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This chapter explores the struggle for leadership after Lenin’s death between Joseph Stalin and Leon Trotsky. Stalin’s ability to unite with Zinoviev and Kamenev to form “the troika” and isolate Trotsky through creating “Trotskyism” as distinct from “Leninism” are contextualized within the growth of a new ruling-party bureaucracy in the Soviet Union. Stalin’s new theory of “Socialism in one country” advanced after Lenin’s death was symptomatic of the break with Marx and Lenin’s internationalism made by the Stalinist bureaucracy.

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