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This final chapter examines the Spanish Revolution and Civil War, which had just broken out recently, and James predicts how the Stalinist policy will inevitably also lead to another disaster there too. Meanwhile, in the Soviet Union itself, James notes that “the Workers’ State presents a spectacle which is a caricature of Socialism,” ridden with inequality, exploitation, and oppression and where sycophancy toward the Great Leader Stalin is the only intellectual life tolerated. James examines the Great Terror and Moscow Show Trials then in full swing against “Trotskyism.” “The Stalinists seek to kill Leninism,” James writes, but he remains optimistic. A new interimperialist war is approaching and is likely to be followed by a new wave of revolution, which is likely to look for leadership not to the bankrupt Third Communist International but the genuinely revolutionary new Fourth International, which is being built against the odds by Leon Trotsky and his supporters.

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