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References

References
Aftergood
,
Steven
.
2013
. “
An Inquiry into the Dynamics of Government Secrecy
.”
Harvard Civil Rights–Civil Liberties Law Review
48
(
2
):
511
30
.
Arkin
,
William
.
2005
.
Code Names: Deciphering U.S. Military Plans, Programs, and Operations in the 9/11 World
.
Hanover, NH
:
Steerforth Press.
Armstrong
,
David
.
2002
. “
Dick Cheney’s Song of America: Drafting a Plan for Global Dominance
.”
Harper’s Magazine
.
October
,
76
83
.
Bass
,
Frank
, and
Herschaft
.
Randy
2007
. “
1M Archived Pages Removed Post-9/11
.”
Associated Press
.
March
13
.
Benjamin
,
Mark
.
2006
. “
The Abu Ghraib Files
.”
Salon.com
.
February
16
. .
Burr
,
William
,
Blanton
Thomas S.
, and
Schwartz
Stephen I.
.
1998
. “
The Costs and Consequences of Nuclear Secrecy
” In
Atomic Audit: The Costs and Consequences of U.S. Nuclear Weapons since 1940
, edited by
Schwartz
Stephen I.
.
Washington, DC
:
Brookings Institution Press
.
Bush
,
George W
.
2003
. “
Executive Order 13526
.”
Classified National Security Information. Federation of American Scientists
. .
Cheney
,
Richard
.
2002
. “
Vice President’s Remarks to the Veterans of Foreign Wars
.”
The White House Office of the Press Secretary
.
August
26
. .
Chesney
,
Robert M
.
2007
. “
State Secrets and the Limits of National Security Litigation
.”
Wake Forest University Legal Studies Paper No. 946676
.
Accessed March 25, 2010. http://ssrn.com/abstract=946676
.
Dean
,
Jodi
.
2002
.
Publicity’s Secret: How Technoculture Capitalizes on Democracy
.
Ithaca, NY
:
Cornell University Press
.
Dower
,
John W
.
2010
.
Cultures of War: Pearl Harbor, Hiroshima, 9–11, Iraq
.
New York
:
Norton
.
Edwards
,
Paul
.
1996
.
The Closed World: Computers and the Politics of Discourse in Cold War America
.
Cambridge, MA
:
MIT Press
.
Ellsberg
,
Daniel
.
2003
.
Secrets: A Memoir of Vietnam and the Pentagon Papers
.
New York
:
Penguin
.
Elsea
,
Jennifer
.
2013
.
Criminal Prohibition on the Publication of Classified Defense Information
.
Washington, DC
:
Congressional Research Service
.
Fisher
,
Louis
.
2006
.
In the Name of National Security: Unchecked Presidential Power and the Reynolds Case
.
Lawrence
:
University Press of Kansas
.
Foucault
,
Michel
.
1995
.
Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison
.
New York
:
Vintage
.
Foucault
,
Michel
.
2003
.
Society Must Be Defended: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1975–1976
.
New York
:
Picador.
Galison
,
Peter
.
2001
. “
War against the Center
.”
Grey Room
4
(Summer):
5
33
.
Galison
,
Peter
.
2004
. “
Removing Knowledge
.”
Critical Inquiry
31
(Autumn):
229
43
.
Garvey
,
Todd
, and
Liu
Edward C.
.
2011
.
The States Secrets Privilege: Preventing the Disclosure of Sensitive National Security Information during Civil Litigation
.
Washington, DC
:
Congressional Research Service.
Gellman
,
Barton
.
2008
.
Angler: The Cheney Vice Presidency
.
New York
:
Penguin
.
Hersh
,
Seymour
.
2004
. “
Torture at Abu Ghraib
.”
New Yorker
.
May
10
.
ISOO (U.S. Information Security Oversight Office)
.
2004a
. “
Report on Cost Estimates for Security Classification Activities for 2004
.”
National Archives and Records Administration (NARA)
. .
ISOO (U.S. Information Security Oversight Office)
.
2004b
. “
2004 Report to the President
.”
NARA
. .
ISOO (U.S. Information Security Oversight Office)
.
2006
. “
Audit Report: Withdrawal of Records from Public Access at the National Archives and Records Administration for Classification purposes
.”
NARA
. http://www.archives.gov/isoo/reports/.
Johnson
,
Chalmers
.
2000
.
Blowback: The Costs and Consequences of American Empire
.
New York
:
Metropolitan Books
.
Knezo
,
Geneviever J
.
2003
.
Sensitive but Unclassified and Other Federal Security Controls of Scientific and Technical Information: History and Current Controversy
.
Washington, DC
:
Congressional Research Service
.
Masco
,
Joseph
.
2006
.
The Nuclear Borderlands: The Manhattan Project in Post–Cold War New Mexico
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
.
Masco
,
Joseph
.
2008
. “
Survival Is Your Business: Engineering Ruins and Affect in Nuclear America
.”
Cultural Anthropology
23
(
2
):
361
98
.
Masco
,
Joseph
.
2014
.
The Theater of Operations: National Security Affect from the Cold War to the War on Terror
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
.
Moynihan
,
Daniel Patrick
.
1998
.
Secrecy: The American Experience
.
New Haven, CT
:
Yale University Press
.
Norris
,
Robert S.
, and
Kristensen
Han M.
.
2006
. “
Nuclear Notebook: Global Nuclear Stockpiles, 1945–2006
.”
Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists
62
(
4
):
64
67
.
NSC (U.S. National Security Council)
.
[1950] 1993
. “
National Security Council Directive 68
.” In
American Cold War Strategy: Interpreting NSC 68
, edited by
May
Ernest R.
,
21
82
.
New York
:
Bedford
.
Oakes
,
Guy
.
1994
.
The Imaginary War: Civil Defense and American Cold War Culture
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
.
Obama
,
Barack
.
2010
. “
Executive Order 13556 of November 4, 2010: Controlled Unclassified Information
.”
Federal Register
75
(
2160
):
68675
77
.
OpenTheGovernment.org
.
2005a
. “
Secrecy Report Card 2005
.” .
OpenTheGovernment.org
.
2005b
. “
Security Report Card 2005: An Update
.” .
Panel on The Human Effects of Nuclear Weapons Development
.
1956
. “
The Human Effects of Nuclear Weapons Development
.”
A Report to the President and the National Security Council
.
Washington, DC
:
Government Printing Office
.
Powell
,
Colin
.
2003
. “
Remarks to the United National Security Council
.”
Global Security.org
. .
Pozen
,
David
.
2005
. “
The Mosaic Theory, National Security, and the Freedom of Information Act
.”
Yale Law Journal
115
(
3
):
628
79
.
Prados
,
John
, and
Porter
Margaret Pratt
, eds.
2004
.
Inside the Pentagon Papers
.
Lawrence
:
University Press
of Kansas.
Priest
,
Dana
, and
Arkin
William M.
.
2011
.
Top Secret America: The Rise of the New American Security State
.
New York
:
Little, Brown and Company
.
Roberts
,
Alasdair
.
2006
.
Blacked Out: Government Secrecy in the Information Age
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Sagan
,
Scott D.
, and
Suri
Jeremi
.
2003
. “
The Madman Nuclear Alert: Secrecy, Signaling, and Safety in October 1969
.”
International Security
27
(
4
):
150
83
.
Schwartz
,
Stephen
, ed.
1998
.
Atomic Audit: The Costs and Consequences of U.S. Nuclear Weapons since 1940
.
Washington, DC
:
Brookings Institution Press
.
Shils
,
Edward
.
1996
.
The Torment of Secrecy: The Background and Consequences of American Security Policies
.
Chicago
:
Elephant Paperback.
Suskind
,
Ron
.
2006
.
The One Percent Doctrine: Deep Inside America’s Pursuit of Its Enemies since 9/11
.
New York
:
Simon and Schuster
.
Todd
,
Walter E.
,
Paul
Willard S.
, and
Peterson
Val
.
1955
. “
National Defense against Atomic Attack
.”
The Scientific Monthly
80
(
4
):
240
49
.
U.S. Central Intelligence Agency
2004
. “
Office of Inspector General Special Review: Counterterrorism Detention and Interrogation Activities
May
7
. .
U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Government Reform, Minority Staff Special Investigations Division
.
2004
. “
Secrecy in the Bush Administration. Prepared by Henry A. Waxman
.”
Federation of American Scientists
. .
U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO)
.
2006
.
Information Sharing: The Federal Government Needs to Establish Policies and Processes for Sharing Terrorism-related and Sensitive but Unclassified Information
.
Washington, DC
:
U.S. Government Accountability Office
.
U.S. White House
.
2002
.
National Strategy to Combat Weapons of Mass Destruction
.
Washington, DC
:
Government Printing Office.
Vandercook
,
William. F
.
1986
. “
Making the Very Best of the Very Worst: The ‘Human Effects of Nuclear Weapons’ Report of 1956
.”
International Security
11
(
1
):
184
95
.
Vogal
,
Kathleen M.
2008
. “
‘Iraqi Winnebagos of Death’: Imagined and Realized Futures of US Bioweapons Threat Assessments
.”
Science and Public Policy
35
(
8
):
561
73
.
Wills
,
Garry
.
2010
.
Bomb Power: The Modern Presidency and the National Security State
.
New York
:
Penguin
.
Wolfsthal
,
Jon B.
,
Lewis
Jeffrey
, and
Quint
Marc
.
2014
.
The Trillion Dollar Nuclear Triad
.
Monterey, CA
:
James Marting Center for Nonproliferation Studies
.
Zulaika
,
Joseba
.
2009
.
Terrorism: The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.

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References

References

References
Aftergood
,
Steven
.
2013
. “
An Inquiry into the Dynamics of Government Secrecy
.”
Harvard Civil Rights–Civil Liberties Law Review
48
(
2
):
511
30
.
Arkin
,
William
.
2005
.
Code Names: Deciphering U.S. Military Plans, Programs, and Operations in the 9/11 World
.
Hanover, NH
:
Steerforth Press.
Armstrong
,
David
.
2002
. “
Dick Cheney’s Song of America: Drafting a Plan for Global Dominance
.”
Harper’s Magazine
.
October
,
76
83
.
Bass
,
Frank
, and
Herschaft
.
Randy
2007
. “
1M Archived Pages Removed Post-9/11
.”
Associated Press
.
March
13
.
Benjamin
,
Mark
.
2006
. “
The Abu Ghraib Files
.”
Salon.com
.
February
16
. .
Burr
,
William
,
Blanton
Thomas S.
, and
Schwartz
Stephen I.
.
1998
. “
The Costs and Consequences of Nuclear Secrecy
” In
Atomic Audit: The Costs and Consequences of U.S. Nuclear Weapons since 1940
, edited by
Schwartz
Stephen I.
.
Washington, DC
:
Brookings Institution Press
.
Bush
,
George W
.
2003
. “
Executive Order 13526
.”
Classified National Security Information. Federation of American Scientists
. .
Cheney
,
Richard
.
2002
. “
Vice President’s Remarks to the Veterans of Foreign Wars
.”
The White House Office of the Press Secretary
.
August
26
. .
Chesney
,
Robert M
.
2007
. “
State Secrets and the Limits of National Security Litigation
.”
Wake Forest University Legal Studies Paper No. 946676
.
Accessed March 25, 2010. http://ssrn.com/abstract=946676
.
Dean
,
Jodi
.
2002
.
Publicity’s Secret: How Technoculture Capitalizes on Democracy
.
Ithaca, NY
:
Cornell University Press
.
Dower
,
John W
.
2010
.
Cultures of War: Pearl Harbor, Hiroshima, 9–11, Iraq
.
New York
:
Norton
.
Edwards
,
Paul
.
1996
.
The Closed World: Computers and the Politics of Discourse in Cold War America
.
Cambridge, MA
:
MIT Press
.
Ellsberg
,
Daniel
.
2003
.
Secrets: A Memoir of Vietnam and the Pentagon Papers
.
New York
:
Penguin
.
Elsea
,
Jennifer
.
2013
.
Criminal Prohibition on the Publication of Classified Defense Information
.
Washington, DC
:
Congressional Research Service
.
Fisher
,
Louis
.
2006
.
In the Name of National Security: Unchecked Presidential Power and the Reynolds Case
.
Lawrence
:
University Press of Kansas
.
Foucault
,
Michel
.
1995
.
Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison
.
New York
:
Vintage
.
Foucault
,
Michel
.
2003
.
Society Must Be Defended: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1975–1976
.
New York
:
Picador.
Galison
,
Peter
.
2001
. “
War against the Center
.”
Grey Room
4
(Summer):
5
33
.
Galison
,
Peter
.
2004
. “
Removing Knowledge
.”
Critical Inquiry
31
(Autumn):
229
43
.
Garvey
,
Todd
, and
Liu
Edward C.
.
2011
.
The States Secrets Privilege: Preventing the Disclosure of Sensitive National Security Information during Civil Litigation
.
Washington, DC
:
Congressional Research Service.
Gellman
,
Barton
.
2008
.
Angler: The Cheney Vice Presidency
.
New York
:
Penguin
.
Hersh
,
Seymour
.
2004
. “
Torture at Abu Ghraib
.”
New Yorker
.
May
10
.
ISOO (U.S. Information Security Oversight Office)
.
2004a
. “
Report on Cost Estimates for Security Classification Activities for 2004
.”
National Archives and Records Administration (NARA)
. .
ISOO (U.S. Information Security Oversight Office)
.
2004b
. “
2004 Report to the President
.”
NARA
. .
ISOO (U.S. Information Security Oversight Office)
.
2006
. “
Audit Report: Withdrawal of Records from Public Access at the National Archives and Records Administration for Classification purposes
.”
NARA
. http://www.archives.gov/isoo/reports/.
Johnson
,
Chalmers
.
2000
.
Blowback: The Costs and Consequences of American Empire
.
New York
:
Metropolitan Books
.
Knezo
,
Geneviever J
.
2003
.
Sensitive but Unclassified and Other Federal Security Controls of Scientific and Technical Information: History and Current Controversy
.
Washington, DC
:
Congressional Research Service
.
Masco
,
Joseph
.
2006
.
The Nuclear Borderlands: The Manhattan Project in Post–Cold War New Mexico
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
.
Masco
,
Joseph
.
2008
. “
Survival Is Your Business: Engineering Ruins and Affect in Nuclear America
.”
Cultural Anthropology
23
(
2
):
361
98
.
Masco
,
Joseph
.
2014
.
The Theater of Operations: National Security Affect from the Cold War to the War on Terror
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
.
Moynihan
,
Daniel Patrick
.
1998
.
Secrecy: The American Experience
.
New Haven, CT
:
Yale University Press
.
Norris
,
Robert S.
, and
Kristensen
Han M.
.
2006
. “
Nuclear Notebook: Global Nuclear Stockpiles, 1945–2006
.”
Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists
62
(
4
):
64
67
.
NSC (U.S. National Security Council)
.
[1950] 1993
. “
National Security Council Directive 68
.” In
American Cold War Strategy: Interpreting NSC 68
, edited by
May
Ernest R.
,
21
82
.
New York
:
Bedford
.
Oakes
,
Guy
.
1994
.
The Imaginary War: Civil Defense and American Cold War Culture
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
.
Obama
,
Barack
.
2010
. “
Executive Order 13556 of November 4, 2010: Controlled Unclassified Information
.”
Federal Register
75
(
2160
):
68675
77
.
OpenTheGovernment.org
.
2005a
. “
Secrecy Report Card 2005
.” .
OpenTheGovernment.org
.
2005b
. “
Security Report Card 2005: An Update
.” .
Panel on The Human Effects of Nuclear Weapons Development
.
1956
. “
The Human Effects of Nuclear Weapons Development
.”
A Report to the President and the National Security Council
.
Washington, DC
:
Government Printing Office
.
Powell
,
Colin
.
2003
. “
Remarks to the United National Security Council
.”
Global Security.org
. .
Pozen
,
David
.
2005
. “
The Mosaic Theory, National Security, and the Freedom of Information Act
.”
Yale Law Journal
115
(
3
):
628
79
.
Prados
,
John
, and
Porter
Margaret Pratt
, eds.
2004
.
Inside the Pentagon Papers
.
Lawrence
:
University Press
of Kansas.
Priest
,
Dana
, and
Arkin
William M.
.
2011
.
Top Secret America: The Rise of the New American Security State
.
New York
:
Little, Brown and Company
.
Roberts
,
Alasdair
.
2006
.
Blacked Out: Government Secrecy in the Information Age
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Sagan
,
Scott D.
, and
Suri
Jeremi
.
2003
. “
The Madman Nuclear Alert: Secrecy, Signaling, and Safety in October 1969
.”
International Security
27
(
4
):
150
83
.
Schwartz
,
Stephen
, ed.
1998
.
Atomic Audit: The Costs and Consequences of U.S. Nuclear Weapons since 1940
.
Washington, DC
:
Brookings Institution Press
.
Shils
,
Edward
.
1996
.
The Torment of Secrecy: The Background and Consequences of American Security Policies
.
Chicago
:
Elephant Paperback.
Suskind
,
Ron
.
2006
.
The One Percent Doctrine: Deep Inside America’s Pursuit of Its Enemies since 9/11
.
New York
:
Simon and Schuster
.
Todd
,
Walter E.
,
Paul
Willard S.
, and
Peterson
Val
.
1955
. “
National Defense against Atomic Attack
.”
The Scientific Monthly
80
(
4
):
240
49
.
U.S. Central Intelligence Agency
2004
. “
Office of Inspector General Special Review: Counterterrorism Detention and Interrogation Activities
May
7
. .
U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Government Reform, Minority Staff Special Investigations Division
.
2004
. “
Secrecy in the Bush Administration. Prepared by Henry A. Waxman
.”
Federation of American Scientists
. .
U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO)
.
2006
.
Information Sharing: The Federal Government Needs to Establish Policies and Processes for Sharing Terrorism-related and Sensitive but Unclassified Information
.
Washington, DC
:
U.S. Government Accountability Office
.
U.S. White House
.
2002
.
National Strategy to Combat Weapons of Mass Destruction
.
Washington, DC
:
Government Printing Office.
Vandercook
,
William. F
.
1986
. “
Making the Very Best of the Very Worst: The ‘Human Effects of Nuclear Weapons’ Report of 1956
.”
International Security
11
(
1
):
184
95
.
Vogal
,
Kathleen M.
2008
. “
‘Iraqi Winnebagos of Death’: Imagined and Realized Futures of US Bioweapons Threat Assessments
.”
Science and Public Policy
35
(
8
):
561
73
.
Wills
,
Garry
.
2010
.
Bomb Power: The Modern Presidency and the National Security State
.
New York
:
Penguin
.
Wolfsthal
,
Jon B.
,
Lewis
Jeffrey
, and
Quint
Marc
.
2014
.
The Trillion Dollar Nuclear Triad
.
Monterey, CA
:
James Marting Center for Nonproliferation Studies
.
Zulaika
,
Joseba
.
2009
.
Terrorism: The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
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