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Fausto Reinaga (1906–94) was Bolivia’s first prominent intellectual to adopt an overtly “Indian” political identity. His forceful writings, from the 1960s and 1970s in particular, continue to shape the thinking and rhetoric of today’s generation of radical indigenous students, social leaders, and politicians. In 1962, Reinaga founded the Partido de Indios Aymaras y Keswas, later the Partido Indio de Bolivia, based on a sociopolitical philosophy known as indianismo. Reinaga combined an anticolonial perspective inspired by writers such as Frantz Fanon with an original and critical view of Bolivia’s past and present. His brief for indianismo was marked by fierce...

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