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Bolivia’s long-standing model for economic development has emphasized the extraction of valuable raw materials for export to foreign markets. Only in the late twentieth century did there begin to emerge an environmentalist critique of the detrimental impacts of mining and hydrocarbons concessions as well as infrastructure projects, such as building dams and roads. The critiques have focused on the high costs to the health and diversity of ecosystems and to the well-being and livelihoods of local communities vulnerable to pollution and displacement. For environmental movements throughout the country—which had early high hopes for the Movement to Socialism (mas)...

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