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In the late twentieth century, domestic and foreign migration accelerated dramatically. The urban population increased from 26 percent in 1950 to 62 percent in 2001, spurred in large part by migration stemming from the midcentury revolution and, later, neoliberal restructuring. Emigration was directed primarily to Argentina and, by the 1980s, mainly to the capital city Buenos Aires. The United States also received a growing immigrant influx in the 1970s and 1980s, especially from rural Cochabamba and urban Santa Cruz. Brazil, and São Paulo in particular, began to attract immigrants in the 1980s and 1990s. After the economic downturn in Bolivia...

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