closet to the Catwalk
.
New Haven, CT
:
Yale University Press
2013
.
Stein
,
Marc
.
City of Sisterly and Brotherly Loves: Lesbian and Gay Philadelphia, 1945–1972
.
Chicago, IL
:
University of Chicago Press
,
2000
.
Stevens
,
Norma
, and
Aronson
Stephen M.L.
Avedon: Something Personal
.
New York
:
Spigel & Grau
,
2017
.