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At the end of the 1960s and the beginning of the 1970s, two liberation movements arose autonomously and gradually began to converge. One was liberation theology, to use the term coined by the Peruvian Gustavo Gutiérrez, which expanded throughout the continent emphasizing an “option for the poor,” that is, a religious orientation centered on the marginalized and exploited. Second, in a number of Latin American countries, new indigenous movements began gaining ground. Bolivia was one of the earliest such cases, with its predominantly Aymara indianista and katarista currents. Since the 1990s, such convergences and emphases have contributed toward so-called Indian...

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