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Sergio Almaraz Paz (1928–68) began his political activities as a young man in the “Liberty Study Center” run by Angélica Ascui, an important middle-class activist linked to anarchist and feminist causes. He entered the Revolutionary Left Party (pir) and then, in 1950, at the age of twenty-two, cofounded the Bolivian Communist Party and became its first secretary-general. He resigned in 1956 because his antidogmatic, humanist outlook did not square with the party’s intellectual program—René Zavaleta later remarked that Almaraz preferred to read Camus rather than Soviet theorists. Almaraz thereafter adopted a left-nationalist position and developed his style as...

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