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The network of caciques-apoderados (cacique legal representatives) sought to defend the lands of Indian communities threatened by the expansion of haciendas after the liberal agrarian legislation of 1866 and 1874 (see part V). This network emerged in five of the nine departments in the country, beginning in the late nineteenth century and lasting beyond the Chaco War (1932–35). The leaders, such as Santos Marka Tola, who signed the petition that follows in 1923, were accused of organizing subversion and revolt, and were subject to harassment by the landlord elite and their political allies. In battling adversaries in local power structures,...

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