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In chapter 2, James describes the First International associated with Karl Marx and the struggle by Frederick Engels and others to win the Second International to Marxism. He looks at some of the objective factors that led the Second International to revert to “national socialism,” and also discusses Lenin and “Leninism” in Tsarist Russia, which was more resistant to “revisionist” currents within Marxism. James explores the different currents of socialism in Russia, Bolshevism, and Menshevism. The different perspectives of Lenin and Trotsky for revolution in Russia are outlined and vindicated by the events of 1905.

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