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This chapter examines the Chinese Revolution of 1925-27. It begins with a historical overview of China as a victim of European imperialism, and the growth of a nationalist and working-class fightback. Lenin’s understanding of the revolutionary possibilities in China is outlined, and his stress on the working class as the key to victory is made clear. Stalin looked instead to an alliance with Chinese nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek and this failure to articulate independent working-class politics ultimately led to disaster for the Chinese Communist Party and the Chinese Revolution as a whole, when Kai-shek no longer needed their support and repressed them bloodily in 1927. Once again Leon Trotsky stood vindicated in his criticisms but isolated.

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