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Marshal Andrés de Santa Cruz was a leader in the triumphant Bolivarian army, the president of Peru from 1826 to 1827, the dynamic successor to General José de Sucre as Bolivian president in 1829, and Supreme Protector of the Peru-Bolivian Confederation between 1836 and 1839. Born in La Paz, he was the son of a creole military offcer and an indigenous noblewoman descended from the mallkus of Lake Titicaca. Considered “white” in most elite circles, he was nonetheless scorned by his opponents for his “Indian” ancestry, particularly in the viceregal capital Lima. Dissatisfied with the debilitating national boundaries defined at...

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