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In chapter 3, James describes how Engels had predicted the interimperialist war and how this would lead to a new revolutionary upsurge. He goes on to describe how Lenin’s internationalism meant he stood out among most socialists in opposing the Great War. Lenin’s fight for independent working-class organization also revealed itself with the outbreak of the February Revolution in Russia in 1917. Yet James shows how Stalin and most Bolshevik leaders without Lenin’s leadership followed the Mensheviks in support for the new Provisional Government. The Leninist application of the United Front in defending the Provisional Government from a right-wing coup is also discussed, and the critical role of Lenin himself to the development of Bolshevism is underlined.

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