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In the midst of the political campaign for the congressional elections of 1874, the lawyer and congressman Andrés Ibáñez confronted his rival in the central plaza of Santa Cruz, taking off and throwing to the ground his frock coat and shoes in a profoundly symbolic gesture to identify himself with the common people who were called “those without jackets.” He formed a club associated with the newspaper El Eco de la Igualdad (The Echo of Equality), which disseminated the slogan “We are all equal” and advocated for direct democracy, federalism, local municipal power, and regional autonomy. Andrés Ibáñez was considered...

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