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After 1870, industrial capitalism accelerated and regions searching for commercial revival found new commodity exports, funding national states that stabilized almost everywhere. The United States became an American hegemon—a continental empire linking industry and commodity exports within. Mexico saw industry expand, silver revive, and commodity exports begin—in a reduced territory and dependent on the United States. Coffee and banana exports strengthened Guatemala’s state; tensions with native communities endured. Peru sold wool and guano, Bolivia tin and nitrates (until Chile took the latter in war); states strengthened; natives’ autonomies waned. Cuba and Brazil expanded sugar and coffee, and faced conflicts that ended slavery in the 1880s and imperial rule before 1900. Haitians held strong on the land, condemned for destroying slavery in revolution. . Very diverse nations entered the twentieth century to face new challenges of national development and then a turn to globalization.

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