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In chapter 1, C. L. R. James discusses the origins of “scientific socialism” in the works of Marx and Engels writing in the aftermath of the French Revolution and then the revolutions of 1848 across Europe. He stresses how working-class internationalism for Marx and Engels was not some moral imperative, but flowed from the international nature of capitalism as it developed. James also shows how the strategy and tactics of “permanent revolution” originated with Marx and Engels generalizing out of the experience of workers during 1848.

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