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In early 2001, civic leaders and separatists in Santa Cruz published a “memorandum” that established the Autonomous Movement of the Camba Nation, announcing the movement’s strategic objectives and its grievances against the Bolivian state. Its rhetoric and demands harkened back to the memorandum issued by the Santa Cruz Geographical Society in 1904 (see “Integration of the Lowlands” in part V). “Camba” originally referred to people of lowland Indian origin, but commonly refers to all people born in the Santa Cruz region, not least those of European and mestizo descent. Leaders of the Santa Cruz autonomy movement have argued that Camba...

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